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Chapter 1 and 2

by: Stacey Kane

Chapter 1 and 2 PSYC 405

Stacey Kane
GPA 3.4
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About this Document

These are the chapter and class notes from chapters one and two.
Psychology of Aging
Kim Shifren
Class Notes




Popular in Psychology of Aging

Popular in Psychlogy

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stacey Kane on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 405 at Towson University taught by Kim Shifren in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Aging in Psychlogy at Towson University.

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Date Created: 02/08/16
Lifespan Developmental Theory  Balte’s Life Span Approach: Key Principles (Baltes, Lindenberger & Staudinger, 1998; Shifren, 2009) o Development is lifelong o Development is multidimensional o Development is multidirectional o Development shows plasticity o Development is influenced by the historical and cultural context  Plasticity o People can adapt to changing environments  Caregiving role: can change quickly with an Alzheimer’s patient, and caregivers feel good when the adapt to this ever changing role o Three types of plasticity help determine possible limits to our development:  Neurobiological plasticity  Behavioral plasticity  Societal plasticity  Neurobiological Plasticity o AKA Cognitive Reserve Capacity  When doing cognitive activities, how much neurological structure/function is available to help us out? Tends to diminish with age  Behavioral Plasticity o Abilities we have that help us to adapt and learn within an ever changing bioculture (environment). This in known to diminish as we age, but more gradually than cognitive reserve capacity  Societal Plasticity o How much are current cultural environments flexible for allowing optimal development?  How might age, gender, race interact with work opportunities in a given culture?  What is age? o Multidimensional concept  Functional age: development of ability to function effectively in a specific environment  Chronological age: number of years that have lapsed since a person’s birth  Biological age: estimate of your position within your potential lifespan (involves functioning of organs) Theories and Research  Theory o Large set of statements in the context of certain assumptions that drives research o Proposes a conceptual pattern which can serve as a logical framework for  interpreting our observations in research  Erikson o Integrity vs. Despair: Late adulthood o Generativity vs. Stagnation: Middle adulthood (40s and 50s) o Intimacy vs. Isolation: Early adulthood (20s and 30s) o Identity vs. Identity confusion: (adolescence 10s and 20s)  Bronfenbrenner o Microsystem  Setting you live in  Family, friends, school, neighborhood o Mesosystem o Exosystem o Macrosystem o Chronosystem  Research o Descriptive Research  Not very helpful for studying senior citizens  Careful observation: Most important part of research  Goal of study is:  Carefully map out situation or set of events that describe what  happens behaviorally  Important first step in research, but does not explain “why  something happens” or “how something happens”  Observe and record behavior  You have to have inter­rater reliability  Observation  Surveys and interviews o Interviews are much easier to do today  Standardized tests o Allows us to study senior citizens but also allows us to do  test cognitive abilities  Physiological measures o Related to personality and mood o See how are medicines working and effecting person  Case studies o Want to do assessment if person should be staying in their  home, getting in­home care, or in some type of nursing  home  Intensive Case Study  In­depth examination of a person or group of people with specific  shared characteristics  Very detailed records of individuals o Used much in anthropology, but also in psychology and  medicine o Clinical case studies o Behavioral modification approaches  Widen doorway  Add ramp  Change bathroom/kitchen o Relational Research  Addresses the following questions:  Are two or more variables related to each other? How? Linear/non­ linear?   What is the form or pattern or this relationship?   What is the strength of this relationship?  The correlational Method  Describes the strength of the relationship between two or more  events or characteristics  Correlation Coefficient o 1.00­ ­1.00  Negative vs. positive  Size of the number  Correlation does not imply causation o Experimental Research  Manipulate the conditions that may be responsible for the effect we see in  a study  Will a manipulation have a desired outcome?  Introduce change into environment to identify some causes for  what we find  X is responsible for Y  Random Assignment o Quasi­Experimental Design  Method similar to an experimental design except that it makes use of  naturally occurring groups rather than randomly assigning subjects to  groups   Best you can hope for when studying senior citizens o Time span of Research  Cross­Sectional Research  Research that studies people all at one time  Longitudinal Research  Research that studies the same people over a period of time,  usually several years or more  Can be short periods of time  Comparison of Cross­Sectional and Longitudinal Approaches  Are you studying by age or by year of birth?


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