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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laura Dominguez on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY at La Salle University taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO PSYCH in Psychlogy at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
PSY 155 – INTRODUCTORY PSYCH Scientific study of behavior and motivation. Emotion, behaviors, and cognition. 1. 1800’s, focus on human mind and functions a. Whilhelm Wundt: defined psych as “science of mental life” b. Carefully measured observations and experiments; connecting sensory data with mental reactions/what’s in the mind. c. William James: authored Principles of Psychology d. Studies human thoughts, feelings and behaviors, and asked: i. What function might they serve? ii. How might they have helped our ancestors to survive? 2. 1930’s move towards science. Beginning of studying psychological disorders on humans and animals. a. E.g: to study depression one would have to determine what behaviors are associated with said disorder. b. Also interconnects behavioral interventions with scientific responses that reflect physiological and/or biological aspect of disorder. Relates to clinical psychology. Psychological science is born 4 Century BCE, Aristotle used observation to study psyche mental questions. Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud (1800’s) Vienna neurologist. Repressive patriarchal society. Could not find medical reasons for some patients’ illnesses. He dabbles with hypnosis to fix or discover the root of these problems and discovers deep memories (usually negative) which caused the physical symptoms. He discovers that the cause of these illnesses is psychological. 1. He theorizes that the psyche stores painful memories to keep out of our awareness, and accidentally discovers the existence of the unconscious. 2. In order for these memories (childhood trauma) to not be reflected into physical maladies, is to find a way to integrate the trauma into the conscious mind (catharsis) in order to release pain. a. Theory of personality development. b. He applied the psychoanalytic realm to therapy. This was his greatest contribution. 3. Therapy: kind of “reparenting” by therapist 4. Freud believed our personalities are set by the time we reach age 67. 5. He never established psychology as a science because his theory didn’t allow for it. Theory was too radical. Behaviorism: John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner 1. Study of the mind goes out the door. Psych should only study behavior; observable things, objective reality. 2. Scientific study of behavior, established psychology as a science. 3. They bring animals into study of behavior, critics say reducing psychology just to behavior is far too simplistic. 4. According to behaviorists, humans are born with a blank slate (John Locke’s tabula rasa) and the way we turn out is a result of our environment. 5. Research/theory negates biological influences. Took several decades for a third trend in psychological science to come up and challenged the preexisting and prevalent two trends: behaviorism and psychoanalysis. B. F. Skinner: provide rewards to increase desired behavior that corrects the psychological disorder a person has. Positive/negative reinforcement. Modifying voluntary behaviors by altering the rewards: operant conditioning. John B. Watson: studied classical conditioning through the Little Albert experiment. Can we learn emotional responses? yes. Humanism: Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers (1960’s) Optimistic approach to studying humans and their quest to self actualization and the self. “Personcentered” Phenomenology: understand healthy humans and how to foster this growth. Rogers says psychological disturbance stems from a disconnect from the self (sometimes caused by for example, losing oneself in a quest for peoplepleasing.) 1. Humanism focuses on qualitative research so it stepped away from the objectivism of science. It highlighted the role of thinking and processing one’s reality. 2. Therapy thrives on having empathy for the patient. Psychology today: the science of behavior and mental processes. The naturenurture question *behavioral geneticists* Nature: role of biology 1. Common origin 2. Common “inborn” human nature Nurture: role of environment 1. Role of parenting 2. Unconscious (Freud) 3. Conditioning and learning histories (behaviorists) 4. Broad role of society and culture
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