Man's Food (FOS2001) Module 2, Lesson 6/7
Man's Food (FOS2001) Module 2, Lesson 6/7 FOS 2001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Kairab on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FOS 2001 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Agata Kowalewska in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Man's Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Man's Food Module 6 - Water Key Terms • Intracellular Fluid Compartment fluids found inside the cell • Extracellular fluid compartment fluids found outside the cell • Interstitial fluids fluids found in between cells • Electrolytes charged ions that create an electrical current in solvents like water • Solvent the kind of liquids that substances dissolve in (water is universal solvent • Water balance equal amount of water leaving and entering the body • Insensible water loss water that the body loses through daily activity (ex/ sweat) • Dehydration state where there is not enough water in the body • Diuretics substances that make the body lose water (ex/ alcohol) • Osmosis a solvent moving from higher concentrated areas to lower concentrated areas to create balance • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) a hormone that makes the kidneys concentrate and reduce the volume of urine to bring down rates of water loss • Hyponatremia a condition where there is not enough sodium in the blood Compartmentalization • Compartments are in the body so that water can be controlled ◦ Water inside the cells (intracellular) makes up 50% of water in the body and holds potassium • Water outside body cells (extracellular) holds remaining water; holds sodium • Potassium and sodium work together to move water in and out of cells through "pump" system • Extracellular water had three subcompartments ◦ Intravascular (water in vascular system) • Water in blood vessels ◦ Extravascular (water outside vascular system) • Holds water surrounding the blood vessels ◦ Interstitial • Water surrounding and in between cells • 80% of extracellular cells Exchanges • Various body exchanges allow water to move through compartments • Water as a medium allows small molecules of nutrients to be transported • Specific exchanges ◦ Alveolar Air (lung) blood plasma, oxygen in/carbon dioxide out ◦ Blood plasma erythrocyte fluid oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other small molecules move in and out ◦ Blood plasma interstitial fluid water, carbon dioxide, inorganic ions, and small organic molecules move in and out ◦ Interstitial intracellular gases, water, and small organic molecules are exchanged Functions of water • Keeps bones healthy • Universal solvent most bodily nutrients are soluble in water; allows it to efficiently transport nutrients (the one nutrient not soluble in water is fat) • Biochemical reactions many biochemical reactions need water as a reactant (ex/ digestion water is needed to break bonds) • Lubricant helps moisturize skin and prevent heat damage etc. • Regulating body temperature we sweat so that our body can cool down; sweat evaporating off the skin takes heat with it Sources of water • Water comes from the foods we eat as well as the liquids we drink • Another source is metabolic water that is produced through the metabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins Water Balance • There has to be a balance of water going into and out of the body • Condition of edema ◦ Edema makes tissues swollen ◦ Water acts as a transport system that is a giveandtake; if it is not in balance then excessing fluid will move into tissues • Edema normally causes swelling in various parts of the body Maintaining water balance • Balance in regulated by changes in osmotic pressure ◦ Force that keeps water in the correct compartments • Osmotic pressure on one side of barrier and hydrostatic pressure on the other • Osmotic pressure ratio of concentrations of solutes to concentration of solutions • Change in osmotic pressure picked up by osmoreceptors in blood ◦ Signal the hypothalamus in the brain > signal pituitary gland (which determines whether to store or eliminate water) Dehydration • Natural water loss occurs through: ◦ Kidneys ◦ Skin ◦ Lungs ◦ Tear ducts of eyes ◦ Intestinal flu or diarrhea Preventing dehydration • Normally greatest percentage of water loss comes from exercise • To prevent dehydration ◦ 20 oz. of water 1015 minutes before exercise ◦ 46 oz. of water 1015 minutes after exercise ◦ 16 oz. of water for every pound of water lost during exercise Module 7 - Proteins Key terms • Acid group The COOH group that is part of every amino acid. • Amine group part of amino acid with nitrogen • Amino acid pools A limited supply of amino acids stored in your blood and cells that is used to build new proteins. • Amino acids The building blocks of protein containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. All amino acids are composed of an acid group, an amine group, and a unique side chain. • Catalysts Substances that speed up reactions in your body without being changed, damaged, or used up. • Coenzymes Substances that are needed by enzymes to perform many chemical reactions in the body. • Collagen A ropelike, fibrous protein that is the most abundant protein in the body. • Connective tissues Tissues that support and connect body parts and provide protection and insulation. • Denatured The alteration of a protein’s shape, which changes the structure and function of the protein. • DNA The blueprint in cells that stores all genetic information. DNA remains in the nucleus of the cell and directs the synthesis of proteins. • Enzymes substances that act like catalysts and speed up reactions in body • Gene a DNA segment that codes for a specific protein • Peptide bonds bonds that connect amino acids • Precursor substance that comes before a step or reaction and converted to another substance in the body • Protein turnover continual process of degrading and synthesizing protein • Proteins compounds that are polymers of amino acids and are in all living cells • RNA A molecule that carries out orders of DNA • Sicklecell anemia blood disorder caused by a genetic defect in development in hemoglobin • Side chain side group of an amino acid that provides with unique qualities • Urea nitrogencontaining waste product that is excreted in urine Amino acids • Proteins are made of long chains of amino acids (made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen) • Amino acids bind in various combinations • Muscle has unique shape >proteins make up "structural functional relationships" in the body How proteins are made • DNA is a genetic indicator that has template to making protein ◦ RNA copies the DNA template • Messenger RNA signals the transport RNA to bring in individual amino acids • Three different codons represent 20+ amino acids ◦ Purpose is to indicate structural position of each amino acids • Amino acids are added to the chain at their appropriate structural positions ◦ Process continues until the protein is done Structure of Proteins • Proteins are formed in a threedimensional structure • Specific structure of proteins have 4 types ◦ Primary • Amino acid backbone • Forming starts with first amino acid and then moves on • Dictates what will happen through all the other types ◦ Secondary ◦ Tertiary ◦ Quaternary Secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures • Secondary ◦ Twisting of the protein ◦ Protein begins to twist on itself (hydrogen bond) ◦ Has three substructures • Helix, sheeting, and random coiling • Tertiary ◦ Molecule fold to make threedimensional shape ◦ Includes interaction of amino acid side groups that cause the molecule to twist and bend ◦ Drive it to a functional shape • Quaternary ◦ Two or more protein molecules interact to make one functional protein ◦ Ex/ hemoglobin ◦ Not all proteins have a quaternary structure Function of proteins • Muscle fibers • Bones and teeth • Elastin and collagen • Skin • Hair • Nails • Blood vessels • All enzymes are protein • Proteins regulates actions within the body Dietary requirements • World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that men and women obtain % of their calories as protein (approx. 38 grams for a man burning 3,000 calories/day and 29 grams for woman burning 2,300 calories/day) • Studies show that adult women have 46 grams of protein/day and adult men have 58 grams/day Measuring proteins • Protein quality can be measured with protein efficiency ratio (PER) technique Types of vegetarian diets • Strict vegan eats only plant material/foods of plant origins • Selective vegetarian eats plant material and selectively chosen meat • Lactoovo vegetarian eats plant material, eggs, and dairy products • Fruitarian eats only fruits, nuts, oil, honey ◦ This diet makes it difficulty to meet body's protein requirement Dietary risks and benefits • Risks ◦ Lack of quality protein ◦ Body not getting enough vitamin B12, calcium, iron, zinc ◦ Plant toxicants • Benefits ◦ Lower risk of heart disease and some cancers because let fat content ◦ Economical for environment because food takes less energy to produce ◦ Diet results in a list of food that is almost identical to USDA recommendations for a healthy diet • Mitigation ◦ Eat a variety of foods to ensure the body has enough protein ◦ Search for plant foods in these minerals, or supplement the diet with vitamins ◦ Be knowledgeable about cooking requirements for plant foods Protein deficiencies • Lack of protein = protein deficiency • If malnutrition becomes starvation, then the body breaks down everything to maintain energy balance • Incaparina is a product developed to fight malnutrition when there is not enough protein Consequence of proteinless diets • Essential amino acids are needed in protein synthesis ◦ Synthesis stops if not enough amino acids • Some symptoms if there are not enough quality proteins ◦ Brittle hair/nails ◦ Fatigue ◦ Flaky skin ◦ Cuts that will not heal
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