MIS 24163 Chapter 3 Notes
MIS 24163 Chapter 3 Notes MIS 24163
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julie Mendola on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MIS 24163 at Kent State University taught by M James Smas (P) in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT in Business, management at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Lack of Structure Programmed decisions o Decisions encountered and made before, having objectively correct answers, and solvable by using simple rules, policies, or numerical Nonprogrammed decisions o New, novel, complex decisions have no proven answers Programmed Decisions Nonprogrammed Decisions Problem Frequent, repetitive, routine. Much certainty Novel, unstructured. Much regarding certainty, regarding cause-and- uncertainty regarding cause-and- effect relationships effect relationships Procedure Dependence on policies, rules, and definite Necessity for creativity, intuition, procedures tolerance for ambiguity, creative problem solving Examples Business Periodic reorders of inventory Diversification into new products and Firm markets University Necessary grade point average for good Construction of new classroom academic standing facilities Health care Procedure for admitting patients Purchase of experimental equipment Government Merit system for promotion of state Reorganization of state government employees agencies Uncertainty and Risk Certainty o The state that exists when decision makers have accurate and comprehensive information Uncertainty o The state that exists when decision makers have insufficient information Risk o The state that exists when the probability of success is less than 100 percent and losses many occur. Conflict Conflict o Opposing pressures from different sources, occurring on the level of psychological conflict between individuals or groups Two Levels of Conflict 1 Individual decision makers experience psychological conflict when several options are attractive, or when none of the options is attractive 2 Conflict arises between people Identifying and Diagnosing the Problem Typically, a manager realizes some discrepancy between the current state ( the way things are) and a desired state (the way things ought to be) Such discrepancies may be detected by comparing current performance against a. Past performance b. The current performance of other organizations or units c. Future expected performance as determined by plans and forecasts Generating Alternative Solutions Ready-made solutions o Ideas that have been seen or tried before Custom-made solutions o New, creative solutions designed specifically for the problem Evaluating Alternatives Evaluating alternatives o Involves determining the value or adequacy of the alternatives that were generated Contingency plans o Alternative courses of action that can be implemented based on how the future unfolds Making the Choice Maximizing o A decision realizing the best possible outcome Satisficing o Choosing an option that is acceptable, although not necessarily the best or perfect Optimizing o Achieving the best possible balance among several goals Implementing the Decision 1 Determine how things will look when the decision is fully operational 2 Chronologically order the steps necessary to achieve a fully operational decision 3 List the resources and activities required to implement each step. 4 Estimate the time needed for each step 5 Assign responsibility for each step to specific individuals Evaluating the Decision Feedback that suggests the decision is working implies that the decisions should be continued and applied elsewhere in the organization Negative feedback means that either a. Implementation will require more time, resources, effort, or thought b. The decision was a bad one The Best Decision Vigilance o A process in which a decision maker carefully executes all stages of decision making Psychological Biases Illusion of control o People's belief that they can influence events, even when they have no control over what will happen Framing effects o A decision bias influenced by the way in which a problem or decision alternative is phrased or presented Discounting the future o A bias weighting short-term costs and benefits more heavily than longer-term costs and benefits Potential Problems of Using a Group Groupthink o Occurs when people chose not to disagree or raise objections because they don't want to break up a positive team spirit Goal displacement o A condition that occurs when a decision-making group loses sight of its original goal and a new, less important goal emerges Constructive Conflict Cognitive Conflict o Issue-based differences in perspectives or judgements Affective conflict o Emotional disagreement directed toward other people Devil's Advocate o A person who has the job of criticizing ideas to ensure that their downsides are fully explored Dialect o A structured debate comparing two conflicting courses of action Brainstorming Brainstorming o A process in which group members generate as many ideas about a problem as they can; criticism is withheld until all ideas have been proposed Models of Organizational Decision Processes Bounded rationality o A less-than perfect form of rationality in which decision makers cannot be perfectly rational because decisions are complex and compete information is unavailable or cannot be fully processed Incremental model o Model of organizational decision making in which major solutions arise through a series of smaller decisions Coalitional model o Model of organizational decision making in which groups with differing preferences use power and negotiation to influence decisions Garbage can Model o Model of organizational decision making depicting a chaotic process and seemingly random decision
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