Social Psychology Chapter 3 Lecture Notes
Social Psychology Chapter 3 Lecture Notes PSYCH 2160
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristyle L. on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 2160 at University of Missouri - St. Louis taught by Bettina Casad in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - St. Louis.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Social Cognition Thinking About Our Social World 1 Which of the following is NOT a feature of automatic thinking? A.Unconscious B.Effortless C.Voluntary D.Unintentional 2 Controlled thinking differs from automatic thinking in that: A.Controlled thinking requires mental energy, and we can only focus on one at a time B.Automatic thinking can happen even when we are trying to avoid such thoughts C.Controlled thinking requires awareness 3 D.All of the above 1 Holistic thinking, which consists of focusing on the overall context of events and ideas, particularly the ways in which objects relate to each other, is more characteristic of people who grew up in: AWestern Societies BEast Asian Societies 4 You have heard others talk about the dreary, rainy weather in Seattle. On your one visit to Seattle, the weather was atypically sunny and warm each day you were there. In fact, you didn’t see a drop of rain. You know that your experience was atypical, and yet you can’t help but think of Seattle as a sunny place with beautiful weather as it is the only memory you have of it. What best explains your reaction? A.The representativeness heuristic B.The availability heuristic C.Self-fulfilling prophecy D.Conscious thinking 5 You and your closest friends are on a campus intramural softball team. You have had a very successful season and made it to the final round of the playoffs. Under what condition are you and your teammates likely to be MOST unhappy? A.You win by one run B.You win by nine runs C.You lose by one run D.You lose by nine runs 6 Learning Objectives Define a schema. Discuss its effects on attention, interpretation, and memory. Describe the selffulfilling prophecy and explain how it makes schemas resistant to change. Describe heuristics, illusory correlation, and perceived control 7 Two Types of Thinking Automatic: quick, effortless, unintentional, nonconscious, based on past experiences and knowledge, allows for simultaneous information processing Controlled: deliberate, effortful, conscious, voluntary, it takes motivation, time and energy, limited simultaneous information processing 8 Stroop Effect: Example of Automatic vs. Controlled Processing BLUE BLUE RED RED GREEN GREEN BLUE BLUE PURPLE PURPLE BROWN BROWN ORANGE ORANGE RED RED 9 Automatic Thinking Given the vast amount of information we process, automatic thinking usually occurs first – Schemas: mental structures that organize our knowledge of the social world. Contain information about social roles, scripts, self concept, etc. (Fiske & Taylor, 1984) – Schemas affect what information we notice, think about, and remember 10 Se flSch m a Eduated t e r t I n Kin e ti c Crative Atetnd College Avoid Parties Voluntee ratBasktall Team r it s t Murals Homeless Shelter 11 Demonstration 12 Using the scale below, indicate whether you think each of the following words was read: 4 = I’m sure I heard the word 3 = I think I heard the word 2 = I think the word is new 1 = I’m sure the word is new concert note rhythm. jazz 10. symphony radio3. art 4. sound orchestra piano 13. horn melody. music7. instrument sing 15. 13 Functions of Schemas Constructing memories – Reconstructing our experiences • Misinformation effect: including false information in the construction of memories (Roediger & McDermott, 1995) 14 Functions of Schemas Perceiving and interpreting events – Tendency to judge new information through the lens of our current beliefs – Schemas act as filters, screening out information that is inconsistent with them MAC DONALD MAC HENRY MAC MAHON MAC HINERY 15 Functions of Schemas Why else did we think Mac Hinery was a Scottish surname? – Schema for rules in English language: Machinery is one word, without a capital letter in the middle – We were primed with the previous Scottish names to expect a Scottish name 16 When are Schemas Applied? Accessibility: the ease with which schemas can be brought to mind. – Accessible schemas are more likely to be used in judgments Priming: the process by which recent experiences make schemas, traits, or concepts come to mind more readily. – Payne’s (2001) study of Black and White faces followed by guns or tools was an example of priming. How so? What were the results? 17 Selffulfilling Prophecy When we expect something to happen it often does We can cause things to occur, even if we are unaware of our influence on others’ behavior 18 Selffulfilling Prophecy 2. Treat 1. You have an person expectation according ly about a person’s behavior behav or 3. Person responds in a 4. You interpret manner consistent with their response your as supporting your expectation 19 expectation Discuss in Groups Come up with a real example of the selffulfilling prophesy from your own experiences – Be prepared to share with the class 20 Selffulfilling Prophecy White participants interview a White and a Black job applicant (confederates), (Word, Zanna, & Cooper, 1974) Black applicant treated differently than White applicant – Greater physical distance – More speech errors made by interviewer – Ended interview sooner 21 Selffulfilling Prophecy White participants interviewed by a White confederate in followup study Two conditions – Treated like Whites from Study 1 – Treated like Blacks from Study 1 (physical distance, speech errors, shorter interview) Blind coders rated video of participants’ behavior during interview 22 Selffulfilling Prophecy Interviewer behavior had large impact on applicant performance Participants given “Black treatment” were rated less adequate for job than those given “White treatment” Participants receiving “Black treatment” reciprocated physical distance and reported interviewer as unfriendly and ineffective Treating people in accordance with a negative stereotype can elicit stereotype confirming behavior from them 23 Social Cognition Thinking About Our Social World 24 Which of the following is associated with the accessibility of a particular schema or concept? A.Relationship to current goal B.Past experiences C.Recent experiences D. All of the above 25 You and your best friend want two of your other friends (Sarah and Jen) to meet Jacob from your hometown. You describe this person to Sarah as friendly, nice looking, intelligent, and industrious. Your best friend describes the same person to Jen as a bit aloof but nice looking, intelligent, and industrious. Based on these two descriptions, what should you predict? A.Jacob will be friendlier toward Sarah than Jen B. Jen will try hard to win Jacob over by being even friendlier than usual C. Sarah will be more self-conscious around Jacob than Jen D. All of the above 26 You want to get your roommate to help you move. What strategy is likely to be least successful? A.Tell him a story about a most unhelpful friend you had in high school B.Leave stories about individuals recognized for their helpfulness around the apartment for him to read C.Play a word-search with him with words like “nice” “kind” and “friendly. D.Let him see you helping someone else 27 Shayna is 21, thin, with long blonde hair and a great singing voice. She dresses in the latest fashions and often dances and socializes at popular nightclubs. How likely is it that Shayna is a young pop star? A. If I use the representativeness heuristic I’d say very likely B. If I use base rate information, very likely C. Very unlikely unless she was on American Idol D. Both A and B 28 Shayna is 21, thin, with long blonde hair and a great singing voice. She dresses in the latest fashions and often dances and socializes at popular nightclubs. How likely is it that Shayna is a young pop star? A. If I use the representativeness heuristic I’d say very unlikely B. If I use base rate information, very unlikely C. Very unlikely unless she was on American Idol D. Both A and B 29 Priming and Shooter Bias Video clip Keith Payne, Weapons/tool task and priming, University of North Carolina Joshua Correll, Shooter bias, University of Colorado 30 Across the thin blue line: Police officers and racial bias in the decision to shoot. Correll, Joshua; Park, Bernadette; Judd, Charles M.; Wittenbrink, Bernd; Sadler, Melody S.; Keesee, Tracie Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 92(6), Jun 2007, 10061023. Police officers were compared with community members in terms of the speed and accuracy with which they made simulated decisions to shoot (or not shoot) Black and White targets. Both samples exhibited robust racial bias in response speed. Officers outperformed community members on a number of measures, including overall speed and accuracy. Moreover, although community respondents set the decision criterion lower for Black targets than for White targets (indicating bias), police officers did not. The authors suggest that training may not affect the speed with which stereotypeincongruent targets are processed but that it does affect the ultimate decision (particularly the placement of the decision criterion). Findings from a study in which a college sample received training support this conclusion. 31 Mental Strategies and Shortcuts Mental shortcuts – Efficient • Don’t usually have time to fully search all options – Usually lead to good decisions quickly 32 Mental Strategies and Shortcuts Schemas are a shortcut people use – But we don’t have a ready-made schema for every judgment or decision – Sometimes there are too many schemas available So what do we do? 33 Demonstration Vote in your groups 34 Discuss Which of the following are the more frequent causes of death in the United States? 1. (A) Homicide or (B) diabetes? I feel percent sure of my answer* *Estimates can range from 50 percent (I’m guessing—it’s 5050) to 100 percent (I’m absolutely sure). Discuss 2. (A) Flood or (B) infectious hepatitis? I feel percent sure of my answer 36 Discuss 3. (A) All accidents or (B) strokes? I feel percent sure of my answer 37 Discuss 4. (A) All cancers or (B) heart disease? I feel percent sure of my answer 38 Discuss 5. (A) Tornados or (B) asthma? I feel percent sure of my answer 39 Discuss 6. (A) Drowning or (B) leukemia? I feel percent sure of my answer 40 Discuss 7. (A) Lightning or (B) appendicitis? I feel percent sure of my answer 41 Discuss 8. (A) Motor vehicle accident or (B) cancer of the digestive system? I feel percent sure of my answer 42 Additional Mental Strategies Deaths per 100 Million Americans 1. Homicide (9,200) vs. Diabetes (19,000) 2. Flood (100) vs. Infectious hepatitis (330) 3. All accidents (55,000) vs. Strokes (102,000) 4. All cancers (160,000) vs. Heart disease (360,000) 5. Tornados (44) vs. Asthma (920) 6. Drowning (3,600) vs. Leukemia (7,100) 7. Lightning (52) vs. Appendicitis (440) 8. Motor vehicle accidents (27,000) vs. 9. Cancer of the digestive system (46,400) 43 Heuristics Many people are v ery confident of their erroneous responses to these items. Why? strategy that allows for quick efficient strategy that allows for quick, efficient judgments The availability heuristic: Information that is easily brought to mind is used regardless of accuracy – Vivid events are more likely to get coverage in the media, and therefore are more available for recall 44 Heuristics Jared attends UMSL. He is tan, tall with blond hair, and rugged looks. He usually wears a cowboy hat and boots to school. What state is J d lik ? Jared likely from? – TEXAS? – Most students at state colleges are instate residents, so Missouri is a more accurate guess. Representativeness heuristic – Ignoring baserate information 45 Heuristics Anchoring and adjustment heuristic: involves using a number or value as a starting point, and then adjusting one’s answer away from this anchor. – Biased sampling: people make generalizations from samples of information they know are biased or atypical 46 Other Mental Shortcuts Illusory thinking – Illusory correlation – Illusion of control Mood and judgment 47 Improving Human Thinking Make people more humble – Ask people to consider the point of view opposite to their own • People realize there are other ways to construe the world – Make fewer judgment errors Teach basic statistical principles – Facilitates application of principles to everyday life • E.g., base rates 48 Improving Human Thinking Overconfidence barrier: Often we have more confidence in our judgments than we should. To try to improve reasoning skills, we need to break through this overconfidence barrier and make people more aware of the limits of their cognitive abilities. 49 Figure 3.6 Different Disciplin esof Statistical Reasoning Abilities by Graduate Students in After 2 years of graduate study, students in psycho logy and medicine showed more did.(Adapted from Nisbett, Fong, Lehman, & Cheng, 1987)dents in law and chemistry In groups come up with a list of “pragmatic heuristics” that people use for solving everyday problems. That is, what kinds of shortcut procedures do people use when: Go grocery shopping and don’t have a lot of time to make decisions about what product they’ll buy? When they are going to vote and haven’t thoroughly researched the candidate or the political issue? Wh When they’re at a noisy party and want to meet a particular person they are attracted to? When they’re in a new town and trying to decide what restaurant to go to for dinner? When there are 20 bills, papers, and forms to fill out on their desk and they might not have time in one evening to complete them all? Generate several shortcut procedures that people might use to solve each of these everyday problems. How would you solve the problem to achieve the best possible answer?
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