SOCY 305 Notes (2/2/16 - 2/4/16)
SOCY 305 Notes (2/2/16 - 2/4/16) SOCY 305 001
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SOCY 305 001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Lensch on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCY 305 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Jennifer M. Augustine in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Sociology of the Family in Sociology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Critical Perspectives on Family and Family Changes: The Role of Gender 4 Major historical movements that changed women's lives and gender relations in family: 1. First Wave Feminism 2. Expansion of labor market and its shifting foundation a. Education requirements increased in work force and pull factor of women into labor market 3. Advent of Birth Control a. Women could control fertility, pursue education, and get jobs (can delay getting married) 4. Second Wave Feminism a. Move for equality into workplace and in homefront b. Equality of opportunity 2 Major Demographic Changes 1. Dramatic rise in women's employment 2. Dramatic rise in women's education Particularly amongst married women and women with children 1970s-198s --> married women move into labor force (large group) Education Crossover in 1990s where women are pursuing a higher education Socioculture Factors Changed Women's Lives on a More Individual Level Sense of economic independence --> empowered women (sense of self-efficacy and plan for your future) New gender consciousness Gives you skills (communication) Changes the way you interact with people What Does this Mean for Family? Shifting foundations of marriage o Who marries o When they marry o Why they marry Rise in divorce; changing pattern of who divorces Delays and reductions in fertility Rise in cohabitation/alternative union Implications for How Women Subjectively Experience Family Life Way people experience their families (micro-level) Perceptions of your family life Reshaped the way men and women experienced their marital relationships How legitimate breadwinner model was for some time James Bernard (1972) => The Future of Marriage "2 marriages" His marriage Her marriage Different perceptions of how much domestic work each partner did Men are happier in their marriages than women are Men experience less depression and are psychologically healthier Men also experience a decrease in the risk of mortality Men were receiving different benefits in the relationship compared to women The Stalled Revolution Linked to Feminism Revolution => change in women's lives (working, higher education) What stalled? => gender roles in home Effect of Mismatch in Gender Ideologies: Unhappiness Tension Baggage Inequality in psychological root to their marriage Taking Care of Children In the Workforce Mother => gets penalty (children are her first priority) Father => gets bonus (makes him look extra committed to his job and has a sense of duty) Stay at Home Dad => assumptions that he is lazy and unemployed o Makes it hard for there to be a shift in gender responsibilities within the household "The Leisure Gap" Men have more leisure than women Men are doing less work around the house Mismatch in amount of leisure time Women continue to do more work around the house than men Arlie Hochschild The problem is reflected in the concept of" o "The second shift" Household duties Why does it occur? Gender role expectations mismatch Impact on families? Effects people's equality of life and experience of their marriage: Women depressed Men happy/healthy Di Leonardo Reading (1987) "Kin keeping" => type of family maintenance (sending out holiday cards, making phone calls, family dinners, celebrating holidays, basic family tie maintenance) o Something that women do because they are nurturing and family centered (considered as work) o It takes time, mental energy, work o Women are responsible o Reflects one domain of unpaid work relegated to females o Unrecognized form of work, extends outside of household, but still has to do with the family o Devalued o Effects women all over o You can outsource a lot of domestic roles, but you can't for this Why is this Important? Highlights tension between social changes and lack of change in family systems that have implications for men and women's family life, women's pursuit of equality and changes in family structure (i.e. divorce) more broadly Critical Perspectives on Family: Ethnicity 2 Themes of Literature Cultural practices associated with ethnic backgrounds organize dimensions of the family o Such as the importance of traditions, value systems Those practices and belief systems often contrast with norms of American family life o Contrast can be positive and negative o Asian-American family o Hispanic-American family Asian advantages => family life norms emphasize hard work, family involvement, and extremely high standards "Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother" (2011) by Amy Chua She talked about her Chinese heritage and the way it influenced her parenting choices: kids couldn't watch television, have sleepover, play computer games, and could only make As Reason why her children are so successful American Family Life Qualities Open/communication Affection Anti-authoritarianism (no physical punishment) => democratic relations Individual autonomy (space) Sentimental (celebrate birthdays and milestones) Supportive/sensitivity (talk about feelings) Openness Forgiving Emphasis on psychological well-being “Leave it to Beaver” (tv show) Idealized suburban family Openness Forgiving Supportive Sensitive More democracy Doesn’t represent the “real” family, it’s the ideal type of family (normative image/cultural ideal) Shapes our own interpretations of our own family life Confucianism Set of rules about how families behave towards one another o Respecting/caring for elders o Hierarchal relations o Responsibility o Obedience o Duty o Self-control over emotional expressiveness Show little emotion/affection Emphasis on education Reading => Pyke Interviews —> kids felt that emotional support was lacking and they talked with their parents mostly about school (offering instrumental support, such as finances and housing, rather than emotional support) Familism => collective needs of family come before individual needs of family -Positive aspects of Asian-American families: Elderly live with their families and are cared for In American families, elderly don’t live with their families because they are considered a burden Hispanic Family Life Family life —> cultural values and norms are both positive and negative implications for Hispanic-American families as well Idea/importance of familism is much greater in Hispanic families Average have increased fertility rates than other races because of idea of familism Mexican-American Health Paradox => life expectancy based on ethnicity, gender Hispanic women live longer than white and black females and males Hispanic males live longer than black females and males as well as white males o Makes sense because of emphasis on familism, negotiating conflict => less stress and more emotional support Immigrant kids —> 1st generation kids (behavioral problems) —> 2nd generation (more behavioral problems) 2nd generation kids more accumulated to American family lifestyle instead of familism Other Key Themes: Importance of: Socioeconomic circumstances Nativity (born in the US) and generation adaptation and accumulation Legal status
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