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BIOL120 Week 1 Notes

by: Julia Delaluz

BIOL120 Week 1 Notes Biol 120-001

Julia Delaluz
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These notes cover everything we have learned in class from 1/29 to 2/5. I will be uploading this week's notes at the end of the week, along with a detailed study guide for the first exam.
General Biology
Prof Partain
Class Notes
BIOL120, Biology, Principles of biology, Dr. Partain, towson
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Delaluz on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 120-001 at Towson University taught by Prof Partain in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Towson University.

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Date Created: 02/08/16
BIOL 120 (Principles of Biology) Week 1 Notes (1/29/16 ­ 2/5/16) By: Julia Delaluz What Is Biology?  The Study Of Life  What Is Life? o Individuals:  1. Organized cells/molecules – taxonomy 2. Get/use energy 3. Genetics information, DNA/inheritance 4. Continuity­ same molecules­ unity of origin 5. Reproduce­ sexual/asexual 6. Homeostasis o Groups: 7. Diversity 8. Evolution How Scientists Figure Things Out 1. Observation: initially, scientists make an observation that leads them to… 2. Hypothesis: a question that you want to answer  It must be testable and falsifiable  3 .     Experiment: set of actions/observations designed to test a hypothesis  Manipulating the environment one variable at a time  Helps determine what specific variable is involved o Control:  For unbiased results, use controlled experiments  Control is the subject or group similar to experimental group,  except the control doesn’t get the experimental treatment  Other possibilities:  Eliminates as many alternative hypothesizes as possible  Random assignments, no systematic differences  Double­Blind Experiment 4. Collect Data: info collected by scientists during hypothesis testing  Statistics: summary of accumulative data o Determines significance of results, doesn’t tell if experiment is valid o It will determine if it is ‘statistically significant’ which means it  represents the true difference  Result may be very unlikely due to chance difference between  groups  Sample size: the bigger it is, more likely you will see true  effects 5. Determine Results: hypothesis is either supported or rejected BIOL 120 (Principles of Biology) Week 1 Notes (1/29/16 ­ 2/5/16) By: Julia Delaluz  Can never be 100% sure  But, you can gather enough evidence to determine whether the hypothesis is  reasonably true  “Truth” in science: What we know and understand based on all available  information o even so, we do not say the hypothesis is ever ‘true’ o Examples of hypotheses that are not easily testable:  Dinosaurs (other methods: carbon dating, fossils) Correlation Studies  Placebo treatments are impractical or unethical in many cases  Generated by scientists who collected data on subjects’ psychological state levels  before giving them nasal drops containing cold virus  For human studies Scientific Theory  Can explain how the natural world works  Scientific theory: if an idea has an abundance of evidence, it may be called this o Well­supported by observation and experiment from several different,  independent lines of research Nonscientific Theory  In common speech, theory is the same as hypothesis­ an untested idea  The Germ Theory of Disease o 1800s­ scientists noted relationship between disease and specific micro­ organisms o since then, many experiments and observations all support the idea that  micro­organisms cause disease o Primary Sources: Publishing Scientific Results­ online, news articles, etc. Unscientific Information  Anecdotal: based on actual experience, not experimental data o Ex: a lot of media and public websites o Remember to use valid sites (.gov, .edu, etc.) BIOL 120 (Principles of Biology) Week 1 Notes (1/29/16 ­ 2/5/16) By: Julia Delaluz Water  Water is a polar molecule o Hydrogen bonding btw water molecules­ polarity­ drawn together o Hydrogen bonding is a very weak molecular bond  Polar:  has an  asymmetrical  distribution of electrical charge. These molecules (glucose) will dissolve readily in water  Non Polar: symmetrical distribution of electrical charge. These (lipids) will not dissolve in water  Hydrophobic: compounds that do NOT dissolve readily in water (oil)  Hydrophilic: DOES dissolve readily in water (salt) o Hydrogen bonds form, breaking the ionic bond  Amphathic: molecule having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions Physical Properties of Water 1. Water is liquid at moderate temperatures  a. Most other substances with molecules that size are gases 2. Cohere (stick to each other) creating surface tension 3. Adhere (cling to other substances, wetting them) 4. Universal Solvent: dissolves other substances 5. Can hold a lot of heat relative to it’s volume 6. Under the ice: a. Water expands when frozen, and is less dense than liquid, so it floats The PH Scale 0_______________________7________________________14       0­7 = Acidic                        7­14 = Basic (Alkaline)  Measures the amount of hydrogen in solution  Hydrogen = acid  Hydroxide = base  Most life functions best at 7  Rainwater is slightly acidic Organic and Inorganic  Organic: contains carbon, living or has lived previously  Organic Chemistry: o Carbon is basis for organic molecules (life) BIOL 120 (Principles of Biology) Week 1 Notes (1/29/16 ­ 2/5/16) By: Julia Delaluz  Can form 4 strong bonds with other atoms  Like Tinkertoy connectors, allows for carbon to take on an infinite  variety of forms Macromolecules  4 groups (large organic molecules) in all living things and produced only by  living organisms 1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Lipids 4. Nucleic Acids Carbohydrates  sugars and starches  made from monosaccharides – glucose o disaccharides (sucrose­ table sugar)     Complex Carbohydrates: polysaccharides (starch) o Glucose= quick energy o Polysaccharides:  Glycogen: energy storage, stored in liver, muscle, fungi  Starch: energy storage, stored in plants o Structural Polysaccharides:  Cellulose: plant cell walls, most abundant carb on Earth  Chitin: exoskeletons of insects, spiders, lobsters, cells of fungi  Peptidoglycan: bacteria cell walls o Complex vs. Simple Carbs:  Starches (complex): nutritionally complex vs. refined carbs  Sugars: natural vs. refined (simple)  The more refined the carb, the faster glucose is released  into the blood, causing peaks and drops in blood sugar and  less stable energy  You digest complex carbs slower than simple because there are more bonds to break  Dietary fiber composed mainly of complex carbs that  cannot be digested easily Proteins     Functions: o Form structural parts of cells, physically largest class o Can form larger structures like collagen, hemoglobin o Controls cell processes o Messenger that moves through fluid o Protects from diseases (antibodies) BIOL 120 (Principles of Biology) Week 1 Notes (1/29/16 ­ 2/5/16) By: Julia Delaluz o Speeds up life processes called enzymes o Act as receptors on cell surfaces o Proteins Continued 1. Make amino acids (20) lots of variety o Polypeptide – long chains of amino acids o Proteins contain 1 or more polypeptide 2. Need specific shape to function o Form= function o Overall shape of a protein molecule determines  function in organism Enzymes & Metabolism  Metabolism: all chemical reactions that happen in cells in your body  Enzymes: regulate metabolic reactions; break down food & liberate energy stored in their chemical bond. Catalyze reactions o Work for specific purpose, keeps going­ sucrose­ sucrase o Lactose Intolerance: enzyme­ lactase­ breaks down lactose o Lactose intolerant people cannot digest lactose because they have little to  no lactase enzymes in their bodies Lipids 1. Fats and Oils: insoluble a. Triglycerides:  Main constitute of vegetable oil & animal fats  When eat, body converts calories doesn’t use  immediately into triglycerides, stored in fat cells b. Steroids:  Found in animals, fungi, plants  Cholesterol (animals): used to build cells and some  hormones  Sex hormones: estrogen, testosterone c. Phospholipids:  Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats  Saturated:  fatty acids bound to as many hydrogens as  possible  Unsaturated: has carbon to carbon double bonds


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