Social Psychology Notes Chapter 1
Social Psychology Notes Chapter 1 PSYCH 2160
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This 48 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristyle L. on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 2160 at University of Missouri - St. Louis taught by Bettina Casad in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - St. Louis.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Welcome to Social Psychology PSYCH/SOC 2160 1 Social Psychologist Teaching: Social Psychology Applied Social Psychology Special Topics: Psycholo gy of Women Prejudice, Discrimination Independent Study Seminar in Intergroup Senior Projects Relations Experimental Psychology Research Methods Statistics 2 Why active lea rni ng? 14 How People Lea rn 100 What do you think? t a Audio visual R 90 i Rank these techniques in t 80 Demonstration e order of student retention e 70 Discussion R of information. g r 60 v Lecture A 50 40 Practice 30 Reading 20 Teachin 10 g 0 others 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 15 Students in traditional lectures are 1.5x more likely to fail than those in an active learning-based course. Meta-analysis of 225 studies that tested the role of active learning. 16 Freeman et al. (20 17 Welcome to Social Psychology Day 2 19 Who is most likely to say they would like to participate in a study a second time? A.Those who were paid $20.00 for participating in the study B.Those who were paid $1.00 for participating in the study 19 The definition of social psychology includes all of the following EXCEPT: A.Scientific study B.Focus on thoughts, feelings, and behaviors C.Role of individual diferences D.How the presence of others affects us 00 In playing a game in which players can opt for either a cooperative strategy or a competitive strategy, what do you think will have a bigger impact on the strategy a given person uses? A.Their tendency to be competitive B.Their tendency to be cooperative C.What the game is called D.All of the above will have equal effects 21 Jessica asks her best friend, Jenna, whether she’s kissed Jason. Jenna replies yes, but that it wasn’t a romantic “kiss kiss” but rather a friendly kiss. Jason, however, considered it a romantic kiss and intends to ask Jenna on a date. What is diferent about Jenna and Jason in this situation? ATheir memory of what happened BTheir construal of what happened CTheir honesty in saying what happened DTheir connection to reality 22 Would you describe your approach to understanding other humans as most resembling: APersonality psychologists BSocial psychologists CSociologists D.Philosophers 33 Y our Perceptions What comes to mind when you think about: “Psychology” “Social Psychology” What do most people in society think about these concepts? Is Psychology a science? How do psychologists know what they know 26 about human behavior? 27 1. Most of us have quite accurate insight into the factors that influence our moods. 2. Most people rate themselves as worse- than-average in rating themselves on socially desirable characteristics. 3. Memory is like a storage chest in the brain, into which we deposit material and from which we can withdraw it later if needed. Occasionally, something gets lost from the “chest” and then we say we have forgotten. 4. People’s behavior is best predicted in terms of their personalities or inner dispositions. 27 5. To alter the way people act, one needs first to change their hearts and minds. 6. People who are made self- conscious by looking into a mirror act more in line with their attitudes. 7. The greater the reward promised for an activity, the more one will come to enjoy the activity. 8. In overall vocabulary, happiness, and intelligence, males and females are not noticeably diferent. 9. In countries everywhere, girls spend more time helping with housework and child care, while boys spend more time in unsupervised play. 10. Most people would disobey an authority who orders them to hurt a stranger. 11. Persuaders will always be more efective if they acknowledge opposing arguments. 12. In a formal debate, it is always to your advantage to be the last speaker. 13. People pull harder in a tug-of-war when part of a team than when pulling by themselves. 29 14. The greater the cohesiveness or “we feeling” in a group, the more likely the group will make a good decision. 15. When white and black students are shown faces of a few white and black individuals and thenasked to pick these individuals out of a photographic lineup, both white and black students more accurately recognize the white faces than the black. 16. In a recent national survey, only a minority of Americans indicated that they would be willing to see a homosexual doctor. 11 17. T o be mentally healthy, people need an opportunity to act out, and thus to vent, their aggression. 18. The more often we see something— even if we don’t like it at first—the more we grow to like it. 19. As suggested by the dumb-blonde idea, physically attractive men and women tend to be looked on by others as colder, dumber, and lessmoral than the plainer people. 21. One of the best predictors of whether any two people are friends is their sheer proximity, or geographical nearness, to one another. 33 22. When we feel guilty, we are more likely to help those around us. 23. If you want to buy a new car at the best price, it is best to adopt a tough bargaining stance by opening with a very low ofer rather than with a sincere, “good faith” ofer. 24. Depressed persons tend to be unrealistic in their perceptions of themselves. 25. People who favor the death penalty are also more prone to vote a defendant guilty . 55 26. Eyewitnesses’ certainty about their own accuracy in viewing a crime is highly related to their actual accuracy. 27. Research clearly shows a strong positive relationship between material wealth and life satisfaction. 66 Is Social Psychology Simply Common Sense? 1.F 10.F 19.F 2.F 11.F 20.- 3.F 12.F 21. 4.F 13.F 22. 5.F 14.F 23. 6.T 15.F 24.F 7.F 16.T 25. 8.T 17.F 26.F 9.T 18.T 27.F 38 What Is Social Psychology? A field of psychology that scientifically studieshow people think about, influence, and relate to each other. What Is Social Psychology? Studies the ABCs of psychology Behaviors Attitudes Cognition rpose: to Describe, Explain, Predict, and Control human behavior 66 Activity Think of a person you know who would be most likely and a person you know who would be least likelyto donate food to a food drive. Write down why you think each person isor is not likely to donate food. New Information This person is mailed a letter and is asked to make a donation of food to a campus crusade against hunger. They are assigned a specific type of food to bring and are given a map to the place to deliver their donation. The night before their donation is due, they are called and reminded to bring their food. How likely is your most likely person to donate food? Y our least likely? Major F ramework A MAIN point of social psychology is thatpeople underestimatehow much the situation influences our own and other people’s behavior Activity Number your papers from 1 to 5 and respond yes or no to the following questions: (1) Do you often make contributions to class discussions in small seminars? (2) Are you more of a talker than a listener on a first date? (3) Do you regularly strike up conversations with strangers on buses or airplanes? (4) Are you typically lively and outgoing at a party? (5) Are you typically lively and outgoing with your close friends? Major F ramework Another MAIN point of social psychology is that people are more likely to recognize the influence of the situation their own behavior but fail to recognize the influence of the situation on otherpeo ple’s behavior Basic Motives for Behavior The need to feel good about oneself Self-esteem (e.g., to be liked, to belong) The need to be accurate Social cognition Recognizes cognitive and afective influences on behavior These motives help shape the construals, or perceptions and interpretations of our social situations Taylor & Brown, 1988, 1994; Thompson, 1981, 2004 Personal Experiences Provide a personal example of an experience in which your behavior was influenced by a need to feel good about yourself. Provide a personal example of an experience in which your behavior was influenced by the need to be accurate. In which kinds of situations is each motive likely to dominate for you? Provide a personal example of an experience in which your need to feel good conflicted with the need to feel accurate. How did you resolve this conflict? Which need is more important? Main Emphasis Organizing framework emphasizes: The power of the situation and our construal of the situation The interaction of the person in the environment Behavior = P + E (Lewin, 1943) The importance of cognition Applying social psychology to real- world issues Social Psychology and Related Disciplines Social psychology and personality psychology Generalizations versus individual diferences Social psychology and biology Social neuroscience Social psychology and sociology The average individual versus groups (micro vs. macro perspective) Social Psychology and Related Disciplines Social psychology and sociology Research Sociology Psychology Ethnic IdentitHow people How from individuals diferent develop their ethnic ethnic Romantic Trends in Howntities Relationships cohabitation, individuals sexual think about behavior, themselves sharing of and their Disciplinary Perspectives occurred in the Queens borough of New Y ork City. A young woman named Kitty Genovese was stabbed to death while in the courtyard of her apartment complex. The attack lasted 45 minutes, and at least 38 observers watched the murder from the windows of their apartment above. However, not a single one of them attempted to help Genovese, not even by telephoning the police. How might a sociologist explain the behavior of the bystanders? A personality psychologist? A social psychologist? 48
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