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Natural Science Lecture 7-11 Notes

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by: Michelle S

Natural Science Lecture 7-11 Notes CORE-UA 313

Marketplace > NYU School of Professional Studies > Science > CORE-UA 313 > Natural Science Lecture 7 11 Notes
Michelle S
NYU School of Professional Studies
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The notes have a lot of information of what will be on the exam
Natural Science II: The Brain
Efrain Azmitia
Class Notes
Science, brain




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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle S on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CORE-UA 313 at NYU School of Professional Studies taught by Efrain Azmitia in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Natural Science II: The Brain in Science at NYU School of Professional Studies.

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Date Created: 02/08/16
Lecture 7  Structure of the eye  Pupil: opening where light enters eye  Pupillary muscle: the iris sphincter muscle encircles the pupil of the iris  Constrictor of the pupil  Bright light (pupillary reflex)  Accommodation (change its shape to focus near objects)  Changing shape of lens allows extra focusing power  Pupillary reflex: autonomic nervous system  Parasympathetic fibers causes contraction of the sphincter pupillae muscles (cholinergic receptor)  Sympathetic fibers causes dilation by acting on the dilator pupillae muscles (adrenergic receptor)  Sclera: white of the eye  Iris: give color to the eyes  Cornea: glassy transparent external surface of the eye  Optic nerve: bundle of axons from the retina  Conjunctiva: where tears form  Most tears come from the lacrimal gland located above the eye  Light  Photon, a package of energy  Electromagnetic radiation  Wavelength, amplitude, frequency  Energy is proportional to frequency  Gamma radiation & cool colors  high energy, high frequency, shorter wavelength  Radio waves and hot colors  low energy, low frequency, longer wavelength  Sensitivity is highest to green  Ishihara Test (blind color test)  Red-green deficiency present in about 8% males and 0.5% females  linked to x- chromosome  Guys more prone to blind color test  Phototransduction  in rods  Different opsins  Red, green, blue  Color detection  Contributions of blue, green and red cones to retinal signal  Spectral sensitivity  Light activated biochemical cascade in a photoreceptor  Consequence of this cascade is signal amplification  Properties of light  Optics: study of light rays and their interactions  Reflection: bouncing of light rays off a surface  Absorption: transfer of light energy to a particle or surface  Refraction: bending of light rays from one medium to another  Refraction of light by the cornea  Eye collects light, focuses on retina, forms image  Saccades (movement): eyes move around, locating interesting parts of the scene and building up a mental, three-dimensional ‘map’ corresponding to the scene  By moving the eye so that small parts of a scene can be sensed with greater resolution, body resources can be used more efficiently  Lens problems  Cataracts: opacities of the lens, may be large enough to block light and obstruct vision  Diabetes: risk factor for cataract  Presbyopia: age-related loss of accommodation  Light wave converted to cell membrane potential change  Light + rhodopsin receptor – glutamate released  Light  axons of ganglion cells to optic nerve  ganglion cells  interneurons  photoreceptors (rods and cones)  Direct (vertical) pathway: photoreceptors  bipolar cells  ganglion cells  Neurons in the visual system results in perception  Parallel pathway serving conscious visual perception originate in the retina  Progress to lateral geniculate nucleus, primary visual cortex & higher order visual areas on temporal and parietal lobes  Retinofungal projection  Optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract  Left hemifield projects to right side of brain  Ganglion cell axons from nasal retina cross, temporal retinal axons stay ipsilateral  Superior colliculus (pretectal nucleus)  Connects to eye muscles, spinal cord and cerebellum  Lateral geniculate nucleus  Connects to occipital cortex  Nonthalamic targets of the optic tract: autonomic  Hypothalamus: suprachiasmatic nucleus  Biological rhythms, including sleep and wakefulness  Pretectum: size of the pupil; reflex eye movement by cranial nerves  Superior colliculus: orients the head & body in response to visual stimuli  Highly developed in fish and birds  Projects to reticular formation and spinal cord  Striate cortex: part of the occipital cortex that receives the fibers of the optic radiation from the lateral geniculate body and is the primary receptive area for vision  Beyond striate cortex:  Dorsal stream: parietal lobe  Analysis of visual motion and visual control of action  Tracking  Saccades  Ventral stream: temporal lobe  Perception of the visual world and the recognition of objects  Color vision  Face recognition  Memory  Attention: process of concentrating on a discrete aspect of information while ignoring other perceivable information  Recognition: focuses on the recognition of patters and regularities  Gestalt: mind forms a global whole with self-organizing tendencies Lecture 8  Sense of hearing, audition  Detect sound  Perceive and interpret nuances  Sense of balance, vestibular system  Head and body location  Head and body movements  Sound: energy causes movement in the air particles that vibrate from “sound waves.”  Audible variations in air pressure  Sound frequency: number of cycles per second expressed in units called hertz (Hz)  Fast vibrations = high frequency = high note  Slow vibrations = low frequency = low note  Cycle: distance between successive compressed patches  No sound in a vacuum  Sound: speed of sound at sea level is 760 mph or 1 mile in 5 seconds  Speed of sound in water is over 4x faster  Speed of light vs. Speed of sound  Light: 186, 282 miles per second  C is the maximum speed at which all energy, matter, and information in he universe can travel E=mc  Outer ear  Directional identification of sounds  Collection of sounds  At the ear drum sound vibration sound energy is transformed into mechanical energy of ear drum movement  Middle ear (mechanical)  Sound waves  Ear canal  Ear drum (tympanic membrane)  Middle ear cavity  Ossicles (3 tiny bones)  Malleus  Incus  Stapes  Inner ear  Oval window  Cochlea: fluid-filled (snail)  Organs of Corti: transforms mechanical waves to electric signals in neurons  Transduction by hair cells  Sound basilar membrane upward, reticular lamina up and stereocilia bends outward  Neurons  Hair depression: open K+ and Ca++ channels, depolarization, activation of voltage-dependent calcium channels at the hair cells which triggers vesicle exocytosis and release of glutamate  Lowest audible sound for humans in 0 dB  Stimulus frequency  Tonotopic maps on the basilar membrane  Spiral ganglion  ventral cochlea nucleus & superior olive  inferior colliculus & MGN & auditory cortex  Localization  Techniques  Horizontal: left-right  Interaural time delay: time taken for sound to reach from ear to ear  Interaural intensity difference: sound at high frequency from one side of ear  Vertical: Up down  Vertical sound localization based on reflections from the pinna  Sensitivity of binaural neurons to sound location  Sound from left side initiates activity in the left cochlear nucleus; activity is then sent to the superior olive  Soon, sound reaches right ear, initiating activity in the right cochlear nucleus, meanwhile, the first impulse has traveled farther along its axon  Both impulses reach olivary neuron 3 at the same time, and summation of synaptic potentials generates an action potential  Primary auditory cortex  Highly organized processing unit of sound in superior temporal cortex  Damage leads to a loss of any awareness of sound  Silent world  Can react reflexively to sounds  turn head quickly  There is subcortical processing in the auditory brainstem  Axons leaving MGN project to auditory cortex via internal capsule in an array  Structure of A1 and secondary auditory areas: similar to corresponding visual cortex areas  Frontal lobe  Frontal association area  Speech  Motor cortex  Parietal lobe  Somatosensory cortex  Speech  Taste  Somatosensory association area  Reading  Occipital lobe  Visual association area  Vision  Temporal lobe  Smell  Hearing  Auditory association area  Music is ANXIOLYTIC  Well known to elicit emotional changes including anxiolytic effects in humans  Brain areas associated with emotional behaviors, such as cingulate cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex (PFC)  Music intervention reduce patients’ pain, stress, and anxiety levels in pregnant women, traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer’s disease  Relaxing music decreases the level of anxiety in a preoperative setting  Idiot savant and autistic children unable to speak can sing and play instruments. Also respond to singing while ignoring speech  Structural brain plasticity occurred with only 15 months of instrumental musical training in early childhood  Structural brain changes in motor, auditory areas and corpus callsum  Vestibular System  Balance, equilibrium, posture, head, body, eye movement  Vestibulo-ocular reflex  Function: line of sight fixed on visual target  Mechanism: senses rotations of head, commands compensatory movement of eyes in opposite direction  Connections from semicircular canals, to vestibular nucleus, to cranial nerve nuclei  excite extraocular muscles  Vestibular labyrinth  Otolith organs  gravity and tilt  Detect changes in head angle, linear acceleration  Macular hair cells responding to tilt  Semicircular canals  head rotation, primary organ of balance  Three looped semicircular canals set at right angles to each other filled with fluid (endolymph)  Use hair cells to detect changes  Angular acceleration: rapid turning in any direction generates currents in the fluid along the corresponding canal  These currents are detected by find projections from sensory cells in a swelling, called an ampula, that lies at one attachment point of each canal  Inner ear fluid balance  Endolymph contains specific and stable volume and concentrations of sodium, chloride, and other electrolytes  Tinnitus (ringing in the ears), hearing loss, dizziness, and imbalance. Sea- sickness.  Avoid sugar and salt  Alcohol  Nicotine  Caffeine  Aspirin  Act to change fluid composition = Osmolarity  Positional alcohol nystagmus: “bed spins”  The alcohol concentration causes the endolymph to be relatively dilute and the hair cells can not maintain their upright position Lecture 9  Hippocrates (460 BC)  Brain is center of thought and sensation  Balance of spirits defines health and illness. Four humors:  Black bile  depression  Yellow bile  irritable  Phlegm  sluggish  Sanguine optimistic  Claude Bernard (1830-1878)  Conceptualized homeostasis  Homeostasis  Dynamic  in a dynamic system the recovery to the set point is prolonged and variable  Homeostatic systems  Temperature  Thermoreceptors  Hypothalamus and skin  Regulatory process: regulates body temperature and blood composition  PNS and hypothalamus commands in cold weather  shiver, goosebumps, turn blue  PNS and hypothalamus commands in hot weather  turn red, sweat  Thirst  Osmoreceptors  Subfornical organ & kidney  Two kinds  Osmotic thirst: loss of water from cells  Drinking; pathway triggering osmotic thirst  Hypertonicity: increased concentration of dissolved substances in blood (salt)  Vasopressin: antidiuretic hormone or ADH  Hypovolemic: loss of blood  Hunger  Glucose receptors  Hypothalamus and stomach  Complimentary systems in PNS  Stimulatory  fight or flight  Inhibitory  rest and digest  Secretory hypothalamus  Pathways to the pituitary  Two neurohormones  Oxytocin  Lactation, suppress hypothalamic function  Oxytocin peripheral and CNS actions  A neuroendocrine loop posterior pituitary  Peptide hormone travels in blood to target peripheral tissue  Infants sucking response produces brain activity in the mother  Increased brain activity results in inputs to the hypothalamus  Oxytocin produced and released  Oxytocin causes cells of mammary glands to contract; milk released  Baby continues sucking until sated  Vasopressin  Regulate blood volume and salt concentration  Systems  Point to point: specific pathway  Motorneuron: spinal cord to muscle  Vision: eye to geniculate  Restricts synaptic communication  Hippocampus: dentate gyrus to cornu ammonus  Global: expansive projections  NAKED (direct exposure to environment)  Plasticity: changes throughout life  Neuronal cell bodies are localized to brainstem regions  Develop early in ontogeny  Send fibers that release neurotransmitters in many different brain region  Fibers are unmyelinated so transmitters release occurs via volume transmission (irrigation method)  Connect with every neuron: pervasive coverage  Varied target cells  Regular firing rate  Multiple receptors  Reticular formation: acetylcholine  Monoamine system: serotonin, dopamine, nonepipherine  Secretory hypothalamus  Autonomic nervous system (ANS)  Monoamine CNS  Brain stem  whole brain  Serotonin  Dopamine  Nonepipherine  Acetylcholine  Essential nutrients for global systems  Substrates  Choline  Tryptophan  Tyrosine  Co-factors  Vitamin B6 (pyridoxal)  Vitamin B7 (biotin)  Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)  Function of global systems  Block 5-HT Synthesis: PCPA  Increased impulsivity (risk-taking)  Increased movement (seizures)  Increased aggression (killing)  Increased sexual activity (humans)  Decreased sleep (SWS)  Decreased habituation (compulsivity)  Substrate  (co-factor & enzyme)  product  Varicosities – boutons: neurotramsitters are released all along the fibers. A form of chemical irrigation known as volume transmission  Loss of 5-HT induces neuronal shrinkage  PCPA treatment  causes neuron to contract  Removes dendrites  Eliminates synapses  Loss of habituation  Aromatic amino acids  ancient chemical; convert photons to biological energy  Benzene  Indole  Sunlight  tryptophan  chlorophyll  rhodopsin receptor  5-HT1A receptor  chlorophyll  photosynthesis  NADH & Oxygen  tryptophan  auxin NADH  serotonin  5-HT1A receptor  Algae: all photosynthetic organisms make serotonin  Plants: nuts, fruits, flowers contain very high levels of serotonin  Animals: serotonin depends on external source of tryptophan  ONTOGENY RECAPITULATES PHYLOGENY  Midbrain: crossroad to forebrain and hindbrain  Raphe nuclei: located in the center of the midbrain (ideal location)  Homotypical sprouting  Damage by lesion  Distal growth  Slow onset  Long duration  Chemically specific  Functional  Tryptophan sunlight seeds exercise  Expanding  PCPA cloudy corn hibernate  contracting  Global systems  1 order system (global projecting neuron)  Emotional  Homeostatic  Vegetative  2 norder system (point to point network)  Sensations  Cognitive  Memory  3 rorder system (plastic homeostasis)  Consciousness  Awareness  Spiritual  Mind Chapter 11 Notes  Obesity  63% Americans are overweight  More than 1/3 of US adults (35.7%) and approximately 17% (or 12.5 million) of children and adolescents aged 2-19 years are obese  BMI (Body mass index)  BMI = person’s weight in kg divided by height in m  Underweight = <18.5  Normal weight = 18.5-24.9  Overweight = 25-29.9  Obesity = >30  Calories  Small calorie/gram calorie approximates the energy needed to increase the temperature of 1g of wat°C. This is about 4.185 J.  Basic metabolic rate  Men: 2500 cal/day  Women: 2000 cal/day  Calories from foods  Fat: 1g = 9 calories  Fats have most calories  Fat that occurs naturally contains a varying proportion of saturated and unsaturated fat  Butter, ghee, lard, coconut oil, meat, dairy products (cream & cheese), meat, prepared foods  Unsaturated fats in nuts, vegetables. Low in cholesterol  Alcohol: 1g = 7 calories  Protein: 1g = 4 calories  Carbohydrates: 1g = 4 calories  Consists carbon, hydrogen, oxygen  Also known as saccharide  Monosaccharaides and disaccharides, which are smaller (lower molecular weight) carbohydrates, are commonly referred to as sugars  Blood sugar is the monosaccharide glucose  Table sugar is the disaccharide sucrose  Milk sugar is the disaccharide lactose  Polysaccharides are energy storage (starch & glycogen)  1 hr of normal walking: 40 cal  Eating  Unconscious: insulin, glucose, leptin  Nutrient: hunger-need substance: low glucose in plasma  Drugs  Alcohol and other sedatives (tranquilizers and sleeping pills)  Anti-depressants  Marijuana  Anxiety & stress: cortisol  Conscious: voluntary drive, motivation  Cognitive  Habit  It’s lunch time – I must be hungry  Taste: pleasure  Cheap trills—food is cheap  Reward  I have been so good  Comfort (food or drink to which one habitually turns for temporary respite, security, or special reward)  I miss home  Food’s familiarity, simplicity, and/or pleasant associations  Small children often seem to latch on to a specific food or drink and will repeatedly request it in high stress situations  A majority of comfort foods are composed largely of simple or complex carbohydrate, such as sugar, rice, and refined wheat. Increase in serotonin.  Social  Party time or thanksgiving  Brain energy  2% of body weight  25% of total body glucose utilization  Cholesterol: steroid structure that is essential for the synthesis of all steroids in the body. Plants low in cholesterol  Low cholesterol  low steroids  low serotonin  Benefits of low cholesterol in heart disease is countered by increase deaths due to risk behavior  Long-term regulation of feeding behavior  Energy balance  Energy: glycogen and triglycerides  Anabolism (storage) and catabolism (metabolism)  Insulin increases glucose uptake into cells  High glucose  insulin  low glucose  Chronic high glucose can lead to diabetes (insulin insufficiency)  Glucose homeostasis  Glucagon increases glucose  Insulin lowers glucose  Insulin-induced hypoglycemia stimulates 5-HT release (serotonin)  Serotonin & eating  Serotonin, food and mood  Serotonin brain levels  Low: post-absorptive period  Rise: in anticipation of food  Spike: during meals  Mood elevation  Rise in blood tryptophan and brain serotonin  Serotonin synthesis  Increased in high carbohydrate diets  Comfort foods  Decreased by high protein diets  L-type neutral amino acid transporter  Passage through the blood brain barrier  Aspartame: nutrasweet, phenylalanine  Decreased by corn  Corn based diets in rodents  Omnivore’s dilemma  Increased sexual activity  Homosexual mounting behavior  Increased convulsions  Increased alcohol intake  Increased aggression  Decreased 5-HT neurons, 5-HT and niacin  Appearance  A 1998 survey done by Exeter University included 37,000 young women between 12 and 15  Over half (57.7%) listed appearance as the biggest concern in their lives  The same study indicated that 59% of the 12 and 13 year old girls who suffered from low self-esteem were also dieting  Image  #1 wish for girls ages 11 to 17 is to be thinner  Girls as young as 5 have expressed fears of getting fat  80% of 10 year old girls have dieted  At one time, 50% of American women are currently dieting  Eating disorder  Anxiety – anorexia, bulimia, binging, faddish diets, serendipitous menus and a parasitic profession of “experts,” gurus and quacks who promise solutions so bewildering in their variety that our anxiety is only deepened  Removal of ovaries causes excess weight gain in rats  Body dysmorphia  56% of women and 40% of men do not like their appearance  63% overweight: preoccupation with food/eating  59% of the twelve and 13 year old girls who suffered from low self-esteem were also dieting  Mental disorders  Anorexia nervosa: 1-6% of female adolescents  Bulimia nervosa: 0.3-7%(7/100) college-aged women have bulimia  Binge eating disorders: 1% of women in the US  Only about 10% of people with anorexia and bulimia are male  Binge eating disorder  Person binge consumes large amounts of food frequently  Feels out of control and unable to stop eating during binges  May eat rapidly and secretly, or may snack and nibble all day long  Feels guilty and ashamed of binge eating  Has a history of diet failures  Tends to be depressed and obese  People who have binge eating disorder do not regularly vomit, over exercise, or abuse laxatives like bulimics do  Bulimia nervosa: the diet-binge-purge disorder  Person diets, becomes hungry, and then binge eats in response to powerful cravings and feelings of deprivation  Feels out of control while eating  Fears gaining weight and frantically tries to "undo" the binge. Vomits, misuses laxatives, exercises, or fasts to get rid of the calories  Believes self-worth requires being thin. (It does not.)  May shoplift, be promiscuous, and abuse alcohol, drugs and credit cards. May engage in risk-taking behavior and have other problems with impulse control. Person acts with little thought of consequences  Weight may be normal or near normal unless anorexia is also present  Often depressed, lonely, ashamed, and empty inside. Friends may describe them as competent, glamorous, adventurous and fun to be with  Anorexia nervosa: peak onset in 15-19 year old females  Weighs 85% or less than what is developmentally expected for age and height  Young girls do not begin to menstruate at the appropriate age. Puberty is delayed in both sexes  In women, menstrual periods stop. In men, levels of sex hormones fall. Sex drive disappears or is much diminished  Is terrified of gaining weight even though s/he is alarmingly underweight  Reports feeling fat even when emaciated  In addition, anorexia nervosa often includes depression, irritability, withdrawal, and peculiar behaviors such as compulsive rituals, strange eating habits, and division of foods into "good/safe" and "bad/dangerous" categories  Blood levels of estradiol correlate with eating disorders Lecture 10  Amnesia  Anterograde amnesia: inability to recall recent memory; not transferred to permanent memory as long-term memory  Retrograde amnesia: inability to recall memory or memories of the past  Memory  Declarative  Episodic memory: memory of events, times, places, associated emotions and other conception-based knowledge in relation to an experience  Semantic memory: memory of meanings and understanding, and other concept-based knowledge unrelated to specific experiences (friends, names, studies, facts)  Procedural or implicit memory (playing basketball or piano)  Procedural: skills and habits  Emotional responses: amygdala  Skeletal musculature: cerebellum  Long-term  Short-term  Working memory: temporary information storage from short term to long term  Consolidation of declarative memory  Attention  short term memory, no retrieval  reticular formation  Formation  connections established  cortical, point to point  Storage  complex memory trace  entorhinal cortex  Retrieval  move to consciousness  hippocampus  RAS (attention)  septum  hippocampus (storage)  retrieval  thalamus  neocortex (formation)  entorhinal cortex (storage)  Memory storage is in NEOCORTEX (entorhinal cortex in temporal lobe)  Neocortical temporal lobes connect to paleocortical hippocampus  Loss of hippocampus and entorhinal cortex  Surgery removed bilateral hippocampus and entorhinal cortex HM dies at 82  Short term memory is fine  Anterograde amnesia for all memories  Retrograde amnesia for episodic: autobiographical episodes  Personal semantics, public events, people  Semantic knowledge (vocabulary, grammar, and object recognition) is intact  Basic research  Antivivisectionist: organizations opposed to animal experimentation  Speciesism: do not use animals for science, food, clothing, pets  Vivisection: cutting alive; experimentation on live animals  Vinogradova CA3 Neuron  Habituation: reduced response to a repeated stimulus  Startling stimulus  causes a defensive response  Two inputs: a comparator  Spine synapses are involved in memory formation  Spine synapses: glutamate  Location  Function  Ionotropic  Metabotrophic  Memory at spine synapse  Actin filaments in spine must be stable  Long term Potentiation  LTP may occur at all excitatory synapses ending on spines  LTP in the Schaffer collateral pathway and mossy fiber pathway of the hippocampus is glutamate receptor-dependent  Important concepts  Polymerization of G-actin (globular) forms long strands of filamentous F-actin  This is done by assembly of G-Actin into F-Actin  structure  Disassembly of F-actin produces many free G-actin molecules  no structure  F-Actin turnover  Cofilin is a small chemical that attaches to Actin to make the filaments more likely to disassemble  Arc (Activity-regulated Cytoskeleton-associated protein)  It inhibits Cofilin induced breaks in actin filaments  Metabotrophic receptor activates PKC and stimulates the synthesis of the arc  PKC: an enzyme that changes substrate to a product  Can be divided into an  N-terminal regulatory domain  C-terminal catalytic domain  Removal of the N-terminal regulatory domain produces a persistently active kinas, referred to as PKCzeta  PKCzeta needed to keep long term memories  Consist of an independent PKCz catalytic domain, which, lacking autoinhibition from a regulatory domain, is constitutively active  Regulatory subunit: adjust reaction rate  Catalyst: reaction center  ZIP: a specific inhibitor of PKCzeta  A single application of ZIP can abolish long-term memories multiple associations of different taste qualities  MEMORIES ARE NOT CREATIVITY!  Spine and memories are transient  Lose spines and you lose memories  Spine formation is rapid (minutes)  Spine stabilization (PKCz) is long (days)  Creativity requires inhibiting memories  Dorsolateral prefrontal deactivation  Scott adams created Dilbert  Flushing is known as forgetting bad ideas to create room for new ones


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