HIST10 WK 5 lecture notes
HIST10 WK 5 lecture notes Hist 10
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christien Ng on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 10 at University of California Riverside taught by Steve Chrissanthos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
The Fall of the Republic Tuesday, February 2, 2016 1:45 PM 1st Triumvirate 60BC Ca. Pompey Magnus M.Licinnius Crassus C.Juilius Caesar 59 Gaul 58-50 Julia 54 Parthia/Carrhae 53 Civil War #2 49-45 Pharsalus 48 Ptolemy XIII Cleopatra Caesarion M.Junius Brutus C.CassiusConginus Ides 3/15/44 M.Antonius C.Octavius Philippi 42 Actium 31 Republic 509-31BC Empire 31BC 60BC • Political alliance called the 1st Triumvirate was formed ○ Consisted of 3 Roman senators: 60BC • Political alliance called the 1st Triumvirate was formed ○ Consisted of 3 Roman senators: § Gnaeus Pompey Magnus □ Rome's most successful general § Marcus Licinius Crassus □ Rome's wealthiest man § Caius Julius Caesar • Typical of Roman politics; no republicans/democrats • Senators helped each other out • Pompey and Crassus help Julius Caesar get elected in 59BC ○ They believed Caesar could get things done § Caesar would prove this by passing favorable laws to his allies § Once he had helped Crassus and Pompey, he needed to worry about his future § Caesar passes a law that makes him governor of 2 Roman provinces: Southern France & Northern Italy • All Roman governors wanted their own province • They could do anything to that province ○ Usually extort as much money as possible • They were given an army to keep the locals under control ○ This army could be used to conquer new territory 58BC • Caesar leaves for his provinces and almost immediately invades Gaul • Spends 8yrs campaigning in Gaul • Conquers all of Gaul by 50BC • Gallic War • As a result of these conquests, ○ Caesar was now incredibly rich ○ He had developed into a great general ○ He was now Rome's most popular general ○ By 50BC, Caesar has a large, wltrained, experienced army § The soldiers are super loyal • During this decade, these 3 men continue to work together; by the end of the decade, the alliance begins to fall apart • The first cause happened in5 4 when Julia(Caesar's daughter and only child) dies in childbirth ○ Julia was married to Pompey § Most marriages in the upper classes were often arrangements § When alliance broke up, usually the marriage broke up as well § But this was different because the two actually fell in love • The first cause happened in5 4 when Julia(Caesar's daughter and only child) dies in childbirth ○ Julia was married to Pompey § Most marriages in the upper classes were often arrangements § When alliance broke up, usually the marriage broke up as well § But this was different because the two actually fell in love § But then she dies in childbirth; so does the baby § This removes a very important link bt Caesar and Pompey 53BC • Crassus becomes jealous of the military success achieved by both Caesar and Pompey • He wants his shot at military glory • He leads an invasion of the empire of rthia 53BC • Defeated in Battle of arrhae and is captured and killed; head was chopped off and used as a prop in a play 2 guys left: Caesar and Pompey • Pompey grows increasingly jealous of Caesar's rising fame • Pompey had been Rome's most famous general, now it is Caesar 49BC • Pompey joins with the senate in an attempt to bring Caesar down • Pompey issues Caesar to give up his provinces and his army; give up his power • Unwilling to accept defeat • Rather than give in, Caesar starts a civil war to protect his power ○ Because of Marius, the soldiers are more loyal to Caesar than the senate ○ This is Rome's second civil war • The senate is shocked that Caesar started a civil war; they thought he would give in because Caesar only had one army, the senate and Pompey had 4 (in greece, turkey, north africa, spain; however no army in italy) • When Caesar attacks, he takes them by surprise and causes them to flee to Greece where their army is at • Caesar doesn't go down without a fight 48BC • Caesar takes his army to Greece to confront Pompey and the senate • The Battle of Pharsalusis fought ○ Caesar defeats Pompey and the senate ○ Pompey is forced to flee; he goes to Egypt instead of one of his other armies § (Independent) Egypt is the last surviving Hellenistic kingdom § The king of Egypt at this time wP tolemy XIII § Ptolemy knew Egypt was weak against Rome § He did not want an excuse for them to come and attack Egypt ○ He heard what happened at Pharsalus and correctly guessed that Caesar is taking over the Roman Empire ○ Once Pompey lands in Egypt, he is assassinated by Ptolemy's agents § The king of Egypt at this time wP tolemy XIII § Ptolemy knew Egypt was weak against Rome § He did not want an excuse for them to come and attack Egypt He heard what happened at Pharsalus and correctly guessed that Caesar ○ is taking over the Roman Empire ○ Once Pompey lands in Egypt, he is assassinated by Ptolemy's agents ○ Caesar arrives in Egypt and Ptolemy gives Caesar the head of Pompey thinking it would make him happy because his enemy was dead ○ He is not happy; he claimed he wanted to spare Pompey ○ Caesar is now so mad, he kicks Ptolemy off the throne of Egypt ○ Ptolemy disappears a short time later ○ With Ptolemy out, Caesar puts Ptolemy's sister, the famul opatra, on the throne of Egypt § At the age of 19, she becomes queen of Egypt • Before Caesar returns to the civil war, he starts seeing Cleopatra; bf/gf ○ Eventually she gives birth to a baby boy naPst olemyCaesarion (Caesar's only child and only son; future king of Egypt) 45BC • Caesar wins the civil war • He returns to Rome • Makes himself dictator for 10yrs • Claimed he would fix the republic and then he would step down FEB 44BC • Makes himself dictator for life • Becomes clear that Caesar has no intention of giving up absolute power • Rumors around Rome say that Caesar had intentions of making himself "Rex"/King of Rome, divorce his Roman wife, marry Cleopatra and make her his queen, and then leave the whole world to their son • Not surprisingly, the senators did not want to see this happen; because if Rome becomes a monarchy, the Republic will not be restored, ○ A conspiracy is formed to kill Caesar, led by Marcus Junius Brutusand Caius CassiusConginus ○ They led a conspiracy to kill Caesar even though they were good friends ○ They decided in order for the Republic to live, Caesar had to die 44BC • The Idesof March ○ The senate was to meet in the theatre of Pompei just outside the city ○ Caesar enters the senate meeting alone w no bodyguards ○ When he enters the senate, he is confronted by Brutus, Cassius and the others ○ They pull out knives and stab Caesar to death • After Caesar was killed, they all run to the form, still holding the knives covered in Caesar's blood and tell everyone that they have restored libertas (liberty) • At that moment, they realize they might've made a mistake; most of these ○ When he enters the senate, he is confronted by Brutus, Cassius and the others ○ They pull out knives and stab Caesar to death • After Caesar was killed, they all run to the form, still holding the knives covered in Caesar's blood and tell everyone that they have restored libertas (liberty) • At that moment, they realize they might've made a mistake; most of these people don't want the senate back in charge; they were happy under Caesar's rule • Instead of the expected celebrations, the people greet the news with cold silence. • Brutus, Cassius and the others eventually leave Rome and go out to the East The assassins having fled, the door was open for two of Rom's most famous characters: (Become very powerful very quickly) • Marcus Antonius (Marc Antoni) ○ Caesar's second in command ○ When Caesar was killed, Caesars most important supporters (soldiers) transfer their loyalty to him • Caius Octavius (Augustus) ○ Was only 18yrs old when Caesar was killed ○ Had no political/military experience but he was Caesar's closest male Roman relative; Caesar's great nephew § When Caesar's will was read, most of his wealth went to Octavius § Octavius was officially adopted as Caesar's son and nothing is left for Cleopatra or her son § Becomes powerful very quickly despite his youth • Eventually Antonius and Octavius join together and seize control of the Western half of the empire including Rome meanwhile Brutus, Cassius and the others had seized control of the Eastern side. 42BC • Battle of Philippi • Antonius and Octavius defeat the armies of Brutus, Crassus, and the other assassins ○ Brutus and Crassus commit suicide • Antonius and Octavius split the empire amongst themselves ○ Antonius takes East ○ Octavius takes West • Octavius gets power-hungry and wants to take Antonius's half ○ He wants to find a reason for war and Antonius provides many § After Philippi, Antonius heads to the East to rule his provinces and becomes reacquainted w Cleopatra and falls madly in love with her; so in love, Antonius divorces his Roman wife and marries Cleopatra □ Not acceptable behavior in Roman times to divorce and go marry a foreign woman § After Philippi, Antonius heads to the East to rule his provinces and becomes reacquainted w Cleopatra and falls madly in love with her; so in love, Antonius divorces his Roman wife and marries Cleopatra □ Not acceptable behavior in Roman times to divorce and go marry a foreign woman § What makes it even worse, Antonius's e-x ife is Octavia (Octavius's sister) § Cleopatra gives birth to twins: boy+ girl § Antonius declares that when he dies, all his land would go to his children and Cleopatra □ Unacceptable to give Roman property to be controlled by a foreign woman § Octavius starts a campaign against Cleopatra, calling her a monster/witch; and she had cast a spell over Antonius (how else would a Roman give away Roman property to foreign) □ He gets the crowd so fired up, he declares war on Cleopatra and Egypt bc he doesn’t want to make it look like a civil war bt Romans; he knows Antonius will step in and that is what he wants 31BC Battle of Actium § The navy of Octavius destroys the navy of Antonius and Cleopatra § They flee to Egypt § Antonius commits suicide § Cleopatra tries to make moves on Octavius; doesn’t work § Cleopatra commits suicide § As a result of Actium, Egypt became part of the Roman empire and he now rules all of Rome • Marks official end of the Republic and the beginning of the Empire ○ Difference: empire was a monarchy (rule by one man) • Octavius (Augustus) is known as Rome's first emperor
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