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ARTH 420, Week 4 of notes

by: Sarah Joyce

ARTH 420, Week 4 of notes 20663

Marketplace > Radford University > Art > 20663 > ARTH 420 Week 4 of notes
Sarah Joyce
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About this Document

Chapter 3, 4, and part of 5 of notes.
ART 420: Twentieth Century Art
Dr. Barris
Class Notes
Twentieth Century Contemporary Art History Posters
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Joyce on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 20663 at Radford University taught by Dr. Barris in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see ART 420: Twentieth Century Art in Art at Radford University.


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Date Created: 02/08/16
What is Propaganda? Propaganda, Part 2 - Everything that we have looked at so far has been a form of propaganda. - Posters are not the only kind of propaganda - The goal of propaganda is communicate a message and get the audience to do a certain action. SSR- two worker with a sickle and hammer - Sickle and hammer- symbol of the soviet union and union of industry and agriculture Poster with Lenin and United soldiers - Colorful piece These women are doing their bit, Learn to make munitions - Supporting soldiers - Targeting and reaching out to women to join the workforce to help the war Religion is harmful to children - Get rid of religion and get an education - Old woman > evil and is pointing towards the church - Young child trying to make her way to school > good - Church is crooked, titled, and not straight (old) vs new school that offers education Art Historians Are Facist - Referring to the political side of art - Telling of what is good and bad art - Propaganda against art historians Save Us - Mother and child with a dagger near them - Asking Russia to support the war or fight for it to protect - Concern and afraid expressions - Very effective - Bright red words o Yet can be used without them *Propaganda using strong emotion and women & children *Propaganda is not only focused in one area *All Advertisement is propaganda (Back to Chapter 3) th 3-3. the entire visual fable of the mice who buried the cat; watercolors on grey pare late 18 century 3-4. Cheremnykhk Story of the Bread Rings Istoriia pro bubliki I pro babu; colored lithograph 1920 - Much more organized than the lubki - Propaganda to support your army or the enemy will get you. - Story of a woman who wouldn’t give the people (Red soldier) her bread so the enemy kills her, takes her bread and eats her. - The country/good guys are red symbolize the good communist Cheremnyknk associate with ROSTA window 3-7. Malevich, new lubok, colored litho (left) compared with a painting from his 1911 ( center) and a 1920 ROSTA window poster by Maiakovskii - #s associated with section or number of the ROSTA window Chapter 4: Poster of the Civil War Era - Red and Whites were against eachother - Big propaganda of Russia trying to get people against the Whites (for the Reds) - 1919-1921 at the end of war posters o Posters drop off before being revived - Country was largely illiterate so they tried to reach them visually with pictures Problem they were low on money from being at war with themselves following WWI. They used Trams and AGIT Trains with actors trying to get people to support the Bolsheviks - Use the ROSTA windows - Imports of magazine o 40% of people were illiterate 4-1. A. Radakov: An illiterate man is like a blind man (Misfortune and failure wait for him everywhere) 1920 - Theme> illiteracy posters - Point to keep your eyes open and learn to read 4-2. Tatlin’s monument to the Third International in an AGIT parade - Associate with constructivist movement - Spiraling structure - The entire parade was propaganda 4-3. Alekseev: Sketch for decorations on Oknotnyi Riad (Hunters’s Row) 1918 4-4. Examples of the carnivalesque AGIT performances, preserved in archival photographs. - Stereotype of capitalist bourgeois man looks like - Fat big in clothing (fancy) 4-5. Alexander Apsit : Year of the Proletarian Dictatorship, 1918 - New symbolism created - Steel worker & farmer united (unity of farmer and city) - Children symbolize the down of a new age - Sun rising symbolizes the rise of enlightenment and a new age - One of the few poster makers who signed his works in this period 2/11/ 16 Key pts for today’s class The propaganda spectacle and the place of posters The three styles of Alexsandr Apsit: - Historical realism (aka “heroic revolutionary”) - Allegorical - Abstract A poster tradition emerges, characterized by text and narrative Dmitri Moor (Middle: Orlov) Lubok influence in his work Allegory Features of the Soviet propaganda poster: - Made quickly - Limited Palette of colors but often very bright - Simple composition, often with one centralized figure - Limited text N. Kochergin’s style Can this emerging style be called a Russian style? Why or Why not? - A more theatrical style: what makes a poster theatrical? - A more theatrical style: What makes a poster theatrical? - What makes a wall newspaper similar to a ROSTA window? - What significant difference exists between the heroic/revolutionary Civil War posters and the ROSTA windows? - Features and types of ROSTA windows What led to the decline of the ROSTA window? What took its place? How does the TASS window differ from the ROSTA window? Representing Workers and Representing Women in the 1930s - the new Soviet hero: the worker [note that the worker is not equated with the soldier] - the “shock” worker - Russian women in paintings and in posters - including education in posters of workers - messages about sanitary life styles in posters of workers - more roles for women, in life and in posters - how changes in iconography relate to changes in poster styles and poster themes 4-5. Alexander Apsit: Year of the Proletarian Dictatorship 1918 - heroic (realism) revolutionary 4-6. Apsit (using the name of OSinin): Retreating before the Red Army, 1919 - people are dying of starvation, if not already dead. - Vague narrative - The enemy ( indicated by white), White army is not helping but torturing the people by burning their shelter - Depicting the whites as heartless people - Apsit signed under a different name to not associate with the anti-white poster and for out of fear that the White Army might find him. - Use of suggested diagonals - White official is blocking off any way to exit or sense of freedom 4-7. Apsit: On the Horse! (To Horse), Proletarian! 1919 - Use of the pointing hand to get you to enlist - Bold black text > hard to miss - Bottom text is written by Trotsky o Saying communism cannot be resisted - Wonderful example of heroic revolutionary - Was praised unlike the abstract work (Public strongly disliked abstract because they had no idea of how to comprehend it.) 4-8. Tsar, Priest and Kulak, Pet, 1918 - Allegorical - Exhibits bust of figures 4-9. Tsar, Priest and a Rich man, A. Apsit, 1918 - Also allegorical - Much more powerful - Workers carrying higher ups 4-10. Ilia Repin: Religious Procession, 1881-83 (oil on canvas) - Rich people of the church vs. sick and poor - Might have influenced Apsit 4-11. (on left) Apsit: International 1918-19 - An allegorical poster - Horrific creature/ monster/ devil with wings - Persuading the audience to get rid of the church, religion, and rich people - guy is about to split the horrifying creature’s skull - wings > devil? - Influence of heroic revolutionary New Iconography: - Hammer & sickle - Worker & peasant (smychka) - Red Start - Rising Sun B. Zvoeykin, The Struggle of the Red Knight with the Dark Force 1919 - Worker can also be knights - Polish Enemy is rendered in black - White is the enemy - Heroic Revolutionary and allegorical - Hammer & sickle 4-12. New iconography- the peasant and worker in unity, the rising sun illuminating the new world - The unification of peasant and worker - The use of red - The trail of red trains (or houses) leading and portraying the experience of coming together To the defense of Soviet Russia (Soviet Russia is an armed camp), D.S. Moor, 1919 - icon of the Red star as leading composition piece - the Red star sections off pieces of the posters into different compositions to depict the events going on. Long Live the Sun! May the Darkness be Hidden, I. Simakov, 1921 - Like a pilgrimage to the sun Back to Moor 4-13. D. Moor: Tsarist regiments and the red army, 1919. - Likes the “before” or progression of events in the lubok - Shows and separates “before and after” - Shows what it was like when the Czar ruled vs. now, when the Red army took control - Historical realism but a little allegorical - Bright colors carry from influence of the lubok - People are not simplified but more sophisticated 4-14. Moor: Death to world Imperialism (Smert mirovomu imperializmu) 1919 - Counter revolutionism being attacked by a giant green snake (the good guy) who is taking down the building. White Guardsmen are sending the Bolshevik leaders to hell - Did moor make this ? - Leaders at top - Different levels of torture of the leaders as viewers go down (Whites are also using propaganda) 4-15. Moor, Soviet Turnip, 1920 - Be careful of what you dig up (sounds familiar to the theme of “be careful of what you say”) - Reference to the lubki style o Yet has more order and is organized - Fable 4-16. Moor, Soviet Labor, 1920 - Clear reference to the lubok - Narrative (multiple story) 4-17. First of May (text in Georgian) 4-18. Long Live the Brotherhood of all people in the Caucasus, both by Nikolai Kochergin, 1921 - Lots of red, white, and yellow o Very bright and bold - Made quickly to get the news out to viewers and the subject matter out as well - Red star icon - Disproportionate figures - Interest in message - Poster that focuses on a single person o Color, text, figure makes it noisy - Civil War Poster style o Not a lot of text in the standard o Simple composition o Centralized large figure - 4-18. Has all of the icons in the poster 4-19. N. Kochergin, First of May in 1920 - New theme - Women become part of this new change o Woman is a peasant ( and carries the sickle) - Depicting of women and children - Depiction that workers are educated Chapter 5: From ROSTA (1920’S) to TASS (1940’S) A uniquely Russian style - Still in the Civil War period - Government mandate to make propaganda and posters Propaganda wants you to make up your mind ( has a very clear goal) ROSTA is theatrical and satirical - They tell a story 5-1. Maiakovskii. Set design for Mystery Bouffe, 1919. Watercolor on gouache - Interest in theatre 5-2. Wall newspaper from the Rabinovich collection of Russian and Ukrainian propaganda posters, 1920-30 - Giving the viewer very specific news items - A lot of people could not read at this time, so they used a lot of visuals instead so the audience could comprehend - Not produced by ROSTA but is from before their time.


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