Biology 2- BIOL 1362 Week 2 Notes Biodiversity
Biology 2- BIOL 1362 Week 2 Notes Biodiversity BIOL 1362
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Clowtis on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1362 at University of Houston taught by CHEEK in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see Biology 2 in Biology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek- 1/26/2016 Chapter 26- Multicellular Eukaryotes Colonized Land Dates: o 475 mya: plants and fungi colonized land o 420 mya: first animals on land-insects o 375 mya: first evidence of tetrapod (4 footed) on land Clicker- physical challenges to survival and reproduction for all terrestrial organisms Desiccation (dehydration) Acquiring organic and inorganic nutrients More oxygen in air than water Sunlight=UV damage to DNA Gravity requires land animals/plants to have structure to fight gravity (plant cell wall, animal skeleton/posture muscles, insects exoskeleton) Archaeplastida: Land Plants Ancestral characteristics shared with green algae: chlorophyll a and b (two types) o Plants and brown/red/certain green algae are multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic autotrophs o Plants, green algae, dinoflagellates, and brown algae all have cell walls made of cellulose Shared derived traits shared with Charophyte algae: o Process for making cell wall (cellulose)- different from other green algae o Sperm with flagellae (From Dr. Cheek’s notes found on blackboard, also found on page 513 textbook) Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek- 1/26/2016 Ancestral characteristic: a trait (or characteristic) used to group together ancestors and descendants as a set that shares the characteristic Shared Derived Trait: a trait that is shared among a group of descendants but is different from the ancestor Four shared traits of plants: 1. Alternation of generations-2 multicellular adult organisms a. Haploid sporehaploid gametediploid zygote b. Each generation gives rise to the other (circle) c. Life cycle includes both multicellular haploid and multicellular diploid organisms 2. Wall spores produced in Sporangia- multicellular organs that produce desiccation-resistant spores 3. Gametangia- gametophyte makes egg and sperm (2 different kinds, 1 produces egg (Archegonium), 1 produces sperm (Antheridium)) 4. Apical meristem- tip, doesn’t have to be at the top because also applies to tip of roots; localized region of cell division a. Staining= a lot of mitosis Four shared Derived Traits of Plants (Not found in charophyte algae) 1. Embryo that develops protected within female parent (against dessication) 2. Apical meristem: cell division occurring at tip of roots and shoots(stems) 3. Alternation of generations- 2 multicellular life stages a. Sporophyte(multicellular diploid) produces spores that grow into gametophyte Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek- 1/26/2016 b. Gametophyte(multicellular haploid) can produce either sperm or eggsdiploid zygotes c. Fertilization creates embryo that grows into a multicellular sporophyte 4. Spores(haploid) coated with sporopollenin=resistant polymer that prevents spore from drying out or being crushed; extremely resistant to physical and chemical factors to protect spores from drying out, something from inside must break it down Non-vascular Plants: Liverworts o Traits shared by non-vascular plants: Short and small Live in moist environments Flagellated sperm Gametophyte is dominant stage of life (most noticible) Mosses o Gametophyte is green soft part o Sporophyte is tan circle on stalk Hornworts: o Most are aquatic o Looks kind of like Christmas tree branches Seedless Vascular Plants: Vascular= having a system of vessels transporting fluid (blood in humans); “cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body” o Xylem= transports water, ions, minerals from soil to tissues; includes tracheids o Phloem: transports sugars from photosynthetic tissues to other tissues (not just leaves are photosynthetic tissues, sometimes stems are too) Lycophtes: club mosses Pterophyes: ferns (ptero=wing, phyte=plant) “wing shaped plant” Shared derived traits: o Sporophyte is dominant generation o 3 separate tissues: roots, stems, leaves o Flagellated sperm Vascular Seed Plants Seeds, ovules, pollen Sporophyte is dominant generation o Spores develop into microscopic gametophyte within parent sporophyte (see figure 26.20 on slide) Ovule: contains tissue from sporophyte, inside of that is spore develops into female gametophyte Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek- 1/26/2016 Pollen: contains male gametophyte, fertilizes female gametophyte inside ovule Gymnosperms- seeds not enclosed in a chamber; “naked seed” o Piney woods ecoregions Angiosperms o Flowering plants, prairie o Seeds that develop inside an ovary o Produce flower (specialized shoot and leaves) o Fruits (from ovary Sometimes have more than 1 seed inside Anything with seeds inside is a fruit, vegetables are leaves and stems Clicker- gymnosperm seed contains cells of how many different generations? Answer: 3 1. Sporophyte made spore 2. Sperm and egg formed together=embryo=new sporophyte 3. Food supply is haploid so has to be a different generation Fungi Heterotrophs o Saprotrophic- acquiring energy by absorbing nutrients from the environment Decomposers Parasites Mutualists (symbionts) Cells surrounded by cell wall of chitin Cells secrete enzymes that digest surrounding material Body made of hyphae- think tubes that infiltrate the material the fungus is absorbing Symbionts o Mycorrhizae- symbiotic relationship between fungus and plant roots o Fungus secretes enzymes that digest organic matter in the soil improving mineral absorption by plant o Plant supplies fungi with carbohydrate Key: Mya=million years ago Spp= species plural Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek- 1/28/2016 Unikonta: Animalia Phylum Porifera (sponges) Cells are not organized into tissues 2 layers of cells held together by collagen Clicker- What kind of molecule is collagen and where does it occur in animal bodies? Answer: protein secreted to form extracellular matrix Animal Phylogeny 1. Genes encoding ribosomal RNA, chaperone proteins, tubulin 2. Collagen 3. Gastrulation (specific event that happens in embryonic development in those two groups- cells fold inward to form a tube making 3 layers of tissue: ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) and formation of tissues Markers indicate ancestral characteristics shared by all descendants to the right of the marker Phylogeny of Bilateria A. Bilateral symmetry B. First embryonic opening (of tube) becomes mouth= Protosomes digestive tract forms top to bottom C. Second embryonic opening becomes mouth= Deuterostomes digestive system forms bottom to top Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek- 1/28/2016 Ecdysozoa: Arthropoda- grasshopper o Ancestral character: exoskeleton and jointed legs Nematoda- worms, some are parasitic to humans Ecdysis= shedding exoskeleton to grow larger (both go through this) Ecdysozoan cuticle structure o Chitin is key protein Lophotrochozoa Annelida Mollusca- bivalves, gastropods, cephalopods Exoprocta Trochophore larva Ring of cilia around larva Development: spiral cleavage pattern of embyronic cells Genes: Hox genes (regulate development of body shape), genes for enzymes important in cellular respiration Arthropoda Phylogeny: Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek- 1/28/2016 Clicker- how males attract females: fight other males, present gift to female, have best personal adornmetns, dance as well/long as female Clicker- are birds/mammals only ones who give parent care? Bottlenose dolphins- phylum chordata o Kick up dust in a circle around fish so jump out into waiting dolphin’s mouths Venus flytrap- phylum vascular plant o Imprisons fly, sweet nectar and colors attractive o Gets nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous from flies because lives in poor soil (like what is in fertilizer) Stork-eyed fly- phylum arthropoda o Blows air to push eyes out, eyes key to winning females, widest eyespan among males=top because shows strength, 2 competing males may fight, winner gets to mate with all the females Hippo-phylum chordata o Must defeat alpha male to mate with females, loser is alive but is an outcast Grebe-phylum chordata o Dance together after copying each other Giant pacific octopus-phylum Mollusca o Female searches for den to live in for the rest of her life, lays fertilized eggs, doesn’t leave them during their development, then blows water over eggs to help them hatch, then dies Poison arrow frog-phylum chordata o Guards fertilized eggs, puts tadpole on her back and climbs tree to find plant with water supply in center, carries each to Bromiliad plant, puts unfertilized eggs in for tadpoles to eat Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek- 1/28/2016 Figure on page 534 of textbook
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