Social Psychology Chapter 4
Social Psychology Chapter 4 PSYCH 2160
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristyle L. on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 2160 at University of Missouri - St. Louis taught by Bettina Casad in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - St. Louis.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Social Perception How We Understand Others 1 Nonverbal behavior transmits all of the following except: A. Attitudes B. Emotions C. Personality traits D. Beliefs 2 If someone is not making eye contact with you, s/he is probably lying to you. A. True B. False 1 Why are emotions sometimes difficult to decode? A. Emotional expression varies Pcrol diulluresff t bl d B. People display affect blends C. Cultures possess different basic emotions D. A and B Heider’s major distinction in attribution theory was between: A. Construals and reality B. Internal and external C. Distinctiveness and consistency D. Culpability and consensus When making an attribution, Kelley’s Covariation model holds that we consider all of the following except: A. Consensus B. Distinctiveness C. Culpability D. Consistency Learning Objectives Define social perception Describe sources of information and biasi l social tirception Describe attribution theories and findings Describe the fundamental attribution error and why it occurs 7 Social Perception The process of forming impressions and making judgments of other people Do first impressions really matter? Primacy effect Tendency to evaluate others in terms of first impressions Recency effect Tendency to evaluate others in terms of the most recent impression intelligent, skillful, competitive, and aggressive 8 9 Social Perception Sources of information (and bias) in impression formation: Physical appearance Nonverbal behavior Cross-cultural similarity in basic emotional expression Cross-cultural differences in display rules and emblems 10 11 12 13 Social Perception Sources of information (and bias) in impression formation: Social schemas how we organizee information and categorize others Implicit personality theories: schema that groups personality traits, resulting in certain “types” of people Stereotypes: shared beliefs that people are a certain way because of their group membership 14 Attribution Theory Attribution A belief concerning why people behave in a certain way Attribution theory Examines the process people use to draw conclusions about the causes of their own and other people’s behaviors 15 Attribution Exercise Work in pairs or triads in your groups: Choose one person to share something they failed to do andd provide a reason for it. Partners take notes on what the person shares. 16 Attribution Theory Internal/Dispositional attributions Internal causes: the causes of feelings.are personal dispositions, External/Situational attributions External causes: the causes of behavior are characteristics of the situation, such as luck, the weather, opportunity, and task difficulty 17 18 Analyze Your Partner’s Attributio n Were internal or external attributions provided? What kinds of information did s/he offer in support of the internal or external attribution? Does closeness of the relationship, nature of the behavior (positive or negative), or the degree of emotion that the attributor displays about the behavior seem to have any effect on how likely they are to cite and defend dispositional attributions? 19 Covariation Model Consistency People determine what factors are needed to cause the behavior. Consistency: Does the person frequently behave this way over time and situations? Distinctiveness: Is the person’s behavior rare or does s/he treat others this way? Consensus: Do other people act the same way in this situation or toward the same person? 20 Covariation Model Highosiscyn ++ Low Disiness w Consus= ral Atuiton HgIh Contc+ h Disite+s i g h s=s rtnal tionibu L+/igh Cst cy Lh Disiness Cous ir atial tionibu 21 22 23 Social Perception How We Understand Others 24 iClicker Issues d your Clicker ID Joshua Clark Need your Name Tiauna 269655E5 Daniel 8F422CE1 Latoya 99AFOC3A Getter Kyra Goldman 99C32D77 9A892E3D Kyle Hovey Lauren Ivey 9ABC4E68 Sara Jones 9A85302F Brandy 9AACFACC Kraemer Jessica Mantia Dallas 25 Simmons Justine Turner Victoria Yakstis Jamal throws his backpack on the floor. What might B we do to figure out why? A. Look at his facial expressions B. Consider how others behave in the same setting C. Consider how Jamal behaves in other settings D. All of the above According to the two-step B model of attributions: A.We first make an internal attribution and then adjust by considering the situation. B.We first make a situational attribution and then adjust by considering the personality of the person. C.We first make a conscious judgment that can then be overridden by automatic factors. D.None of the above. Your friend Jacob tells you about a movie he saw last night, calling it the worst movie he’s ever seen. Unsure whether to trust him, you ask another friend, who confirms that it was the worst movie she’s seen as well. You later hear them both tell other people what a terrible movie it was. What attribution are you most likely to make and why? Use Kelley’s Covariation model to make an internal (something about your friend) or external (something about the movie) attribution. A.Internal attribution (due to distinctiveness and consistency). B.Internal attribution (due to consensus and consistency). C.External attribution (due to distinctiveness and consistency). D.External attribution (due to consensus and consistency). Imagine the same scenario in which your friend Jacob tells you about a bad movie he’s seen. Which of the following would cause you to make an internal attribution rather than an external attribution according to Kelley’s Covariation model? A.You hear several other friends complaining about A the movie B.You recall that Jacob never seems to like any movies C.You hear Jacob telling other people how bad the movie was D.You read reviews of the movie and see that several critics blast the movie The actor on reality TV show Joe Millionaire had to pose as a millionaire. In reality, he was a construction worker with a relatively low income. Many who watched the show thought he was unintelligent. How might the fundamental attribution error explain these viewers’ beliefs? A.He was truly unintelligent B.Jealousy pervades many viewers who believe they could do better themselves C.The women on the show were much smarter by comparison D.Observers failed to consider that he was in a very awkward situation Bias in Attribution Fundamental attribution error: Tendency to assume that others act predominantly on the basis of their dispositions and ignore situational causes Correspondence bias: Tendency to infer that people’s behaviors match their personalit ies 31 Bias in Attribution Actor-observer effect: Attribute our own behavior to situational factors and others’ behavior to dispositional factors Self-serving bias: People tend to make internal attributions for their success and external attributions for their failure Defensive attribution: Blaming victims for their hardship to protect the self from being victimized in a similar way 32 33 34 htt p ://ww w .youtube.co m /watch?v= BcUU41 z jreM htt p ://ww w .youtube.co m /watch?v= KQh0BEUlJWY h tt p ://ww w .yo u t ub e.co m /watc h ? v =OB5 M g tSUTlc http://politicalhu m o r .about . c o m /li b rary/ m ulti m edia/d e an _ out k ast . m p3 35 Explaining Others Why does the FAE occur? Internal attributions are simple, SSitatitial del dds maydnot be easy t bsee, not t t available to us, and require thought and effort Perspective and situational awareness Memory diminishes over time Two step process (Gilbert): second step requires effort Cultural differences How fundamental is the FAE? Correspondence bias Weiner’s Model of Attribution for Achievement Outcomes INTERNAL EXTERNAL Stable Unstable Stable Unstable Typic Temp. Bias Unusual al effort (teache help effortfor this r, from Controllable exam) AbilitytaMood Task Luckrs UncontrollaIntellect FatigueifficultChance y Opportunit y37 Survey Groups 1-7 Only How much does each of the following factors contribute to Dr. Greer’s success? 1. Ability as a doctor Not at all To a great extent 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 38 Survey Groups 1-7 Only How much does each of the following factors contribute to Dr. Greer’s success? 2. Motivation to be successful as a doctor Not at all To a great extent 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 39 Survey Groups 1-7 Only How much does each of the following factors contribute to Dr. Greer’s success? 3. The ease of the goal Not at all To a great extent 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 Survey Groups 1-7 Only How much does each of the following factors contribute to Dr. Greer’s success? 4. Good luck Not at all To a great extent 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 41 Survey Groups 8-15 Only How much does each of the following factors contribute to Dr. Greer’s success? 1. Ability as a doctor Not at all To a great extent 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 42 Survey Groups 8-15 Only How much does each of the following factors contribute to Dr. Greer’s success? 2. Motivation to be successful as a doctor Not at all To a great extent 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 43 Survey Groups 8-15 Only How much does each of the following factors contribute to Dr. Greer’s success? 3. The ease of the goal Not at all To a great extent 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 44 Survey Groups 8-15 Only How much does each of the following factors contribute to Dr. Greer’s success? 4. Good luck Not at all To a great extent 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 45 Gender Differences FEMALES MALES Success on Success on male task male task attributed to attributed to luck; and later ability (stable, to effort internal) (unstable, internal) Failure on male task attributed to Failure on male bad luck task attributed to (external) and task difficulty lack of effort (stable, external) (unstable) 46 Gender Differences In general, females’ success attributed to external factors; males’ success to internal factors Norm Theory: when people explain an event they focus on what could easily have been otherwise More attributions are offered to explain disadvantaged groups ormative person, no explanation needed 47
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