Week 2 Notes Complete
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jorge Solorzano on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at a university taught by Dr. Bettina Arnold Anthropology 101 Introduction to anthropology in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
2-3-16 1. 252 m.y.a. life on earth almost died a. >90% of life on earth almost died i. Permian Period (290-248 m.y.a.) 2. Modification to Darwinian Evolution a. ****Punctuated Equilibria **** i. Periods of gradual evolutionary change interrupted by periods of rapid change & sudden appearance of new species ii. Niles Eldridge, Stephen J. Gould 1. Evolution is not always slow and steady 2. Simple opportunity determines rate of change iii. Rate of evolutionary Change Depends on (Darwin) 1. Environment 2. Internal Variability 3. Today a. Stasis i. No change b. Anagenesis i. Slow gradual change over long period of time c. Cladogenesis i. Relatively rapid change 1. Resulting in appearance of new species 2. Extinction is the driving force behind cladogenisis 4. Basic Duality of life a. Economic i. Food ii. If an adaptation works in economic terms, it will be recorded in reproductive terms b. Genealogical i. Sex c. Evolutionary change usually entails a modification of the adaptations for living, due to a changing environment i. Mammals experienced adaptive radiation 64 m.y.a. 1. A process in which organisms diversify rapidly due to a change in environment making more resources available 2. Not because they were an improvement 3. Because they were preadapted to occupy altered environment after the dinosaurs a. Cretaceous Period i. Dinosaur World 2-1-16 1. Malthaus + Time + Darwin’s observations + Natural Selection a. Key Elements i. Increasingly scarce resources ii. Competition iii. Differential Reproductive Success iv. Transmission of Only a selection of genetic traits 1. Particular set of behavioral/physical traits, will lead to better success v. Preservation of favorable variations, removal of unfavorable ones from the gene pool vi. Speciation 1. Due to geographic/reproductive isolation 2. Darwin’s Dilema (1836-1858) a. Publication of the Origin of the Species b. Darwins Contributions i. Importance of individuals (on exam) 1. Individuals able or not to reproduce 2. Natural selection operates on individuals, favorably or unfavorably, but it is population that evolves. a. Individual= unit of natural selection b. Population= unit of evolution ii. Variability is Key 1. Some are polytypic a. Lots of variability b. Significant external, morphological, variability in such species main obstacle is reproduction i. No genetic incompability 3. Gregor Mandel (1822-1884) a. How does variation appear in populations in the first place? i. Darwin could not answer this b. “Principles of Inheritance” i. All traits Mendel study were luckily monogenic 1. Discrete traits, coded for by a single gene o a single chromosome 2. Also referred to as a. Mendelian Traits ii. Particulate nature of genes 1. Expressed or Suppressed a. Will you see the trait or not? i. Dominant or Recessive 4. Evolution Today: Synthetic Model a. Darwin/Wallace Theory of Natural Selection b. Mendels Principle of inheritance c. Modern Genetics i. Discovery of DNA in 1962 d. Key Concepts 2-1-16 i. Classification System ii. Role of extinction in evolution iii. Rate of evolutionary change 5. Classification a. Organizational system, standardized to recognize living beings i. Based on comparison of series of objects according to shared or different characteristics ii. Both morphological and behavior 1. observable b. Organize information consistently and able to be universal i. How much variability is enough to justify defining a new species? 1. Lumpers a. Fewer categories, more members to category 2. Splitters a. More categories, fewer members to category c. Phylogenies i. Genetic-species family tree ii. Representations of evolutionary changes in a species iii. Evolutionary change graph/picture iv. Behavior does not fossilize 1. Makes it difficult d. Binomial Nomenclature i. Car von Linne (1707-1778) 1. Also Carolous Linnaeus ii. Classification System of the Ideal type 1. Homo Sapiens Sapiens 2. Genus Species Subspecies iii. Species are able to procreate or “interbreed” 6. Extinction and Evolution a. Extinction accelerates evolution i. Driving force behind evolution? ii. No single Phenomenon is responsible for evolution 1. Gene Mutation 2. Species Isolation 3. Natural Selection 4. Genetic Drift 5. Extinction a. Produces valuable commodity of more ecological space within which these forces can operate
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