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Psych Chapter 7 Notes

by: Emory S.

Psych Chapter 7 Notes Psych 1000

Emory S.
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These are definitions that are useful when learning and understanding the material for the second exam
Psych Notes
Class Notes
Psychology 1000 Chapter 7 Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emory S. on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1000 at East Carolina University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Psych Notes in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 02/08/16
Chapter 7 Notes Definitions:   Learning: the process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring  information or behaviors  Associative learning: learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two  stimulus (as in classical conditioning) or a responses and its consequences (as in operant  conditioning)   Stimulus: any event or situation that evokes a response  Cognitive learning: the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events,  by watching others, or through language    Classical conditioning : a type of learning in which one learns to link to or more stimuli  and anticipate events      Behaviorism: the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science (2) studies  behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree  with (1) but not with (2)     Neutral Stimulus (NS): in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response  before conditioning      Unconditioned Response (UR): in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally  occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food  in the mouth)     Unconditioned Stimulus (US): in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally – naturally and automatically­ triggers a response (UR)     Conditioned Response (CR): in classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously  neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)     Conditioned Stimulus (CS): in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus  that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a  conditioned response (CR)  Extinction: the diminishing of a conditioned response, occurs in classical conditioning  when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in  operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced   Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned  response   Discrimination: in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a  conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus   Operant conditioning: a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by  a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher  Law of effect: Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences  become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become  less likely   Operant chamber: in operant conditioning research, a chamber (aka a Skinner box)  containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain food or water reinforce:  attached devices record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking  Reinforcement: in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows  Shaping: an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward  closer and closer approximations of desired behaviors   Positive reinforcement: increasing behaviors by pressing positive reinforcers. A positive  reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response  Negative reinforcement: increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer after a response, strengthens the response (not punishment)   Primary reinforcer: an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.  Conditioned reinforce: a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association  with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer  Fixed­interval schedule: in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. (p. 250)  Variable­interval schedule: in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that  reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals  Respondent behavior: behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.  Operant behavior: behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.  Latent learning: learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to  demonstrate it.  Intrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake. (  Extrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.  Observational learning: learning by observing others  Modeling: the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior 


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