Anthropology 120 Week 3 notes
Anthropology 120 Week 3 notes 22469
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adrienne Nave on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 22469 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Hollenback in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Anthropology Week 3 Notes Earliest Cultures - Hyoid and speech development develop o Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalis - Modern Hunter Gatherers as Analogs o The use of modern hunter gatherers to determine how past human hunter gatherers might have behaved o They share food in the present so we can assume that they did the same in the past - Non-human primates as analogs o Analyzing primates to help determine the behavior of our hominid ancestors. o We can determine the possible dietary characteristics and social behavior. o They have smaller brains and have a lack in complex material culture. o We use several species to compare and contrast different theories about our hominid ancestors. - Primate Behavior o Reproductive Success (likelihood of passing on genes to the next generation) Female=access to food Male=access to females o Female distribution=food distribution Small patches of food=females gather singly Large-high quantity patches of food=females gather in groups Abundant low-quality patches=either singly or in groups o Male distribution=female distribution Monogamy- males can defend single female or are needed in parenting Polygyny- male can defend multiple females Multi-male/multi-female=several males in a community of females, males defend territory - “Man the Hunter” o Explains origins of human physical the social behavior? o Hunting and tool use “humanness”: Bipedalism, smaller teeth, and larger brain base camp, monogamy, division of labor, aggressive males, attractive and subservient females o This theory of evolution does not quite fit because it would infer that women would just stay at base camp tending to the children, and the males would be responsible for food. In reality, women would likely be doing as much if not more work than the males by tending to the children and also bringing in plant foods which would have been a main part of their diet. - Lovejoy’s Model 1980s o Food transport and sharing led to bipedalism which led to a home base and a nuclear family. o Problems: This model doesn’t explain female mobility patterns, infant care, weather or not they were monogamous and what the division of labor was - Hawke’s Division of Labor and Food sharing (1996) o Reproductive success of females: Survival of offspring Dependable plant foods o Reproductive Success of Males Access to females Meat was used as costly signaling to the females This could have shown status since it was an undependable food source o Division of Labor is unclear - Grand mothering Hypothesis 1999 o Would suggest longer post-reproductive life o Becomes evident when females have more than one child o Would suggest a delay in the rate of maturity o Skeletal Evidence Larger brains and longer body Delayed maturity (dental eruption) o Archaeological Evidence Geographic range increases Digging tools would suggest grand mothers dug for tubers and roots Evidence of fire to make tubers more palatable (H. erectus) o Males hunt to gain status - Meat’s Patriarchy o Dominance status, Food sharing, Reproductive success in Chimpanzees Food Sharing: Females to offspring Males to females: males must persuade females and must retain good social relations Males to Males: defend territory together, and to maintain good social relationship Leads to relations between genders?? Leads to patriarchal societies?? Males manipulate through meat - Evolution of Human Behavior o Not hunting, but food sharing makes a huge impact on the development of human behavior - Archaic Humans: 1.9mya-150kya o Homo naledi: possibly another human ancestor found 15 individuals found bones show primitive and modern characteristics brain is 3x smaller than that of an average human less than 5ft tall purposeful burial in cave o Homo habilis: 2-1.7mya “Handy Man” larger brain and rounded cranium less pronathic fruit eater skeletal structure suggests that they spent some time in trees o Homo ergaster: 1.9-0.5mya Long low skull Very flat face Large, prominent brow ridge Larger brain Habitually bipedal/ first efficient runner Less hair Turkana Boy 1.6mya Taller than 12-year-old boys which suggests a faster maturity rate First to use fire possibly for warmth and protection and possibly for hunting and food consumption Moved out of Africa 1.7-1mya 1 to make clothing o Acheulean Tool Industry Much more complicated tools 1.65-.25mya found at the edge of river channels or dried up lakes Ororgesaile, Kenya Thousands of tools found at dried up lake bed Bones of 90 large baboons which suggests hunting o Homo erectus Found by Eugene Dubois in Java Possibly same species as H. ergaster Tall with long limbs Narrow hips for efficient running Zhoukoudian, China (0.8-0.4mya) H. erectus found here as well Remains of 40 individuals found here Lived in a cave 100,000 stone tools found, but no hand axes possible evidence for fire The movius line Line dividing where different types of tools were found on the 3 continents - The colonization of Europe o Dmanisi, Georgia (ca. 1.8mya) The precursors to Archeulian tools found H. ergaster found Skulls of 5 individuals o Atapuerca, Spain 800kya H. ergaster found
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