First couple weeks of lecture notes
First couple weeks of lecture notes KIN202 Wesley Smith Applied Nutrition for Health & Performance
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Avi Fox on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN202 Wesley Smith Applied Nutrition for Health & Performance at University of Miami taught by Wesley Smith in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Applied Nutrition for Health and Performance in Kinesiology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
KIN 202 Applied Nutrition for Health and Performance Nutrition prevent disease in 1960 s started to realize cigarettes were bad used to give cyclists cigarettes to smoke during the tour de France Chronic disease all liked with food is highly processed and are considered food like CRAP carbs that are re ned and processed Dr Terry Wahls in 2000 diagnosed with MS Using fish oil creatine and coenzyme Q10 Myelin insulation for wiring Key recommendations Key vitamins B 1 B9 B 12doesn t come from plants Omega 3 Fatty acids Iodine Sulfur rich vegetables supports brain mitochondria creates energy and kidneys Cabbage familyBrussels sprouts turnips radish kale Onions shallots garlic Colors avonoids polyphenols antioxidants come from berries and bright fruits In the skin protect the plants from oxidation from environment Omega 3 fatty acid development of jaw and protects brain Have wild caught wish and grass fed meats Organ meats vitamins minerals and coenzyme Q Seaweed Iodine to create myelin and remove toxins like lead and mercury Phytochemicals in green leaf vegetables 300 mg of pholate Pholic acid doesn t convert well to pholate in humans so whole foods are normally better than study in 2004 analyzed ancient hunters and gathers foragers they had 210X the RDA for nutrients Her diet 3 cups of greens Kale has more nutrition per calorie Bmitochondria Aimmune cells C K Dramatically lowers cataracts and macular degeneration Role of Omega 3 fatty acids 9 cups veggies and berries daily Lowers food allergies Obesity most dangerous is the obesity in the abdomen and how its defined USDA maintaining a healthy body Obesity rate 35 NIH over 30 billion spentyear nothing has been cured 13 children and 23 of minorities are expected to develop diabetes in their lifetime Leading cause of kidney failure adult blindness and limb amputations Causes higher blood pressure Human body 5g 1 teaspoon of sugar in your blood if it goes up to a tablespoons worth you die Sugar in the diet is what s killing Americans not necessarily fats BMIBody mass index Not the best way to measure because doesn t measure fat mass or muscle mass Just height and weight Metabolic syndrome cardio metabolic disease syndrome X pre diabetic Type 11 diabeties most linked to lifestyle Type 1 diabetes is autoimmune problem pancreas wont work Best way to prevent BMI clinically proven to not be an indicator for body health Waist to weight waist to hip the central fat fat around organs in the abdominals is disease causing Visceral fat related to alzehemiers heart disease cancer diabetes The common thread is systemic in ammation Obesity2 types Subcutaneous fat obesity and Visceral Fat Obesity The Visceral fat becomes rancid behind your muscles Exercising reduces the swelling When you lose body fat weight your body has an antiin ammatory effect In plant based diet there are phytochemical from plants Waist circumference best way to measure health Most sugar comes from refined carbs Take whole grain strip the bran and germ and leave the endosperm that leaves carbs sugars and proteins gluten We need the bran to take care of the high levels of carbs Fiber normally comes with sugar stops it from inundating our bodies Processing of carbs in developed countries we see metabolic syndrome Metabolic syndromeneed 35 Risk of diabetes goes up 2400 1 Dominal obesity male 40inbelly button female 35in 2 High blood pressure over 130 3 High triglyceridesover 150 circulating fats in blood 4 Low HDL good cholesterol high density lipoproteins 5 High blood glucosesugar blood glucose over 109 Type 2 diabetes mellitus high blood sugar Leading cause of blindness blood vessel damage and kidney failure Shorten life span by 15 years 13 of American and 23 minority children are expected to develop diabetes Lifestyle change was 40 more effective than medication Loses body fat by 10 would have a 60 reduction in risk of diabetes Diet with low saturated fat and more activity If you want to prevent 1 case in 3 years 7 pre diabetics need to enroll With metformin you need 14 people Only 74 of patients take their medicine but the same amount stayed on their lifestyle changes Caloric Balance Can t grow muscle and lose fat at the same time To grow muscle you need energy and to burn you re releasing Protein burns 20 Lot of fiber you burn more high thermic effect RestingMetobolicRate lbs X 11 RMR X 125 ActivityDailyLiving SED EstimatedEnergyRequirment Fat free mass is What is metabolized Activity multiplier is pretty general Needed cups of water BER240 Cupsgt L 24 KCALS ML of H20 2000 calories2000mL DRI dietary AMDR Fat Pro CHO RDA for protein Caloric restriction should never be below 1200 caloriesday Reverse dieting sometimes you have to increase someone s caloric intake to stimulate their metabolism Let them grow some muscle then restrict their caloric intake Obesity excessive lipid accumulation Chicken or the egg Is it the food you are eating making you fat or is the person fat and then eating to maintain it Your body protects it because it grows mechanisms around the fat Fat cells create leptin crosses blood brain barrier that metabolic rate and hunger Leptin levels increases with fat When you lose fat your leptin levels go down metabolic rate goes down and hunger goes up Calories in calories out exception thyroid combating obesity in children is to take in fewer calories No study shows this to be effective Children in a caloric deficit cant grow properly Need 58kCalgram of tissue growth Setpoint set in childhood 3rd world countries obese parents and malnourished children Trivial calories taking the stairs doesn t help fat loss because your body can make up those miniscule calories by changing your thermodynamics Calories in begins in the gut Infectobesity there are infections viruses that make you obese Twin studies the one with larger BMI had antibodies to the virus NUTS high in calories fiber in nuts harder to gain weight Growth and maturation body mass shoots up 515 College student diet slide 59 had a lot more omega6 then omega3 antiim amoatory Might be higher but consumes less nutrients Minerals high sodium because of preservatives magnesium and phosphorus are low need it for ATP RDA is bare minimum By adding a salad lowers the omega3omega 6 from 140 to 14 B12 comes from animals Minerals potassium is higher DRI dietary reference intake RDA recommended daily allowance started in 1941 to prevent deficiencies currently used to prevent overconsumption Calculation mathematically 98 of Americans who eat it wont be malnourished Adequate intake AI not as well established more likely to uctuate When RDA isn t set due to insufficient data the AI is a reasonable judgment based on limited scientific basis Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range 4565 Carbohydratesenergy should be proportional to your daily activity FAT2035 cell membranes insulation Pro 1035 Range that prevents chronic disease and adequate intakes of essential nutrients Best suited might be fast food A salad will have low carbs that doesn t fit the AMDR High fat low carbs Macronutrient major portions of our diet that provide us with our energy carbs fats and proteins Modified 15 years ago because of the Atkins diet terrible for you WHY AMDR came out When you take out one of the macronutrients from your diet you become more selective and become more conscious of your caloric intake Potassium 4700mg day the RDA Sodium 2300 mgday is the upper limit Hu transfat should not be considered for human consumption Transfat in ingredients vegetable oil and hydrogenate it Fat that takes on un natural shape Take an unsaturated fat and add hydrogen it doesn t fit properly in cell membrane Saturatedfat long chains of carbon that are saturated with hydrogen no double bonds Unsaturatedfat has the cis double bond creating an elbow Omega36 Tolerable Upper Intake Level UL highest daily intake of nutrient unlikely to pose risk of toxicity Not a RDI lglb body weight is to high AMDA 2gkg of body weight of protein High protein diet can cause diuretic effect water loss Protein could cause harm to liver and kidneys excreting the ammonia that goes through the liver that comes from the breakdown of protein Estimated Average Requirement EAR nutrient intake estimated to meet the requirement of half a sample of individuals to achieve health conversely the other half will not Used in mathematic formula to achieve the RDA USDA united states department of agriculture Food pyramid 611 servings of breads and cereals the base is carbs since this first came out diabetes has taken off 34 fruits and 35 servings vegies 23 meat Doesn t differentiate between good and bad carbs 23 meatdairy includes beans doesn t include soy Red meat One fist is about a serving of carbs 3545 g of fiber a day Don t differentiate between good and bad fat Doesn t include water My pyramid included physical activity Structured to body size Try to eat whole grains better vegies and lower fat sources of milk My plate Significant improvement Protein AMDR 1035 muscle isn t purely protein it is 70 water 22 protein one pound100 g When you go on protein diet has high 20 thermic effect and makes you fuller Timing is most important when trying to gain muscle you should eat it before and after exercise 1g of protein kg or body weight and 12g of carbs Feel less sore the next day RDA 8gkg of bweight to prevent deficiency UL 20gkg is the UL 46gfemales 56gmales 4cal g of protein and carbs Fat 9calgram AMDR 2035 02 thermic effects When your digesting it doesn t usually burn any calories Lines membranes of cells and neurons Use it for hormones Every single unsaturated fat is essential in the human body because we don t make them 10gd Linoleic 183 Omega 6 We easily obtain it from soy products 1d is Alpha linolenic 183 omega 3 Fish oil is the best omega 3 Too little omega 3 fatty acid consumption one of the top problems Stabilizes heart lowers bp Omega 6 omega 3 41 typical American is 20 401 COMING from the least efficient omega 3 alpha linolenic RDA says 101 because we are so far from 41 optimal goal Saturated fats aren t created equally The bad ones seem to be RDA cholesterol 300mgd animal products is cholesterol that s it We only make saturated fat the same as butter Correlations don t show causation but there is a direct correlation between cholesterol and CV Disease Diet low in cholesterol is a diet low for Stay away from tvtrans fat and SOFas solid fats and added sugars Carbohydrates The only athletes that eat over 45 are the ones performing the iron marathon Most Americans need to be on the lower end of the 4565 AMDR diet Males 34gd ber females 25gd fiber Plant based diet is healthier Fiber is where most of the nutrients are Sugar should be less than 25 of the diet DV is not the same as RDI Fatsoluble vitamins Vitamin I 7 00microgm females900microg males Powerful antioxidants Can get vitamin a toxicity Fat soluble fights heart disease Orange and yellow vegetables animal fats When fat becomes oxidized it promotes in ammation vitamin A can reduce cancer and in ammation Red in eyes comes from vitamin A Vitamin I hormone 15microgramsday 15 minutes outside between 102 Used by immune cells to find cancer cells and viruses Heart health muscle function Reduces fall risk for the elderly Vitamin I 15 mg powerful antioxidants Help reduces fats from beings oxidized From the diet not supplements Seeds nuts and vegetable oils Vitamin I 90 microgram females 120 microgramsmales KALE Dark green leafy vegetables Helps with clotting factors in the liver and bone density BACK dark greeny vegetables Liver will use it for blood clotting Important for bone density fights osteoporosis by activating osteocalcium Watersoluble vitamins Vitamin C watersoluble antioxidant Oxidants cause wear and tear on our tissues and aging Preserves life span of our tissues 75mg female s 90mg males Take as much as you want and it s not toxic because it will ush through you Have been anecdotal information on rebound scurvy go from huge level and then drop down to normal your body gets used to it Collagen and connective tissue synthesis Citrus fruits and vegetables Rebound deficiencies body gets accustomed to high levels Scurvy vitamin c deficiency Vitamin B1 thyamine 1112mgday used for metabolism biochemical pathways Vitamin B2 Ribo avin used for metabolism biochemical pathways Whole grains green leafy vegetable Vitamin B3 Nyosin nuts lean meat and legumes dark green leafy ve Effective at lowering cholesterol levels Used for metabolism biochemical pathways 14mg females 16 mg Vitamin B5 pantophenic acid 5mg used for metabolism biochemical pathways Vitamin B6 protein synthesis pure doxene need 13mg Vitamin B7 used for metabolism biochemical pathways Vitamin B9 protein synthesis 400mg pholate very important in protein synthesis and replication of DNA Neural tube in first trimester pholate becomes very important Green leafy vegetables Because of this there has been a big push to give child bearing age women pholic acid supplements to prevent pholate deficiencies High levels of alcohol in the liver inhibit protein synthesis Memory builds protein When Vitamin B12 protein synthesis 24UG micro grams should be Only get it in animal products Vegans are usually lacking If we move it to 47UG even meat eaters might not be getting enough B12 should be supplemented if deficient Choline 435micrograms and 450 micrograms important for metabolism Homosystenine levels are high high risk in heart disease similar to smokers B 12 and pholate can get rid of high levels of homosystenine When you increase protein synthesis and dna replication always use methylamine it gets recycles as homosystenine The study that determined b12 referred to people as negro the new one shows that at 47 it s much better Finish up the DRI s adequate intakes for each and rdas specific requirements for B12 pholate and General function for vitamins and minerals Macro Minerals skeleton weighs about 151bs Calcium maintaining bones density RDA 1300 mgday early 20 s to lgram a day 50 of children in the US get less than 13 of what they need Need 1200mg Osteoporosis kills more women than breast and ovarian cancer combined 50 of elderly who falls live a year Chloride necessary electrolyte for muscle contraction Magnesium 320mg men need 400mg Energy used in the body ATP the adenosine is normally linked with magnesium Magnesium and phosphorous very important in ATP Normally very deficient in magnesium and phosphorus Nuts and legume Phosphorus 700 mgday necessary for energy Potassium 4700mgday minimum Average 3500mgday Plants are the best source and nonprocessed diet 98 of Americans are deficient average is 3700 mgday Hunter gatherers used to get 10g It reverses the stress of sodium overtime and reduces risk of heart failure Bananas aren t a great source of bananas Sodium UpperLimit 2300mg for 12 of Americans the other 12 need less than 1500mg hypertensionhigh bp kidney disease diabetes and African Americans Normally eating 4g of it a day Finish up minerals read amdr food label general healthy nutritional behavior Atherosclerosis Americans can do 4 things to reduce your risk of cardiovascular death by 40 don t smoke exercise 20 minutes a day to point of sweating consume 5 tennis ball size servings of fruits and veggies a day get BMI under 30 Magnesium whole grains leafy green vegetables and nuts act as a cofactor in hundreds of enzymatic reactions in the human body If you have enough magnesium you should have metabolic support Most American vegetarians don t even consume the RDA for magnesium Associated with weight loss and against the chronic diseases associated with sedentary life Double blind both the researcher and subject don t know what the person is getting Crossover switch groups between placebo and magnesium You are comparing each subject to themselves on the real pill vs the placebo If you sleep less than 7 hours of sleep a night you gain weight If you re tired you re not going to be moving around as much Micro Minerals Chromium necessary for the insulin receptor People supplement it because if you become more sensitive to insulin can lose weight faster and build more muscles These supplements are normally adulterated TRIM spa had chromium6 and it shortened life spans Mushrooms whole grains nutritional yeast a Mediterranean diet Copper 900 micrograms Without the enzyme you will age very quickly and die antioxidant function Zinc plant based diet antioxidant function Fluoride good for teeth Iodine sea vegetables seafood Critical for the thyroid and the metabolism If thyroid levels go down you gain weight Important for cancer prevention and mitochondrial function Iron main source of iron is in hemoglobin Testosterone causes more red blood cells so men 810mg day Females need 18mgday Play a role in making free radicals UL 45mg Good source of iron red meat heme form iron dark green leafy vegetables non heme iron is hard to absorb Vitamin C can increase this absorption by 300 Seaweed high in vitamin c iron and zinc Manganese antioxidant function Act as a cofactor for antioxidants destroys free radicals molecule that is very reactive and cause damage to cells causing aging to the body Antioxidants stops oxidation in our body Why doesn t exercise increase aging and damage to the body since you take in more oxygen thereby creating free radicals In response to exercising we build up our protection against oxidations Selenium from nuts and seeds Need 55microgramsday Need it for Glutathione peroxidase Big antioxidant enzyme Basics of reading food label ingredients are more important than the nutritional facts Total fat16g 9calories grams Find the calories then divide by the total calories serving ProteinCarbs 64calg 4565 carbs in the diet Protein 133 1035 amdr Not low NUTRIGRAIN BARS SLIDE 98Total daily energy requirement TDEE lbs11 sedentary lifestyles 2269 Carbs 226845 1021 calories of carb4 255g Fat 22693 360 calories of fat9 76g Protein 226925 5674 142 g UL of sugar lt25 diet lt142g sugarday What percent of his tdee 4802269 21 Percent of his daily need of cho 24g4 servings4 Calgram 384 calories of carbs Daily need 1021 38 How much sugar 48g What of carb was sugar 48g96 50 48142 34 his upperlimit High blood pressure gt1500mg sodiumday had 110mg sodiumserving 440mgsodium 30 of upper limit Polyunsaturated could be good omega 3 bad omega 6 trick question Monounsaturated omega9 Olive oil the olives are good the fat is not Foods high in omega9 are good not the omega 9 Nutritional Behaviors Eat breakfast research shows that with weight loss breakfast is important to maintain blood sugar People who don t eat breakfast usually eat large meals before bed Skip breakfast blood sugar crashes and greater risk to weight gain and feasting at night Low sugars avoid too much sugar in your diet Most of the saturated fat in your liver made from sugar will increase the lipid content in your blood or be stored around you liver Best replacement for soda is regular coffee Avoid process carbs and conventional meat look for the word whole and short ingredient list When processed all that is left is Conventional meat has more omega 6 s More omega3 in organic grass fed Sugar sugar is currently being taken in faster than our body before during and after exercise Slide 99 Eat more food you make Eat plantbased diet Avoid Excess Sodium extracellular electrolyte Potassium increasing potassium over the RDA less risk of hypertension and heart failure Eat more plants don t eat out as much Leafy Greens 3 cups a day around a plateful Great amount of Vitamins BAC and K eaxanthin queretin and lutein Eating leafy greens has much better benefits than taking pills because of all the additional phytochemicals currently being identified Sulfurrich vegetables cabbage broccoli sprouts and cauli ower have lots of metabolites that are protective against cancer heart disease Alzheimer s and other diseases Contain antioxidants and antiin ammatory chemicals that help detoxifications systems in your liver to improve health SeleniumGPX lowers blood pressure and above mentioned Colorful plant foods high in purple and blue improve blood ows have anthocyanin s decrease in blood pressure and ellagic acid avonoids and cancer reduction Red s have anthocyanins and orange and yellow carotenoids has carotene it s a precursor to vitamin A Plant foods with fiber lower GI cancer Omega 3 Pasteur raised high in DHA and EPA Alcohol 7 caloriesgram cut down alcohol all turns into fatty acid Doesn t make proteins Raises ADH that raises blood pressure 12 drinks day 12 ounces of 5 alcohol improves health slightly U shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and many disease conditions Get adequate sleep 78 hours for optimal health Staying hydrated chronic lowgrade dehydration is widespread Causes skin to lose elasticity and lower their energy level Increase blood cholesterol because cells are trying to protect their water content Joint integrity needs water without it you have insufficient uid in the membrane leading to wear and tear that leads to more problems Alcohol is a diuretic even though urine is clear Watersoluble vitamins are also diuretic Protein guidelines for different populations and essential amino acids and their functions Protein digestibility corrected amino acid score Bl thiamine legumes veggies nuts and seeds Aparagus is one of the highest source B2ribo avin B3niacin B6 pyridoxine BS Pantothenate B9 Folate B12 Colalamin sardine salmon tuna Vitamin C connective tissue and major antioxidant citrus fruits cabbage greens sea vegetablesalso high in iron High in nonheme iron Vitamin 0 increases absorption of this iron Caloric balance for a healthy body weight slide 111 We become desensitized to sugar so we use more Eat more home prepared foods Less than 10 from saturated fatty acid Less emphasis of cholesterol cholesterol in diet doesn t correlate well to blood cholesterol Removing upper limit on cholesterol Yolk free eggs raise your cholesterol more than normal eggs Reduce sofas Moderate intake of sugar Increases fat storage Reduces fat utilization Chronic insulin response reduces cellular sensitivity Increases risk Fibers from whole grains fruits and vegetables Daily AI males38 g Fz25 g Lowers cholesterol Don t absorb the fat helps with weight loss FDA approved Alli mostly counterfeit has powder instead of little pills Fiber lowers glycemic indeX During exercise insulin levels are inhibited so its ok to have during and after Increases thermic effect of food GI tract is working hard to burn calories Dilute carcinogens in diet adds bulk digestion Helps the gut ora by increasing butyrate and reduce GI in ammation Watch video Protein Requirements UL 2gkg RDA 8gkg whey protein Infant 3gkg protein in breast milk Body builder 182gkg Endurance runner 1218 15gkg More carbs Senior lgkg Kidneys can t process them as well Protein Digestibility correlated amino acid Score Highest rate whey Casein soy protein egg white Plant proteins aren t complete Complete protein has all 10 amino acids Animal proteins have antinutrients Essential don t produce it need it in your diet Iryptophanlaline Ihreonineleucinelysine Valine Isoleucine Leucine branch chain amino acids BCAAs easily converted to sugar in liver When body is low In our muscles they are nonlinear that makes it easy for enzymes to pull apart
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