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Exam 2 Week 1 of Notes

by: Mallori Wisuri

Exam 2 Week 1 of Notes Biology 111

Marketplace > Ball State University > Biology 111 > Exam 2 Week 1 of Notes
Mallori Wisuri
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Exam 2 Notes
Dr. Metzler
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mallori Wisuri on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 111 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Metzler in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.

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Date Created: 02/08/16
Bio  111  Exam  2     Ch.  6  Notes   2/02/16     • Organization  of  the  Cell   -­‐Microscopy  (online  video)   -­‐Experimental  Techniques  (online  video)   -­‐Structures       • Cell  Theory:     1. Cells  are  the  smallest  living  unit  of  organization   2. All  cells  come  from  other  cells  through  process  of  cell  division       LC:  All  cells  have  a  plasma  membrane?   TRUE;  if  you  are  a  cell  plasma  membrane  separates  you  from  everything   around  you.  All  plant,  prokaryotes  and  eukaryotes  have  a  plasma   membrane.       • Shared  Features  of  Cells   o Plasma  Membrane   o Chromosomes:  genetic  material   -­‐Prokaryotes  (circle)     -­‐Eukaryotes  (linear)   o Ribosomes:  make  proteins   o Cytosol:  goo  gel  component  in  the  cell   o Small:  size     o Dynamic       • Two  types  of  cells   Eukaryotes:   -­‐Animal  cell:  blob  like  structure  because  lack  of  cell  wall,  will  have   vacuole  but  will  not  have  a  central  vacuole.       -­‐Plant  cell:  have  cell  wall  give  them  a  defined  structure,   chloroplast  (green)  which  perform  photosynthesis  and  central   vacuole  which  takes  up  90%  of  the  cell,  plants  have  mitochondria.         • Function  Relates  to  Size  and  Shape   -­‐Specific  structure  that  relates  directly  to  the  function  it  performs     -­‐Examples:   Neuron:  long  connections  with  other  cells   Macrophage:  extensions  to  grab  bad  guys  that  w ill  make  you  sick.                   LC:  Proteins  are  bigger  then  cells?   FALSE;  Proteins  are  much  smaller  then  cells  and  animal  cells  are  built  of   lots  of  proteins.       • Surface  Area  to  Volume   -­‐Allows  them  to  have  maximum  ability  to  exchange  material     -­‐Bring  in  nutrients  and  expel  waste  material     -­‐If  cell  gets  too  big  it  won’t  be  able  to  exchange  material  fast  enough             to  survive   -­‐Why  cells  stay  small  on  purpose     -­‐Cells  work  hard  to  maximize  surface  area  and  is  why  they  don’t   have  a  smooth  surface  because  this  limits  surface  area.                    -­‐Example:     Small  intestines     Tissue  layer  goes  up  and  down  in  structures  called  villi.  Then  look   at  1  individual  cell  have  microvilli.  This  allows  for  maximum   nutrient  absorbance  when  food  passes  by  it.       • Prokaryotes   -­‐Smaller  than  eukaryotes  (harder  to  find  on  microscopes)   -­‐No  membrane  bound  organelles     -­‐Have  a  cell  wall  structure;  single-­‐celled     -­‐Ribosomes  are  smaller  in  size  compared  to  eukaryotes     -­‐Genetic  material  located  in  nucleoid       • Eukaryotes   -­‐Larger  in  size  than  prokaryotes   -­‐Contain  membrane  bound  organelles   -­‐Highly  organized;  put  everything  into  compartments  (organelles)   -­‐Larger  ribosomes  compared  to  prokaryotes       • Organelles!   o Nucleus     -­‐Most  prominent  organelles   -­‐Near  the  center  of  the  cell     Plant  cell  the  nucleus  is  shoved  to  side     Animal  cell  in  middle   -­‐Control  center  of  cell  structure  that  houses  DNA   -­‐DNA  controls  activity  that  goes  on  inside  of  the  cell   -­‐Double  membrane:  layer  1  and  2;  called  the  Nuclear   envelope   -­‐Nuclear  pores  are  studded  on  the  nuclear  envelope.  Pores   made  up  of  proteins  to  allow  pore  to  open  and  close   -­‐Regulation  of  what  goes  in  and  out     -­‐Nucleolus:  darker  staining  region  in  nucleus;  ribosomes  are   created  and  no  envelope  surround  it   -­‐Chromatin:  form  of  DNA  +  proteins  called  histones  that   help  condense  DNA  (bowl  of  spaghetti)     -­‐Nuclear  lamina:  located  directly  underneath  nuclear   envelope  (Put  rebar  in  concert);  it’s  a  support  structure  that   creates  the  circle  that  is  the  nucleus  (On  DNA  side).     -­‐Example:     Scientist  who  try  to  clone  things  and  remove  nucleus  from  a   cell  and  put  it  in  another  cell.  Shock  the  cell  then  cell  starts   to  divide  and  end  up  with  a  clone.       o Ribosomes   -­‐Don’t  have  a  membrane  and  is  why  they  are  found  in   prokaryotes       -­‐Job  is  to  make  proteins       -­‐Composed  of  2  subunit  (large  and  small)       -­‐Made  up  of  RNA  molecules       -­‐2  varities:   1.  Bound  ribosomes:  attach  to  the  Endoplasmic   Reticulum.  Make  proteins  that  are  going  to  leave  the   cell  or  sit  in  membrane  somewhere.   2.  Free  ribosomes:  floating  around  cytosol  of  cell.   Make  proteins  that  are  going  to  be  floating  around  in   cytosol.       -­‐Ex.  Tadpoles         2/04/16­‐review-­‐ game.php?gamefile=1482820#.Vf9bzXt4hpl       LC:  Advantage  of  light  microscopy  over  electron  microscopy.     Light  microscope  can  watch  dynamic  movement,  which  you  can’t  in   electron  microscope  because  that  organism/cell  is  dead.       LC:  Image  shown  was  with  what  type  of  microscopy  (pollen  grain).   SEM  because  its  3D  and  looking  out  the  outside  (surface).       LC:  In  microscopy  staining  improves  what?     LC:  What  would  be  the  outcome  f  the  nucleolus  was  disrupted  and  no   ribosomes     Protein  mediated       LC:  What  would  happen  is  lysosomes  wouldn’t  function?       LC:  Why  do  plants  wilt?   Central  vacuole  emptied  out  because  you  did  not  water  the  plant.         o Endomembrane  System     -­‐Has  ability  to  move  proteins  to  the  interior  of  cell  or  to  be   secreted  from  the  cell.     -­‐Play  a  role  in  metabolism  to  synthesis  lipid  and  move  lipids   around.     -­‐Parts  can  help  detoxify  substances              COMPONENTS  INCLUDE:   • Nuclear  envelope   • Endoplasmic  Reticulum:  All  membranes  of  ER  are  connected  to   one  another.  Variation(percentages)  in  quantity  of  ER  present;  all   cells  will  have  both  types.     2  types:     -­‐Rough  ER:  bumpy  because  studded  with  bound   ribosomes  on  its  surface.  Flattened  out.  Involved  in  protein   production.  Make  glycoproteins  which  is  a  protein  with   carbohydrate  added  to  it.       -­‐Smooth  ER:  no  ribosomes  on  its  surface.  Tubular  in   appearance.  Importance  in  synthesis  of  lipids,  help  to   detoxify  drugs,  storage  in  calcium  ions  (muscle  contraction).     Ex.  Ovaries/Testis,  Liver,  skeletal  muscle  cells       o Importance  of  the  ER   -­‐Clumping/Tangling  of  proteins  leading  to  diseases  such  as   Alzheimers.  Brain  of  individual  with  this  disease  will  slowly   shrink.       • Golgi:  reads  the  tags  on  proteins  and  determines  where  they  are   suppose  to  go  in  the  cell.     -­‐Made  up  of  flattened  membranes(cisternae)  that  are  not   connected  to  each  other.     -­‐Specific  sides   Cis  side:  receives  proteins  from  the  ER.  Proteins  come  in   vesicles  that  fuse  with  golgi  membrane  stack.     Medial  side:  middle   Trans  side:  faces  out  toward  plasma  membrane  and  where   proteins  exit  the  Golgi.  Proteins  exit  in  vesicles.     -­‐Haley-­‐Haley  disease:  cause  skin  irritation  disease  is  related  to  a   golgi  defect.       • Lysosomes:  Garbage  disposal  of  your  cell.  Can  destroy  any   biomolecule!     -­‐Membrane  sac  spherical  in  shape   -­‐Over  40  different  enzymes  inside  lysosome     -­‐It’s  job  is  to  break  things  down   -­‐pH  inside  of  lysosome  is  slightly  acidic(pH  5).  Enzymes  in   lysosomes  are  only  active  in  pH  of  5.  IMPORTANT  because  if  they   were  to  get  out  of  lysosome  they  would  be  able  to  destroy   everything  in/out  of  cell.  This  is  a  protective  mechanism!   -­‐40  different  genetic  disorders  related  to  lysosomes       o Phagocytosis:  cell  eating   -­‐How  a  lot  of  protist  get  their  food.     -­‐Food  vacuoles  fuse  with  lysosome  and  this  is  how  food  gets   broken  down.     o Autophagy:  self-­‐eating     -­‐Lysosomes  used  to  destroy  damaged  organelles       • Vacuoles:  membrane  bound  sac.     -­‐Several  different  types.     Plants  cells   1.  Central  vacuole:  storage  of  mostly  water,  but  also  can  store   pigments  or  wastes.  Watering  the  plant  generate  turgor  pressure   which  exerts  against  the  cell  was  and  is  why  plants  perks  up.     Animal  Cells     2.  Food  vacuole:  same  concept  in  phagocytosis   3.  Contractile  vacuole:  fills  up  with  water  then  contracts  and   squeezes  water  out  of  cell  in  protists.  This  helps  them  get  ride  of   that  extra  water  from  their  aquatic  environment  so  they  don’t   explode.  Helps  the  organism  maintain  its  osmotic  balance.         • Plasma  membrane         o Energy  Conversion     -­‐Aerobic  respiration:   Mitochondria:  location  for  aerobic  respiration   to  convert   energy  into  ATP.   *Have  a  double  membrane;  inner  membrane  folded   and  called  cristae.  Increase  SA  for  aerobic  respiration   to  take  place.     *Have  own  DNA;  dependent  on  DNA  in  nucleolus  still   *Reproduce  on  their  own   *Posses  their  own  ribosomes     -­‐Photosynthesis:   Chloroplast:  light  is  converted  into  chemical  energy,  which   is  converted  to  make  food.  Plants  make  all  food  and  oxygen.     *Have  a  double  membrane;  inner  membrane  folded   and  called  thylakoids.  Increase  SA  for  steps  of   photosynthesis.     *Have  own  DNA;  dependent  on  DNA  in  nucleolus  still   *Reproduce  on  their  own   *Posses  their  own  ribosomes     o Endosymbiosis  Theory           Ch.  6  Video  Lecture  Notes   2/04/16     Microscopy     • Magnify:  making  the  image  bigger   • Resolution:  the  ability  of  micro  to  distinguish  between  two   separate  points.       • Light  Microscopes:  use  different  types  of  light  microscopes  to   manipulate  the  image  you  want.     1.  Brightfield:  are  scopes  where  you  are  just  shining  light   Want  to  see  cells  better  well  want  to  stain  the  cells  to   provide  contrast  to  see  the  shape  of  the  cell,  nucleus,   membrane  etc.  (Brightfield  stained  specimen)   2. Confocal:  light  microscopes  are  specific  wave  of  lights  that  can   excite  fluorescent  dyes  or  give  off  color.     -­‐Hooked  up  to  a  computer     3. Fluorescent:  stain  specimen  with  dye  so  when  you  hit  it  with  a   specific  wavelength  of  light  it  will  give  off  a  color.     -­‐Very  specifically  stain  individual  components  of  the  cell.       o Light  Microscopy:   -­‐Big  pro  lets  us  look  at  living  organisms;  you  can  see  them   moving,  functioning,  see  things  inside  of  them  moving.     -­‐Use  stains/dyes   -­‐Negative  is  that  detail  is  limited  because  most  microscopes   will  max  out  magnification  at  1000X.  Maximum  resolution  is   0.2microns.     -­‐Example:  amoebae       o Electron  Microscopy:  shooting  a  beam  of  electrons  at   specimen  not  a  beam  of  light   1. Scanning  Electron  Microscopy  (SEM)   -­‐Use  them  to  look  at  fine  surface  detail  of  organisms   -­‐Beams  bounce  off  surface  of  specimen     -­‐Kill  the  specimen  and  coat  it  with  thin  layer  of  golds   -­‐3D  image   -­‐Example:  amoebae  looks  differently  and  can  see  its   covered  with  cilia     2. Transmission  Electron  Microscopy  (TEM)   -­‐Use  them  to  look  at  the  very  fine  inside  detail  of   organisms   -­‐Beams  goes  through  the  specimen   -­‐Organism  are  cut  it  very  thin  sections  and  then  coated   heavy  metal  atoms     -­‐Kill  the  specimen     o Cell  Fractionation(animation  on  BB)   -­‐Technique  used  to  purify  organelles     -­‐Take  a  big  tube  of  cells  that  you  need  to  rupture  called   homogenization     -­‐Rupturing  cell  membrane  and  releasing  all  interior   contents  of  cell   -­‐Next,  you  put  the  tube  into  a  centrifuge     -­‐Different  parts  of  cell  have  different  densities  so  by   spinning  homogenized  cells  you  can  separate  out  different   components/fractions  of  the  cell  you  want  to  study       -­‐Pellet  and  supernatant     -­‐Used  for  experiments  to  study  function  of  specific   organelles              


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