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Biology Notes Unit 1

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by: Conner Henderson
Conner Henderson
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The Life of the Cell Atoms, Molecules, and Life Biological Molecules Cell Structure and Function Cell Membrane Structure and Function Energy Flow in the Life of a Cell Capturing Solar Energy:...
Biology: life on earth
Dr. Rudge
Class Notes
Biology, Unit 1
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conner Henderson on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1120 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Rudge in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Biology: life on earth in Biological Sciences at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 02/08/16
1 BIOS 1120 UNIT 1 EXAM STUDY GUIDE Chapter 1 1.1 Living organisms:  Acquire and use materials and energy  Actively maintain organized complexity  Perceive and respond to stimuli  Grow  Reproduce  Have the capacity to evolve, collectively 1.2 Evolution is the process by which new species arise 1. Genetic variation among members of a population due to differences in their DNA 2. Inheritance of those variations by offspring of parents carrying the variation 3. Natural selection of individuals whose survival and enhanced reproduction are due to the favorable variations they carry 1.3 How do Scientists Study Life?  Scientists study living processes at different levels (atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, biota, and the biosphere)  There are three major domains of organisms: Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya  Archaea and Bacteria are Prokaryotes  Eukarya includes Animals, Plants, Fungi and Protists 1.4 What is Science?  Science is one way of understanding the world of experience  It is characterized by systematic inquiry using observation and experiments  There is a method to science that distinguishes it from other disciplines.  Science does not make reference to supernatural causes Chapter 2 2.1 Atoms:  Are the basic structural units of the 92 known elements, and all matter  Certain atoms (e.g. carbon, oxygen, hydrogen) are particularly common in living organisms  Atoms are composed of still smaller particles (protons, neutrons and electrons) 2.2 Atoms interact to form molecules  There are three basic types of bonds within molecules:  ionic bonds (one atom loses and one atom gains an electron),  covalent bonds (the atoms share electrons)  polar (unequally)  non-polar (equally) 2  hydrogen bonds (attraction between different polar molecules) 2.3 Why is Water so Important to Life?  Water has several unique properties  Cohesion- between water molecules due to hydrogen bonds accounts for how molecules of water can go up the height of a tree  Polarity – the polarity of water molecules makes it easy for many substances to dissolve within it  Water forms an unusual solid: Ice, which is less dense than liquid water  Water-based solutions can be acidic, neutral or basic depending upon concentrations of H+ and OH- ions Chapter 3 3.1 Why is Carbon So Important to Life?  Carbon has four electrons in its outermost shell, and as such can form multiple bonds  Organic molecules have repeating C-H units; inorganic molecules are simpler  Functional groups account for many of the properties of organic molecules 3.2 How are Organic Molecules Synthesized?  Small organic molecules (called monomers) are joined to form longer molecules (called polymers)  Formed by dehydration synthesis (removal of water)  Broken by hydrolysis (addition of water)  All organic molecules are either carbohydrates, lipids, proteins or nucleic acids 3.3-6 What are Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids? • Carbohydrate molecules are composed of C, H, and O in the ratio of 1:2:1; source of energy – Glucose, deoxyribose, ribose, cellulose • Lipids are large chains of nonpolar hydrocarbons, mostly hydrophobic – Fats, oils, waxes and hormones – Phospholipids: basic components of cell membranes – Proteins are molecules composed of chains of amino acids; have many functions: structural and enzymes – Nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) are composed of a phosphate group, a sugar and a nitrogen base; serve as the molecules of heredity. Chapter 4 4.1 What is the Cell Theory?  Every organism is made up of one or more cells  The smallest organisms are single cells; cells are the functional units of multicellular organisms 3  All cells arise from pre-existing cells 4.2 What are the basic attributes of cells?  All cells have a plasma membrane that separates the inside from the outside, regulates the flow of materials and may serve to communicate with other cells  All cells contain cytoplasm, site of most metabolic processes  All cells use DNA as the hereditary molecule, and RNA to copy this information to construct proteins  Eukaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles (e.g. the nucleus; prokaryotic cells are smaller and do not 4.3 What are the Major Features of Eukaryotic Cells?  Eukaryotic cells form the bodies of animals, plants, fungi and protists  The cytoskeleton provides shape, support and movement  The nucleus houses DNA, the nucleolus (ribosome production)  The endomembrane system is associated with the creation and movement of many cell substances, e.g. proteins, hormones  Plant cells have several unique structures: cell walls, chloroplasts, plastids, Central Vacuole 4.4 What are the Major Features of Prokaryotic Cells?  Prokaryotic cells lack membrane bound organelles, have specialized surface features  The nucleoid is region similar in function to nucleus  Most prokaryotic cells also have plasmids (small rings of DNA with specific functions) Chapter 5 5.1 How is the Structure of the Cell Membrane Related to Its Function?  Cell membranes are composed of phospholipid bilayers, which isolate the cell’s contents, regulate the exchange of materials, allow for communication, and may create attachments  Membranes are fluid mosaics – the phospholipid molecules are not bound to one another, allowing proteins to move freely  A variety of proteins suspended in the membrane account for its properties 5.2 How Do Substances Move Across Membranes?  Transport may be passive or energy requiring  Passive transport may occur by means of simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion or osmosis  Energy requiring transport may be active transport (individual small molecules), endocytosis (liquids) or exocytosis (large molecules) 5.3 How Do Specialized Junctions Allow Cells to Connect and Communicate?  Desmosomes attach cells together in tissues where cells are repeatedly stretched (e.g. skin)  Tight junctions are used to prevent leakage 4  Gap junctions are used to coordinate metabolic activities of adjacent cells  Plasmodesmata are channels that link adjacent plant cells Chapter 6 6.1 What is Energy?  Energy is the capacity to do work, where work is the transfer of energy to an object causing it to move  Chemical energy is the energy within the bonds of molecules  Potential energy = stored energy; Kinetic energy is energy of movement  First Law of Themodynamics: Energy can neither be created nor destroyed  Second Law of Themodynamics: Whenever energy is converted from one form to another, the amount of useful energy decreases 6.2 How is Energy Transformed During Chemical Reactions?  A chemical reaction either forms or breaks chemical bonds between atoms, converting one set of substances (reactants) to another (products)  Exergonic: products have less energy than reactants; endergonic, products have more energy 6.3 How Is Energy Transported Within Cells?  Energy carrier molecules (e.g. ATP) are synthesized at the site of exergonic reactions and release energy at site of endergonic reactions  Coupled reactions are reactions in which one reaction provides the energy for another 6.4 How Do Enzymes Promote Biochemical Reactions?  Enzymes (and Catalysts in general) reduce the activation energy of the reaction 6.5 How Are Enzymes Regulated?  Cells regulate metabolic pathways by controlling both enzyme synthesis and also enzyme activity (competitive or non- competitive inhibition)


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