HIST 150 Week 3
HIST 150 Week 3 Hist 150-002
Popular in U.S. History to 1876
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Popular in History
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Kendall on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 150-002 at Colorado State University taught by Tracy L Brady in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see U.S. History to 1876 in History at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
2/1/16 Early English Efforts of Colonization Queen Elizabeth I Interest was to break the Spanish monopoly trade in the Americas. They wanted some of it too 1562- John Hawkins begins the English involvement in African slave trade o Takes slaves to Caribbean to trade for goods to bring back, illegal and Spanish see it as a violation of space o Spanish attack him- gives English excuse to attack Spanish “Sea Dogs”- The English- pirates o Francis Drake Put together a boat with a few thousand pounds- returned with millions o Profitable attacks on Spanish ships Decided colonies are good o Could be bases to then use for attacking the Spanish o Provide markets for English goods Begin plantations and make own goods there Won’t need to depend on Asian trade and Spanish goods o Send people over- get rid of excess population o Early attempts were failures Roanoke Established by Sir Walter Raleigh Wealthy adventurer- goes scouting for colonies, lands in Virginia Populated by very “handsome and goodly people” Chief- Wingina o Saw them as a good ally Calls the colony Virginia- named after the “virgin queen” Thomas Harriot and John White – found local assistants or guides Manteo and Wanchese o Explored and mapped area o Friends and respected each other o Manteo from Croatan- liked the English, Wanchese from Roanoke- thought the English were brutal and could cause great harm; wanchese was right- English stole, wanted money, relied on the Algonkian/ Algonquin natives to do everything, started kidnapping Indian women 1587- Sir Walter decides to send another group back o Send families whom want to be good people o Have to live with consequences of the people prior to them o Wanchese leads attacks on new settlers, Manteo stayed friendly, became a Christian wanted to help. o John White goes back to England to get help- delayed 3 years from war with Spain- comes back in 1590- colonists are not there including his family o First English baby born in America- Virginia Dare- Whites granddaughter o Finds a tree that has “Croatan” carved on it- decides to find them o Had to go back to England o Lost Colony of Roanoke- still don’t know what happened to the people Spanish Colonies of Inclusion Lots of intermarrying Natives are at bottom of caste system but are still important part English Colonies of Exclusion Very little intermarriage Brought over families and married other English people Natives rarely used as a labor source Natives were not much part of their society King James I 1607- decide to try and do colonies again Allows the issuing English charters “Joint Stock Companies” o Group of wealthy investors decide they want to invest in a new colony with shares they sell to have people go over and find wealth in the new world and the investors will get a dividend of those profits o Virginia Company- send people to Chesapeake Bay area to start a colony/ fort Named Jamestown- first permeant English settlement in North America o 20,000 natives living there- chief Powhatan confronts them, was warry of them due to what the Spanish did earlier Decides to take a chance and use the English as a way to get more power use their technology and gain more for his people Pocahantas o John Smith is captured in 1607, have a large feast, then Powhatan decides he wants to kill him o 11 year old Pocahantas ran in front and hugged him to “protect him” Feast is looked at as a ritual to adopt him into their community and declare power and show what they can do but will show mercy Show dominance Marries an English man and goes to England, dies of smallpox Powhatan helped English not starve to death first few winters 1609- English later start having raids on native supplies- Powhatan decides to cut the English off, they almost starve to death English aren’t completely lazy, but lots of people die- no reason people should have died o People didn’t plant enough o Survived by cannibalism by the English Man kills wife and uses her in a barrel and eats her- eventually executed English might have died from arsenic poisoning- rat problem, food got contaminated Salt poisoning- there was a drought, crops didn’t do as well; people ingested too much Spanish might have poisoned them Possibly a plague- poor burial caused it Discover that North American Tobacco crossed with East Indian Tobacco grows really well in Virginia- Everyone was smoking except King James- thought it was gross o Provides money to finally go back to Virginia Company o Wore out the soil, needed to expand for more soil o Labor intensive- lack of it in area, try indentured slaves, eventually use African slaves 2/3/16 Opecancanough Successor of Powhatan Virginia goes bankrupt, and is declared a Royal Colony by the king. 1645- Opecancanough is captured and executed, puts an end to the fighting in that area. The rest of the Algonquin are given small reservations to live in o Today people can trace their lineage back to Powhatan New Mexico 1598- Juan de Onate leads an expedition from San Juan Pueblo to Mexico City Spanish wealthy man looking for wealth Meets pueblo people- each time he does he plants a flag and a cross and declares to the people that they are now subjects of the Spanish Crown and Pope People mostly cooperate Acoma Pueblo fight back when Spanish ask them to bow down. o They kill some of the Spanish, soldiers come back o Onate sends soldiers and there is a 3 day battle St. James the Apostle or Santiago o Acoma people ask where is the guy who helped you win with the flaming sword and appeared when you were losing o Just the Indians saw him, Spanish think it’s a miracle o Spanish think God is on their side for their mission Amputated one foot of every surviving soldier, enslaved others; did it to send a message Onate is recalled in 1606 by Franciscans for not finding the wealth Pueblo man asked why we would want to be Christians if you’re so mean and bad. In 1609 capitol of Santa Fe is founded San Miguel Church, Santa Fe- oldest church in US People would outwardly accept Catholicism to make church and crown happy, but would quietly practice it- not really converted o Kids were more easily converted Monks were celibate, so since that was considered to be a part of being human they were not seen as human o Acoma people thought it was weird to be baptized, called them wet heads o Thought it was weird that monks whipped themselves Franciscans thought that the pueblo people were worshipping the devil since they would go underground, they would punish them for doing it Encomienda system- burden of heavy labor to take care of the lord and his stuff and the pueblo peoples stuff. Lord is supposed to protect them There’s a drought, Spanish aren’t protecting them from other tribes, and by 1680 the pueblo people are going to revolt Pueblo Revolt of 1680 Popé or Popay o Had been whipped publically o Possibly mixed ancestry 3 language groups coordinated a simultaneous uprising in august of 1680 All Franciscan missionaries are killed, would specifically disrespect the church 400 killed, survivors slip away in the night and flew to El Paso, Texas Pope declares a decree to get rid of everything Spanish, has them wash off their baptism in the Rio Grande river, people give up Christianity, you could give up a name if it was given to you People didn’t want to get rid of the animals, plants, goods etc., Pope is deposed after a few years 1692 Spanish come back. Spanish Crown gives the Pueblo people a royal title to their land- Historians think that has helped them hang onto their land today. Spanish and Pueblo people agree to coexist and be good Catholics and go to mass, but church agrees that they will not interfere with their native practices in kivas Spanish abolish encomienda system because they are going to need each other against the Apache, Navajo, and Comanche people Spanish think the outside groups- Navajo, Apache, and Comanche- are fair game to conquer in their Holy War, to use as slaves etc. Samuel de Champlain (1609-1616) Québec- established for Royal Canadian Fur Co. in 1608 Huron Indians and Iroquois Confederacy o Get fur trade by talking, living, marrying, and learning from each other In 1673, Jesuit priest Jacques Marquette and fur trader Louis Joliet located the Mississippi river 2/5/16 Jesuits in Canada Catholics interested in converting the natives Didn’t demand that the Indians give up their native religion and tried to find similarities between the two religions Had intermarriage and communities of inclusion o Métis: children from intermarriages Grew enough food for themselves, but it was hard to do much more that far north. Hard to keep men there on a farm because of and fur trade etc, slowed down the colony Robert La Salle o By 1681 him and René-Robert Cavalier had gone to the Gulf of Mexico and claimed the Mississippi for France. Chesapeake Colony Maryland Calvert Family o Lords Baltimore- George o Had done favors for king o Gives him over 10 million acres in return even though they were catholic Catholic colony o Refugee to Catholics since the rest were Protestants persecuting Catholics. Same economy and problems as Virginia Indentured Servants: A way to “sell” yourself as a worker for a specific amount of time in return for passage to the New World o Sometimes unwilling- if you were convicted of a crime, pay a debt, etc. o ¾ of English immigrants come as indentured servants o The masters had to provide food, clothes, housing that were deemed adequate for their slaves. However they were given the minimum o Slaves not allowed to marry, travel, own property, females if they became pregnant had to make up the time they spent with their pregnancy. o Supposed to get Freedom Dues once done. Might be a new set of clothes, or tools, or a gun, or land if you were lucky. o 2/5 die before they finished their service, sometimes beat Canadians didn’t need much labor, they relied on trade First African slaves appear in 1619 in Chesapeake- took a long time because of the high mortality rate, they’re expensive Indentured slaves made the assumption that it’s ok to treat slaves not as humans, and that it’s ok to own slaves Everyday Life in Chesapeake More men than women Women could probably get married soon after getting there or if spouse dies o Gave women more power than normal o Women could keep property if husband died, but normally would have to give it to new husband o Women here started to keep property if they remarried Crude dwellings. No one invested in building a huge estate, their investing into their plantation and operations to get more money. Wanted to retire back to England Poor sense of community, people were spread out o Few schools, there was a government, no one concerned with public affairs- saw themselves still as Englishmen o Took longer for Chesapeake to create an American identity Puritanism Henry VIII unhappy with his marriages, takes England out of the catholic church John Calvin o Calvinists- wanted a clean break and purify the church of England from all the old Church of England customs o Predestination: god has known who will be saved and who won’t since the beginning of time. There’s no way to know which you are. There were signs from material success- if you had it, that meant God wanted you to have it o Put an emphasis to work hard and make something of yourself King James I abandons policy of religious tolerance Successor King Charles I is even more anti-puritan o Reason why puritans migrate Bubonic Plague and Native Americans 50-90% of Native American population in England died Early 1600s
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