Social Cognition Notes, 2/2-2/6
Social Cognition Notes, 2/2-2/6 PSYC2012
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC2012 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Duval in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 194 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Class Notes Social Psychology Social Cognition Social Cognition study of how people interpret analyze remember and use information about the social world Automatic Thinking Quick No conscious deliberation of thoughts perceptions or assumptions A lot of our thought happens this way Controlled Thinking Effortful and deliberate Think about self and environment Carefully selecting a course of action Class Activity The class was instructed to look at a list of words all associated with sleep dream snore rest bed Then in a few minutes the instructor told us to write down as many words as we could remember Most people in the class remembered the word sleep being on the list even though it wasn t included on the list of words This is because of a schema Social Cognition Incorporates the idea that people combine their own preexisting beliefs with the objective stimulus data to reach conclusions Schema cognitive structure organizing tool in the brain centered around a specific theme that helps us to organize social information Provide a flexible way to apply organized prior knowledge to the understanding of new information All about not having to reinvent a new situation every time you encounter the situation like knowing that when you walk into a classroom you should sit in a desk and not on the floor If I said Patriots Player what would you think of Cheater Dedicated Stupid Big Patriotic Superbowl Champion Lucky Athletic Wealthy Male Strong New England Tom Brady Catching Football One type of Schema is a Stereotype Such as above some of these are football player stereotypes Get more complex and supposedly more accurate over time because we refine our schemas as we gain more information For example if you knew nothing about Muslims before 911 what would your schema be They hate Americans and want to kill us This is when schemas become dangerous When we know very little information about something Cognitive Miser we are stingy with and try to conserve our cognitive resources Explain how we as humans tend to be we tend to have several things on our mind simultaneously This is one of the reasons we need schemas because we cannot focus all our attention on more than one thing at once Types of Schemas Stereotype or Role Schema contains the appropriate behaviors for a person in an achievedascribed role Achieved role education earned you the role like a lawyer or doctor Ascribed role not an earned role but something you have because of certain group you belong to like women Muslim tall Person Schema associating specific traits and attributes with an individual What we form as we get to know individuals better Event Schema Script describes a sequence of events For Example when you walk into a fancy restaurant you wait at a hostess stand to be seated know that the menu will be given to you once you sit down etc Pros and Cons of Schemas Pros They save time and energy Allow us to infer information we do not have by relying on similar situations we have been through in the past For Example maybe an athlete enjoys a different sport as well Allow us to recall information Cons Can be incomplete based on littlelimited experience If you have only met one gay person you may create a schema based on that individual for all gay people Tend to be used indiscriminately applied to everyone Dual Process Model it is on a continuum Schema Based Attribute Base Processing Top Down gt Processing Bottom Up Theory DrivenCategory Data Drive Based lndividuated Schema Based Processing think of this more as automatic thinking Cognitive Miser thinks like this more Attribute Based Processing think of this more as controlled thinking So now cognitive misers has been reinterpreted as considering information processors to be Motivated Tacticians determine when it makes sense to use category versus attribute based processing This is when you figure out which processing method is more appropriate Schema Based or Attribute Based Where will you fall in the dual process model Use a schema or not More likely to use a schema when When we are under high cognitive load which basically means when you have a lot on your mind Time pressure when we need to make a decision quickly Strong schema more accessible easier for us to use In a good mood when you re in a bad mood you are more willing to dive into details In a good mood you cannot be bothered Ambiguity if you have a schema that may help you make a decision on something at is ambiguous Example if someone gave you a list of traits that is equally good and bad you may be unable to decide what you think of them But if you are told they are a Patriots player you re schema for them may be cheater so you think the list of traits means they are negative Less likely to use a schema Outcome dependent Like learning what exactly a professor is looking for from you as a student Accountable If you have to justify a decision you make you will work harder at making the right decision Self Presentation You may not want to look foolish if you decide something different than everyone else came up with Debiasing Instructions Warning people of the dangers of relying completely on schemas encouraging person to consider all attributes of a personsituation What schema are you actually going to use More than one schema may be appropriate for the same personsituation Salient ones a category that sets someone apart In a room of a professor and students the Professor s Professorness would stand out Role Schemas tend to be informative When listening to a Professor you will use their Professor schema because it is relevant to what we are doing instead of using her Mom schema Accessible Schemas either because it has been recently used or was frequently used Frequently activated chronic Recently activated priming Other Types of Mental Processes instead of schemas Heuristics mental shortcuts that allow people to make judgements quickly and efficiently There is a potential for errors but they are an efficient way to reach pretty accurate answers Availability Heuristic tendency to judge the frequency or probability of an event in terms of how easy it is to think of examples of that event Representative Heuristic tendency to judge the category membership of people objects in terms of how closely they fit an image of the typical member of that category Can lead to errors due to the BaseRate Fallacy tendency to underuse baserate information the relative frequency with which a condition occurs Anchoring Adjustment Heuristic process of estimating a value by taking an initial value and then adjusting to the new instance based on current circumstances If you go to the Verizon Center and know that it holds 10000 people but see it is just about over half full you will probably guess there are about 6000 people there Counterfactual Thinking mentally changing some aspect of the past to imagine what might have been Can impact emotions This is the What ifs what if the Seahawks had run the ball instead of thrown it Positive if it leads to selfknowledge Negative if it leads to obsessing
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