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HIST week 2

by: Whitney Kendall

HIST week 2 Hist 150-002

Whitney Kendall

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Week 2 notes
U.S. History to 1876
Tracy L Brady
Class Notes
Hist 150, history, us
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Kendall on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 150-002 at Colorado State University taught by Tracy L Brady in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see U.S. History to 1876 in History at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 02/08/16
1/25/16 Eve of Colonization in America Taos Pueblo  Farmers  Southwest o People farming o Pima and Papago o Yuma o Pueblo people live along the Rio Grande valley after them^ o Apache and Navajo People  Hunters, traders, raiders Natchez People  The south, Mississippi  Hierarchical Cherokee Man  Closer to the interior, the 5 civilized tribes  Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole  Held annual meetings, every single person was allowed to speak Iroquois People  North East  New York, near Lake Ontario; c. 1650  Agriculturalists  Lived in long houses: wooden structures  5 Nations o Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk o Tension and warfare between the nations o Controlled this with the Iroquois Confederacy  Agree to work out disputes with confederacy instead of going to war  Ritualized exchanges and gifts to compensate for bad doing o Deganawida or Skennenrahawi the Lawgiver  Their “judge”  Most powerful group Europeans encounter- large influence Algonkians or Algonquins  Language group  50 distinct culture groups  Diverse economies; fishers, hunters, farmers, some varieties  Independent  New England area- MA, RI, CT  Pocumtuc, Nipmuck, Massachusett, Nauset, Wampanoag, Narraganset, Mattabesic, Pequot Mohegan… European Communities prior to Columbus Pre-Columbian Viking site in Greenland  Will bring new pathogens and are introduced to new ones  Peasant farmers o Grain mills, iron plow, crop rotation o Less famine, increased longevity, more kids- population from11-14 th centuries triples o Men did labor, women did house work o Did not own their land  Landlords o Noble classes o Commanded labor service- few days a week you will have to tend the lords fields and animals etc. also you owe him a tax/ tribute o Catholic church was oth of the largest landlords  Catholic Christians up to 16 century o Very powerful- politics o Want you to Focus on reward at the end, not how shitty your life is now  1/3 of babies did not live to 5 years old. ½ did not make it to adulthood  The Black Death o Bubonic Plague o Advancements from this allowed for population rebuild Late Middle-Ages  Merchant class o Had an excess in goods and wanted to profit from it  Italian City-state of Florence o First to expand trade to Asia o Silk and spice o Marco Polo- early explorer of silk and spice trade routes o The compass, gun powder, and printing presses o Monks preserved ancient texts, brought them to spark the renaissance  Invention of the postal system, growth of universities, celebration of the human body, spirit, and intellect  Thought to make something of yourself now, instead of waiting for heaven  Post- Black Death o Lots of tension o Gaps in the legal system from people dying o Hurts the merchants, no one wants to buy, want to tax and rob you  Merchants support the monarchies, they have money but no power  Centralized Monarchies o Rise when the nobles and churches are struggling o Will protect/ support merchants if they support them o Build armies and navies- need merchants to supply what they need o More distinct nation states emerging- more stability everywhere Portugal  Prince Henry the Navigator o Interested in the expansion and trade of Portugal o Lisbon, Portugal- principle port in Europe/ Mediterranean o Gathered the best/ smartest navigators and fishermen to be the best on the sea o Built the Caravel  Faster, more maneuverable, better than any other ship  Explore the Atlantic coast of Africa  Access to slave and gold trade  Established slave trade  Bartholomew Diaz o Explore southern Atlantic coast of Africa  Vasco de Gama o Sail to India, then to China  Portuguese take control of Asian spice trade from Italians. 1/27/16 Columbus  Born in 1451 in Italian city-state Genoa  Merchant, spent time in Madeira (Portuguese island) o Gets idea there to sail to India instead of traveling over land o Thought that the world was much smaller and it would be faster to sail. o Him nor anyone in Europe knew of the Americas o Needed royal backing to make the expedition  Ferdinand and Isabella, monarchs of Spain o 1492- They take back what the Mors took and united the 2 largest kingdoms of Spain  Castile and Aragon o Reconquista o Feeling good so they decided to back Columbus o They want to develop their own trade route with Asia  Around October 12 - Columbus notices they are getting closer to land  Landed somewhere near the Bahamas o Explored the Caribbean, Cuba, o Discovered clockwise trade winds- allowed people to travel back and forth until they get steam powered boats  Brings back some of the native people- Taino people o Says they are very smart, but they have no weapons o Offers idea that they could be made slaves- called them Indians o Found all sorts of “Asian” spices, and found a lot of gold- both lies  Weren’t anything he recognized- only gold jewelry  Wants to go back o F and I say yes- sent 17 ships back with 1500 men, prior only 3- 1493  Returns to Hispaniola- built a port, upon return port was burned and men were killed  Men did not respect Taino people- so they fought back  Columbus decided to retaliate- enslave them, demanded a gold tax, burned homes, and killed them o Sent people back- many died due to disease, gold ran out fast  Ferdinand and Isabella are upset with Columbus- didn’t bring what they wanted, not interested in slaves. o Ordered Columbus home  Died in 1506  People realized by then it was a new place- Amerigo Vespucci Columbus o Myths  Jewish  Was trying to hide/ compensate for Jewish heritage- during church prosecutions  Was a fantastic lover  Had visions of the new world before he left- told him he needed to go o Everyone was very religious and gullible/ naïve- felt that god talked to them more o Money and promise of wealth helped motivate him and his men to go o True objective- believed god wanted him to lead another crusade to the holy land and take back the city of Jerusalem from the Mors. o Saw what he wanted- couldn’t conceive idea that there was other new sets of values and beliefs throughout the world.  Ex: Bahamas- thought it was an Asian peninsula, the natives said no it was an island, it upset him and he thought they were stupid and thought they thought the world was an island  He didn’t think there was other languages- believed they were speaking Arabic not a new language- brought them back to learn it proper  Thought they were sub-human and didn’t have the capacity for language  Lack of clothing irritated him, to him clothes= civilization and if you don’t have them you might not be fully human.  Mocked them for exchanging gold for lesser items: glass beads and metal ware Spain in Americas  Reconquista- Islamic invasion c. 711 o Mors invaded Spanish peninsula and conquered up to perinese mountains o Spend next 700 years regaining the land, on and off fighting o Spain felt superior- we can take on anyone  Prized military skill o Holy war- defeat the infidel o Strong military warrior religious tradition is brought to Americas Unification of Spain  Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile  Need a powerful centralized monarchy with a powerful merchant class in order to begin exploration and expansion of power o Reason why Spain conquered lots of America  Counterreformation: o Response to protestant reformation o Martin Luther and his 95 theses o Win people back to Catholicism  F. and I. seen as Los Reyes Católicos “The Most Monarchs” by the pope st o Gives them right to 1 right of conquest in Americas o 1 condition: must convert natives to Catholicism in Americas o Brought people to convert them  Spain creates a vast wealthy temporary empire in Americas  Caste system o Hierarchy of race and class o 1 : people of pure Spanish ancestry- especially those from Spain o Bottom: native Americans, slaves o Middle: mixed ancestry- Spanish and Indian and African intermarriage- largest growing section o Wealth comes first then ancestry added next. If you’re wealthy and powerful your ancestry is assumed as Spanish  Crown still controls all in Spain and in America- realistically not practical; small areas had leadership  Early places of contact- lots of disease and killing/ raping caused 99% mortality in some islands  Encomienda: type of slavery, like serfs, areas conquered came with the people there o Those people do your work, you convert them and protect them o Protection and salvation for labor 1/29/16 Aztec Society  Good soldiers  Conquer Native Americans  Moctezuma II- Last Aztec emperor- 1502 o Absolute ruler in absolute luxury and splendor o Seen as a demi-god  Thought they were living at the end of an era and thought to continue to live meant they needed to sacrifice humans  Human sacrifice- Codex Laud: was seen as an honor, but most sacrifices were of captives  Hierarchy: emperor and royal family- emperor had one official wife and could have several mistresses. Heir was not first son, could pick from any male relative in the family. o Next is the nobles- sort of inherited o Trading class or Pochteca  Capitalist like  Allay to emperor o Commoners  Tight-knit communities o Slaves  Had some legal rights  Not inherited  Not for forever- might work off a debt, might be a captive then were a slave then eventually worked it off.  Kids had to go to school, but they were segregated o Different education for different roles  Women had more rights o Could own property o Work outside the home o Childbirth gave a warrior like status  Medicine o Equal to better than European medicine o Herbal remedies, setting bones, minor surgery  Cities o Tenochtitlan  Large as Paris, maples, Millan, and Venice  Had drainage, 1000 men a day cleaned the streets and threw it in the lakes.  People bathed Spanish Explorers  Hernan Cortez o Lands on east side of Mexico in 1519 o In 2 years he overthrows the Aztec Empire o Had superior weapons to the Aztec, Spanish War Horses, o Bureaucracy acted too slow to fight back and it was too late for them to do anything o Had backing of the Indian people because they didn’t want to be under the Aztec Empire.  Number one Reason: Disease- Smallpoxth o February- August of 1521, 4/5 of the population is wiped out o Almost completely destroyed  Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca o Expedition to Florida o Search for wealth, took natives for captive, Nervias leaves behind Cabeza de Vaca and his men there. o Kill their horses and make boats out of the hides of them. Made 5 boats, tried to sail back to Mexico o 4/5 boats are destroyed- hurricane season o Last boat lands around Galveston, Texas- Cabeza de Vaca was on that boat o Taken as prisoners, escape and roam all over modern day Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico area. Took 10 years to get back, during this got to know Native Americans as People, even helps them  Took an arrow out of a shoulder, prays and he is healed  Natives see him as a friend and Holy Man  Become equals o Rescued by the Spanish by finding a search party looking for slaves. Wrote a book that they were good people and should be respected. o Told stories he heard from the Natives of the 7 cities of gold. French  Didn’t do so well  First colony created by French protestants: Hugenots  Hoped they could create a religious refuge in America  1562- 150 protestants from Normandy, Francis landed on Parris Island o Starving, rescued by a British ship  1564- Fort Caroline near Jacksonville, Florida- Spanish were there already o Spanish Catholics attack Fort Caroline o Build Fort at Saint Augustine- oldest European occupied city in America to make a statement- Florida is ours  Fishermen- fished off eastern Canadian coast  Everyone is looking for the Northwest Passage- water route that goes across the country  Jacques Cartier o Explore St. Lawrence water area- claims it for France- used for trade, better relationship with the Natives


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