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American Govt notes

by: Nicole Campbell

American Govt notes poli sci 1100

Nicole Campbell

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Chapter 6-8 notes
American Government
Class Notes
american govt, poli sci, notes, history
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Campbell on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to poli sci 1100 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Norberg in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see American Government in Political Science at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 02/08/16
American Govt Chapter 6: Politics and Media What is the media? - Fourth estate o Acts as a check on government o Report facts related to govt and politics Mass media (communicates to large number of people) - Old-media: print media o Newspaper and newsmagazines (not widespread)  Less than 50% use newspapers  Best journalist use print media  Most politicians, officials, other media read them  Newsmagazines reach more active citizens (TIME)  Political magazines reach most active citizens - Electronic media: o Talk radio  FDRs “fireside chats”  Used directly to talk to families  Became popular in the 90s  “fairness doctrine”  Both sides get equal talking time  Dominated by conservative personalities (9/10)  Limbaugh, Hannity, beck, savage  Overlap with television?  Doesn’t work as well as radio  Impact of talk radio  Know what the people want to hear o Television  Primary source of news for 65%  Benefits  Visual images better than written words  Speed (update constantly)  Drawbacks  Time constraints (30-60 min)  Sound bites (cut out, everything is out of context)  Reliance on visual stimulation  Business vs. public service  Influence of ownership (conservative vs liberal) o Internet  Govt. able to communicate no matter what  Interactive  Cyber politics  Low cost-more things  Fundraising/ organization  Effects of new media  Choose the news  Sharing info  “like” it/share opinions  Connections  “donate now”—instant fundraiser - Medias Power o News making  Which stories are news  Requires a lot of trust o Agenda setting  Which is important (report some issues, not others)  Priming: affects the way you think (taxes)  Framing: which the story is reported (welfare, true story)  What to think/what to think about  Persuading - Political advertisements o Swing states get almost all non-national ads o Attack ads  Long tradition  Effects on politics o Television debates  1960 debates  First general debate on TV (JFK vs Nixon)  2012 debates  Obama vs Romney o Managed news coverage  Spin o Candidate selection  Name recognition o Horse race o Bad news bias - Regulating the media o First amendment o Prior restraint o Federal communications commission o Decency o Equal time o Libel and slander (spoken)  False statements o Public officials  New York Times vs Sullivan (Sullivan rule) (1964) - Effects of media o Info and agenda setting  Demand from viewers o Values and opinions  Selective perception (take what we agree with) o Public opinion o Behavior - Media bias: o Decline in public confidence o Increase in perception of partisan bias  Liberal media o Increase in partisan news sources  Fox (1996), MSMBC (1996)(liberal) o News shows vs opinion shows o Journalists tend to be liberal o News reporting tends to be fair on average bias against losers o Selection bias Chapter 7: Political Parties What is a political party? - Basic unit of govt; most common way to participate in politics - Political organization: mediating intuitions (govt vs individuals) - Political party: group of individuals organized to win elections and run govt - Founders disliked parties - Parties organize politics (necessary to run govt) Evolution of American parties - Defined by realignments, dealignments (1800,1828,1860,1896,1932) - 1790s-1828 o Formed immediately after ratification o Federalists  Hamilton vs Adams o Jeffersonian Republicans (democratic republicans)  Jefferson vs Madison  Limited role in fed govt o Dominance of Jeffersonian  Federalists lost power  Won presidency- wiped federalist off map  Steadily lost support in congress. No more by 1810 - 1828-1860 o Disputes over modernization, development, commerce o 1824: split of Jeffersonian Republicans  Nobody got majority in electoral party  HOR decided who president if all split o Adams-in favor of modernization o Jackson- against- polarity won (most) still lost o Henry clay backed adams- won presidency  Secretary of state: clay o Development of modern mass party  Officially split  1828: adams vs Jackson (easily won)  Second realigning election (important)  Democratic backing  Development of mass political party  Nationwide support o Dominance of democrats  1836: vanburen/ adams o Democrats vs Whigs/ republicans  Whigs: rapid modernization (clay)  Slavery and civil war - 1860s-1930s o Republicans got away with slavery rd o 3 realigning: Abe Lincoln (abolishment) o Democrats dominated until 1860s o Didn’t establishment dominant party o *stabilization of party system o Relatively even competition o Election of 1896: realigning election  Economy: primary issue  Dominance of republicans - 1930s-1980 o Great depression  Hoover: stock market crash  Unemployment of 25% o New deal coalition  Fifth realigning  FDR  Labor, minorities, southerners, farmers, intellectuals o Civil rights movement  Lyndon Johnson o DE alignment - 1980-today o Reagan revolution o Conservative movement  Reagan, Bush 1 and 11 o Democratic resurgence  Barack Obama  Era of polarization and parity What do Parties do? - Responsible Party Model: Political parties carry out 6 primary functions (policy mandate) o Write a platform o Recruit candidates that agree with platform o Educate public about ideas in platform o Organize your campaign around it o Responsible party: organize legislature to ensure party control of policy making o Make sure elected officials carry out the platform - Median voter theorem o Two parties will always become more moderate to maximize their votes - Wedge issue theorem o Used after republicans o Goal: make party not powerful o Demobilize moderate voters - Erosion of Party Functions o Recruit/train/select candidates o Educate voters/provide information  Party ID: information heuristic o Organize policymaking o Aggregate and articulate interests Structure of Parties - Party in the electorate o Simplify voters choices  Party ID; info shortcut o Mobilization of supporters  Voter registration  GOTV efforts - Party as organization o Decentralization  National, state, local parties o National committees  Democratic national committee (DNC)  Republican national committee (RNC)  Leader: party chair person o National conventions o Congressional campaign committees  DCCC and DSCC  NRCC and NRSC - Party in government o Foster stability o Organize administration o Implementation of platform o Divided government Third Parties - Ideological Parties o Libertarians o Socialist/communist - Protest parties o Short-lived o Populists (late 1800s) - Single-issue parties o Prohibition party o Green party? - Splinter parties o Progressive (Bull Moose) Party o Dixiecrat party - Anti-party parties o Angry with other parties so this party becomes o Reform party - Can third parties win? o Not likely to happen  More likely at local level, never at national o Several varieties throughout groups - Effect of third parties? o The issue agenda  Minimum wages, women suffrage o Election outcomes  Ross perot (1992)  Ralph Nader (2000) o Protest votes The two-party system - Dominance of two major parties - Electoral laws - Electoral institutions o Single-member district plurality o Duverger’s law  Mechanical and psychological effects Chapter 5: Public Opinion and Voting Public Opinion Polling - A measure of the collective opinions of individuals on a range of issues o Society as a whole - A supplement to voting - Measured using polling - Cross-section o Cheapest/ Most common/ one-time occasion o Snapshot of electorate  one single picture of society - Panel o Video/ multiple snapshots o Expensive/ difficult/ less common o Once every week-track opinions - Literary Digest (early 1900s) o Straw poll of its readers  Single question asked to individuals o 1936- Roosevelt vs Landon  Asked readers to send back your opinions  2.4 million out of 10 million (no margin of error) (said Landon would win; they were wrong) o Roosevelt won all but 8 electoral college votes o Suffered from bias opinion  Wealthy enough to have a phone, subscription and cars  People very biased towards Roosevelt because he wanted to raise taxes o Gallup: only 50,000 and got better results - Polling Samples o Population vs Sample  Simple random sample (random)  Stratified random sample (break into groups) o Biased samples  Not representative of population - Polling today o Door-to-door surveys  Most reliable  Expensive (fly people, send people out) o Telephone surveys  Common/ cheap o Internet surveys  Modern  Quick & up to date results - Polling Issues o Sampling error  Margin of error (ex: +/- 3%) o Respondent problems  Some groups under-overrepresented  Women answer more than men  Different ethnicities  Students vs adults  Sample weighting  Unskewed polls(website)  House effects o Biased question framing o Poor response options o Timing of surveys  Pre-election surveys  Exit surveys o Misuse of polls  Push polls  Surveys for intentions to get particular results - Polling and the 2012 Election o Polls vs pundits  Numbers vs guts o Polling aggregates vs individual polls  Nate silver  Correctly estimated every result in every state o Polling accuracy o Tips for reading polls  Who conducted the polls  Who sponsored/ paid for polls  How many people were interviewed  How did they get the sample  What is the margin of error  How were they contacted/ interviewed  Were they worded differently  Answers available  When was it conducted Political Socialization - The process of acquiring political attitudes, opinions, knowledge, and beliefs - Takes place over a long period of time - Very stable - Agents of political socialization - Family o Children adopt views of parents (mostly have same ideoly) o Similarity stronger in active, unified homes o Similarity weaker in apathetic, divided homes o Richard Jennings - School & Church o Pledge of allegiance o Religious background o Education influences political views  Type and strength of religious beliefs - Media o Television o Changing role of internet - Opinion leaders o Public officials o Prominent local citizens o Access to media - Major events o Great depression o World war || o 9/11 - Peers o Friends/classmates o Group members - Socio-economic status o Income o Education (4 yr vs 2 yr) o Occupation Voter Behavior - Party ID o Usually the strongest indicator  Influenced by other factors - Perception of Candidates o 2012 presidential election o 2010 Delaware senate election  Withcraft (O’Donnel) - Policy Choices o Single issues o Economic issues - Socio-economic status o Income/occupation  Poor-democrats  Wealthy-republicans o Education  smart-republicans  dumb-democrats o age  old-conservative  young-liberal o gender o religion  republican-more religious o race  republicans-white o geography o ideology  liberals vs conservatives Voter Turnout - comparatively low (American) o Europe-77% o US- 50% - Varies by type of election o Higher in presidential; lower in others (state/local) - Measuring turnout o VAP vs VEP - Factors affecting turnout o Not enough info to vote o Legal restrictions  Literacy test  Had to past in order to cast ballot about govt history  Poll tax  Grandfather clause  Only eligible to vote if your gpa did (non- property owners)  White primary  Keep people out of voting booth o Voter registration laws o Voting procedures  Elections on Tuesdays during work - Trends in voter turnout o Education o Income o Age o Race Chapter 8: The Electoral System The Electoral System - Two step process o Selection of candidates (primaries) o Election of candidates (general, even number years) - Special Elections - Single Member Districts/ Winner take all - Australian ballot/ secret ballot - Presidential Elections o Popular vote-indirect o Electoral college o Each states gets electors based on how many representatives in electoral college plus 2  538 total electors (270 to win) Selecting a Candidate - Methods of Selection o Self-nomination (rare in national elections) o Write-in (name not in selection) o Party nomination (difficult)  Early caucus system  King caucus  Secret meeting of party leaders  Collapsed in 1824 o Nominating Conventions  Reaction to non-democratic, chaotic caucus system  Candidates nominated by delegates  Delegates chosen by party bosses o Primary Elections  Reaction to undemocratic conventions  1968 democratic convention  Direct primary  Vote directly for primary candidate  Used in congressional, state elections  Indirect primary  Vote for electoral and electoral votes for the state  Used in presidential elections  Open vs Closed primary  Open: anyone can show up to polling place selecting whatever ballot they want (Missouri)  Closed: you have to be signed up for your ballot; parties like this beast because there is a lot more control  Blanket primaries  One single ballot  Switch back and forth between ballots  Voted unconstitutional  Top two primary  Constitutional  Same as blanket primary but top 2 candidates out of everyone  Effects of Primaries  Weakens political parties o Insurgent candidates; tea party  Pulls candidates to extremes  Presidential primaries  Long and difficult  50 separate state primaries o Winning a state wins delegates  State delegates nominate candidate at national convention  Caucuses o Primaries: state o Caucuses: parties  Who will be first? o Iowa has been first to go since 1970s o New Hampshire: primary o Iowa: caucuses o Winning early creates momentum  Front-loaded calendar  2012 Republican primaries o Many presidential debates o Nobody liked Romney Electing a Candidate - Campaigns run by parties - Campaigns run by professionals o Political consultants o Media experts - Three levels of a campaign (pyramid) o Candidate and campaign manager- top level  Candidate themselves- ultimate authority in campaign  Set out principles to drive campaign forward  Campaign manager- develop campaign strategy/ tactics to accomplish candidates goals  Manages finances  Directs campaign itself o Executive staff  Leaders of different campaign functions  Media consultants (ads/ posters)  Pollsters (surveys; campaign message to voters)  Speechwriters (writes candidates speeches)  Press secretary (news of the day; mouth piece of campaign)  Policy experts (current policies are on an issue)  Researchers (watch for opposition research) o Mass labor  State party organization  Local party branches  Unaffiliated volunteers  Responsible for organizing meetings, GOTV efforts Running a Campaign - Internet campaigns o 2008-first social media election o Internet fundraising  5 million dollars online - Obama for America (2008) o Heavy use of internet o Detailed polling strategy o Local vs. national organization - Reaching your supporters Campaign Finance - Hugely expensive o Congressional elections: $1.7m o US Senate elections: $1.3m o 2012 Presidential election: $600m  Total spending: $4.5b - Regulating Campaign Finance o Who can contribute money, how, and how much o Federal Election Campaign Act (1971)  Limited amount an individual can donate to candidate  Restricted amount of money you could spend  Limited amount a candidate can donate to their own campaign  Prevented corporations/ unions from donating money from their treasury to the candidate  Required campaigns had to disclose donations/ spending over 100$ o Created federal election commission (FEC)  In charge of enforcing these rules o Buckley vs Valeo: 1976  Limits on how much you could spend on your own campaign  Couldn’t limit total spending  Unconstitutional  How much they could spend outside campaign o PACs (political action committee  Contributions from individuals then spend money on candidate  Limited amount of money to 5000$ to a candidate but no limit on total amount o Soft Money o Independent expenditures - Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (2002) o McCain-Feingold  Limited amount of money an individual could spend over 2 year cycle o McConnell vs Federal Election Commission (2003)  Court disagreed- congress wanted to prevent corruption o FEC vs Wisconsin Right to Life, INC (2007)  Prohibited  Challenged/ supreme agreed  Rejected earlier courts’ ruling o Citizens United vs FEC (2010)  Removed restrictions on candidate ads o Speech-now vs FEC (2010)  Contribute as much as you want o Campaign finance today  spend as much as you want  Super PACs  501(c)4 groups  Local issues  Contribute anon  McCutcheon vs FEC (2013)  2 year cap went away Chapter 9: Interest Groups - What is an interest group? o Organized group sharing common interest o Try to influence policymaking o What about political parties?  Policy specialists  Political parties: policy generalists  Do not compete in elections - Why do interest groups form? o Government expansion o Disturbance theory o Entrepreneurial theory - Why do people join? o Purposive incentives o Solidary incentives o Material incentives - The free rider problem or collective action o Public good to be obtained o The logic of collective action (book)  Mancur Olson o Public vs private goods (E-reader) - What do interest groups do? o Connect citizens to government o Raise public awareness o Provide information to lawmakers o Serve as watchdogs o Shape public policy (lobbying) - Types of Interest Groups o Business Interest Groups  Individual corporations  Umbrella organizations  Chamber of commerce  National association of manufacturers  Trade organizations (banks) o Labor interest groups  Union organizations- AFL-CIO  Decline of labor o Professional groups: advanced education/training o Agricultural groups: farmers/ producers o Identity groups: common identities o Ideological groups: no particular policies o Government groups - Interest groups and policymaking o Direct techniques  Lobbying  Personal contact  Provide information  Committee testimony  Draft legislation  Lobby implementation agencies o Election support (most hated)  Political action committees (PACs)  Super PACs o Indirect techniques  Public opinion  Advertisements and 527s (general category)  Rating systems  Courts  Demonstrations and mobilization - Interest group regulations o Attempt to control influence, provide transparency o Federal regulation of lobbying act (1946) o Lobbying disclosure act (1985) o Honest leadership and open government act (2007)


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