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HIST 150 Week 3

by: Whitney Kendall

HIST 150 Week 3 Hist 150-002

Whitney Kendall

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Notes for week 3- Early English efforts of Colonization- Puritasm
U.S. History to 1876
Tracy L Brady
Class Notes
Hist 150, history, us
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Kendall on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 150-002 at Colorado State University taught by Tracy L Brady in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see U.S. History to 1876 in History at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 02/08/16
2/1/16 Early English Efforts of Colonization Queen Elizabeth I  Interest was to break the Spanish monopoly trade in the Americas. They wanted some of it too  1562- John Hawkins begins the English involvement in African slave trade o Takes slaves to Caribbean to trade for goods to bring back, illegal and Spanish see it as a violation of space o Spanish attack him- gives English excuse to attack Spanish  “Sea Dogs”- The English- pirates o Francis Drake  Put together a boat with a few thousand pounds- returned with millions o Profitable attacks on Spanish ships  Decided colonies are good o Could be bases to then use for attacking the Spanish o Provide markets for English goods  Begin plantations and make own goods there  Won’t need to depend on Asian trade and Spanish goods o Send people over- get rid of excess population o Early attempts were failures Roanoke  Established by Sir Walter Raleigh  Wealthy adventurer- goes scouting for colonies, lands in Virginia  Populated by very “handsome and goodly people”  Chief- Wingina o Saw them as a good ally  Calls the colony Virginia- named after the “virgin queen”  Thomas Harriot and John White – found local assistants or guides Manteo and Wanchese o Explored and mapped area o Friends and respected each other o Manteo from Croatan- liked the English, Wanchese from Roanoke- thought the English were brutal and could cause great harm; wanchese was right- English stole, wanted money, relied on the Algonkian/ Algonquin natives to do everything, started kidnapping Indian women  1587- Sir Walter decides to send another group back o Send families whom want to be good people o Have to live with consequences of the people prior to them o Wanchese leads attacks on new settlers, Manteo stayed friendly, became a Christian wanted to help. o John White goes back to England to get help- delayed 3 years from war with Spain- comes back in 1590- colonists are not there including his family o First English baby born in America- Virginia Dare- Whites granddaughter o Finds a tree that has “Croatan” carved on it- decides to find them o Had to go back to England o Lost Colony of Roanoke- still don’t know what happened to the people Spanish Colonies of Inclusion  Lots of intermarrying  Natives are at bottom of caste system but are still important part English Colonies of Exclusion  Very little intermarriage  Brought over families and married other English people  Natives rarely used as a labor source  Natives were not much part of their society King James I  1607- decide to try and do colonies again  Allows the issuing English charters “Joint Stock Companies” o Group of wealthy investors decide they want to invest in a new colony with shares they sell to have people go over and find wealth in the new world and the investors will get a dividend of those profits o Virginia Company- send people to Chesapeake Bay area to start a colony/ fort Named Jamestown- first permeant English settlement in North America o 20,000 natives living there- chief Powhatan confronts them, was warry of them due to what the Spanish did earlier  Decides to take a chance and use the English as a way to get more power use their technology and gain more for his people  Pocahantas o John Smith is captured in 1607, have a large feast, then Powhatan decides he wants to kill him o 11 year old Pocahantas ran in front and hugged him to “protect him”  Feast is looked at as a ritual to adopt him into their community and declare power and show what they can do but will show mercy  Show dominance  Marries an English man and goes to England, dies of smallpox  Powhatan helped English not starve to death first few winters  1609- English later start having raids on native supplies- Powhatan decides to cut the English off, they almost starve to death  English aren’t completely lazy, but lots of people die- no reason people should have died o People didn’t plant enough o Survived by cannibalism by the English  Man kills wife and uses her in a barrel and eats her- eventually executed  English might have died from arsenic poisoning- rat problem, food got contaminated  Salt poisoning- there was a drought, crops didn’t do as well; people ingested too much  Spanish might have poisoned them  Possibly a plague- poor burial caused it  Discover that North American Tobacco crossed with East Indian Tobacco grows really well in Virginia- Everyone was smoking except King James- thought it was gross o Provides money to finally go back to Virginia Company o Wore out the soil, needed to expand for more soil o Labor intensive- lack of it in area, try indentured slaves, eventually use African slaves 2/3/16 Opecancanough  Successor of Powhatan  Virginia goes bankrupt, and is declared a Royal Colony by the king.  1645- Opecancanough is captured and executed, puts an end to the fighting in that area.  The rest of the Algonquin are given small reservations to live in o Today people can trace their lineage back to Powhatan New Mexico  1598- Juan de Onate leads an expedition from San Juan Pueblo to Mexico City  Spanish wealthy man looking for wealth  Meets pueblo people- each time he does he plants a flag and a cross and declares to the people that they are now subjects of the Spanish Crown and Pope  People mostly cooperate  Acoma Pueblo fight back when Spanish ask them to bow down. o They kill some of the Spanish, soldiers come back o Onate sends soldiers and there is a 3 day battle  St. James the Apostle or Santiago o Acoma people ask where is the guy who helped you win with the flaming sword and appeared when you were losing o Just the Indians saw him, Spanish think it’s a miracle o Spanish think God is on their side for their mission  Amputated one foot of every surviving soldier, enslaved others; did it to send a message  Onate is recalled in 1606 by Franciscans for not finding the wealth  Pueblo man asked why we would want to be Christians if you’re so mean and bad.  In 1609 capitol of Santa Fe is founded  San Miguel Church, Santa Fe- oldest church in US  People would outwardly accept Catholicism to make church and crown happy, but would quietly practice it- not really converted o Kids were more easily converted  Monks were celibate, so since that was considered to be a part of being human they were not seen as human o Acoma people thought it was weird to be baptized, called them wet heads o Thought it was weird that monks whipped themselves  Franciscans thought that the pueblo people were worshipping the devil since they would go underground, they would punish them for doing it  Encomienda system- burden of heavy labor to take care of the lord and his stuff and the pueblo peoples stuff. Lord is supposed to protect them  There’s a drought, Spanish aren’t protecting them from other tribes, and by 1680 the pueblo people are going to revolt Pueblo Revolt of 1680  Popé or Popay o Had been whipped publically o Possibly mixed ancestry  3 language groups coordinated a simultaneous uprising in august of 1680  All Franciscan missionaries are killed, would specifically disrespect the church  400 killed, survivors slip away in the night and flew to El Paso, Texas  Pope declares a decree to get rid of everything Spanish, has them wash off their baptism in the Rio Grande river, people give up Christianity, you could give up a name if it was given to you  People didn’t want to get rid of the animals, plants, goods etc., Pope is deposed after a few years  1692 Spanish come back.  Spanish Crown gives the Pueblo people a royal title to their land- Historians think that has helped them hang onto their land today.  Spanish and Pueblo people agree to coexist and be good Catholics and go to mass, but church agrees that they will not interfere with their native practices in kivas  Spanish abolish encomienda system because they are going to need each other against the Apache, Navajo, and Comanche people  Spanish think the outside groups- Navajo, Apache, and Comanche- are fair game to conquer in their Holy War, to use as slaves etc. Samuel de Champlain (1609-1616)  Québec- established for Royal Canadian Fur Co. in 1608  Huron Indians and Iroquois Confederacy o Get fur trade by talking, living, marrying, and learning from each other  In 1673, Jesuit priest Jacques Marquette and fur trader Louis Joliet located the Mississippi river 2/5/16 Jesuits in Canada  Catholics interested in converting the natives  Didn’t demand that the Indians give up their native religion and tried to find similarities between the two religions  Had intermarriage and communities of inclusion o Métis: children from intermarriages  Grew enough food for themselves, but it was hard to do much more that far north.  Hard to keep men there on a farm because of and fur trade etc, slowed down the colony  Robert La Salle o By 1681 him and René-Robert Cavalier had gone to the Gulf of Mexico and claimed the Mississippi for France. Chesapeake Colony  Maryland  Calvert Family o Lords Baltimore- George o Had done favors for king o Gives him over 10 million acres in return even though they were catholic  Catholic colony o Refugee to Catholics since the rest were Protestants persecuting Catholics.  Same economy and problems as Virginia  Indentured Servants: A way to “sell” yourself as a worker for a specific amount of time in return for passage to the New World o Sometimes unwilling- if you were convicted of a crime, pay a debt, etc. o ¾ of English immigrants come as indentured servants o The masters had to provide food, clothes, housing that were deemed adequate for their slaves. However they were given the minimum o Slaves not allowed to marry, travel, own property, females if they became pregnant had to make up the time they spent with their pregnancy. o Supposed to get Freedom Dues once done. Might be a new set of clothes, or tools, or a gun, or land if you were lucky. o 2/5 die before they finished their service, sometimes beat  Canadians didn’t need much labor, they relied on trade  First African slaves appear in 1619 in Chesapeake- took a long time because of the high mortality rate, they’re expensive  Indentured slaves made the assumption that it’s ok to treat slaves not as humans, and that it’s ok to own slaves Everyday Life in Chesapeake  More men than women  Women could probably get married soon after getting there or if spouse dies o Gave women more power than normal o Women could keep property if husband died, but normally would have to give it to new husband o Women here started to keep property if they remarried  Crude dwellings. No one invested in building a huge estate, their investing into their plantation and operations to get more money. Wanted to retire back to England  Poor sense of community, people were spread out o Few schools, there was a government, no one concerned with public affairs- saw themselves still as Englishmen o Took longer for Chesapeake to create an American identity Puritanism  Henry VIII unhappy with his marriages, takes England out of the catholic church  John Calvin o Calvinists- wanted a clean break and purify the church of England from all the old Church of England customs o Predestination: god has known who will be saved and who won’t since the beginning of time. There’s no way to know which you are. There were signs from material success- if you had it, that meant God wanted you to have it o Put an emphasis to work hard and make something of yourself  King James I abandons policy of religious tolerance  Successor King Charles I is even more anti-puritan o Reason why puritans migrate Bubonic Plague and Native Americans  50-90% of Native American population in England died  Early 1600s 


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