Exam 2 Week 1 of Notes
Exam 2 Week 1 of Notes Biology 111
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mallori Wisuri on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 111 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Metzler in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Bio 111 Exam 2 Ch. 6 Notes 2/02/16 • Organization of the Cell -‐Microscopy (online video) -‐Experimental Techniques (online video) -‐Structures • Cell Theory: 1. Cells are the smallest living unit of organization 2. All cells come from other cells through process of cell division LC: All cells have a plasma membrane? TRUE; if you are a cell plasma membrane separates you from everything around you. All plant, prokaryotes and eukaryotes have a plasma membrane. • Shared Features of Cells o Plasma Membrane o Chromosomes: genetic material -‐Prokaryotes (circle) -‐Eukaryotes (linear) o Ribosomes: make proteins o Cytosol: goo gel component in the cell o Small: size o Dynamic • Two types of cells Eukaryotes: -‐Animal cell: blob like structure because lack of cell wall, will have vacuole but will not have a central vacuole. -‐Plant cell: have cell wall give them a defined structure, chloroplast (green) which perform photosynthesis and central vacuole which takes up 90% of the cell, plants have mitochondria. • Function Relates to Size and Shape -‐Specific structure that relates directly to the function it performs -‐Examples: Neuron: long connections with other cells Macrophage: extensions to grab bad guys that w ill make you sick. LC: Proteins are bigger then cells? FALSE; Proteins are much smaller then cells and animal cells are built of lots of proteins. • Surface Area to Volume -‐Allows them to have maximum ability to exchange material -‐Bring in nutrients and expel waste material -‐If cell gets too big it won’t be able to exchange material fast enough to survive -‐Why cells stay small on purpose -‐Cells work hard to maximize surface area and is why they don’t have a smooth surface because this limits surface area. -‐Example: Small intestines Tissue layer goes up and down in structures called villi. Then look at 1 individual cell have microvilli. This allows for maximum nutrient absorbance when food passes by it. • Prokaryotes -‐Smaller than eukaryotes (harder to find on microscopes) -‐No membrane bound organelles -‐Have a cell wall structure; single-‐celled -‐Ribosomes are smaller in size compared to eukaryotes -‐Genetic material located in nucleoid • Eukaryotes -‐Larger in size than prokaryotes -‐Contain membrane bound organelles -‐Highly organized; put everything into compartments (organelles) -‐Larger ribosomes compared to prokaryotes • Organelles! o Nucleus -‐Most prominent organelles -‐Near the center of the cell Plant cell the nucleus is shoved to side Animal cell in middle -‐Control center of cell structure that houses DNA -‐DNA controls activity that goes on inside of the cell -‐Double membrane: layer 1 and 2; called the Nuclear envelope -‐Nuclear pores are studded on the nuclear envelope. Pores made up of proteins to allow pore to open and close -‐Regulation of what goes in and out -‐Nucleolus: darker staining region in nucleus; ribosomes are created and no envelope surround it -‐Chromatin: form of DNA + proteins called histones that help condense DNA (bowl of spaghetti) -‐Nuclear lamina: located directly underneath nuclear envelope (Put rebar in concert); it’s a support structure that creates the circle that is the nucleus (On DNA side). -‐Example: Scientist who try to clone things and remove nucleus from a cell and put it in another cell. Shock the cell then cell starts to divide and end up with a clone. o Ribosomes -‐Don’t have a membrane and is why they are found in prokaryotes -‐Job is to make proteins -‐Composed of 2 subunit (large and small) -‐Made up of RNA molecules -‐2 varities: 1. Bound ribosomes: attach to the Endoplasmic Reticulum. Make proteins that are going to leave the cell or sit in membrane somewhere. 2. Free ribosomes: floating around cytosol of cell. Make proteins that are going to be floating around in cytosol. -‐Ex. Tadpoles 2/04/16 http://www.superteachertools.us/jeopardyx/jeopardy-‐review-‐ game.php?gamefile=1482820#.Vf9bzXt4hpl LC: Advantage of light microscopy over electron microscopy. Light microscope can watch dynamic movement, which you can’t in electron microscope because that organism/cell is dead. LC: Image shown was with what type of microscopy (pollen grain). SEM because its 3D and looking out the outside (surface). LC: In microscopy staining improves what? LC: What would be the outcome f the nucleolus was disrupted and no ribosomes Protein mediated LC: What would happen is lysosomes wouldn’t function? LC: Why do plants wilt? Central vacuole emptied out because you did not water the plant. o Endomembrane System -‐Has ability to move proteins to the interior of cell or to be secreted from the cell. -‐Play a role in metabolism to synthesis lipid and move lipids around. -‐Parts can help detoxify substances COMPONENTS INCLUDE: • Nuclear envelope • Endoplasmic Reticulum: All membranes of ER are connected to one another. Variation(percentages) in quantity of ER present; all cells will have both types. 2 types: -‐Rough ER: bumpy because studded with bound ribosomes on its surface. Flattened out. Involved in protein production. Make glycoproteins which is a protein with carbohydrate added to it. -‐Smooth ER: no ribosomes on its surface. Tubular in appearance. Importance in synthesis of lipids, help to detoxify drugs, storage in calcium ions (muscle contraction). Ex. Ovaries/Testis, Liver, skeletal muscle cells o Importance of the ER -‐Clumping/Tangling of proteins leading to diseases such as Alzheimers. Brain of individual with this disease will slowly shrink. • Golgi: reads the tags on proteins and determines where they are suppose to go in the cell. -‐Made up of flattened membranes(cisternae) that are not connected to each other. -‐Specific sides Cis side: receives proteins from the ER. Proteins come in vesicles that fuse with golgi membrane stack. Medial side: middle Trans side: faces out toward plasma membrane and where proteins exit the Golgi. Proteins exit in vesicles. -‐Haley-‐Haley disease: cause skin irritation disease is related to a golgi defect. • Lysosomes: Garbage disposal of your cell. Can destroy any biomolecule! -‐Membrane sac spherical in shape -‐Over 40 different enzymes inside lysosome -‐It’s job is to break things down -‐pH inside of lysosome is slightly acidic(pH 5). Enzymes in lysosomes are only active in pH of 5. IMPORTANT because if they were to get out of lysosome they would be able to destroy everything in/out of cell. This is a protective mechanism! -‐40 different genetic disorders related to lysosomes o Phagocytosis: cell eating -‐How a lot of protist get their food. -‐Food vacuoles fuse with lysosome and this is how food gets broken down. o Autophagy: self-‐eating -‐Lysosomes used to destroy damaged organelles • Vacuoles: membrane bound sac. -‐Several different types. Plants cells 1. Central vacuole: storage of mostly water, but also can store pigments or wastes. Watering the plant generate turgor pressure which exerts against the cell was and is why plants perks up. Animal Cells 2. Food vacuole: same concept in phagocytosis 3. Contractile vacuole: fills up with water then contracts and squeezes water out of cell in protists. This helps them get ride of that extra water from their aquatic environment so they don’t explode. Helps the organism maintain its osmotic balance. • Plasma membrane o Energy Conversion -‐Aerobic respiration: Mitochondria: location for aerobic respiration to convert energy into ATP. *Have a double membrane; inner membrane folded and called cristae. Increase SA for aerobic respiration to take place. *Have own DNA; dependent on DNA in nucleolus still *Reproduce on their own *Posses their own ribosomes -‐Photosynthesis: Chloroplast: light is converted into chemical energy, which is converted to make food. Plants make all food and oxygen. *Have a double membrane; inner membrane folded and called thylakoids. Increase SA for steps of photosynthesis. *Have own DNA; dependent on DNA in nucleolus still *Reproduce on their own *Posses their own ribosomes o Endosymbiosis Theory Ch. 6 Video Lecture Notes 2/04/16 Microscopy • Magnify: making the image bigger • Resolution: the ability of micro to distinguish between two separate points. • Light Microscopes: use different types of light microscopes to manipulate the image you want. 1. Brightfield: are scopes where you are just shining light Want to see cells better well want to stain the cells to provide contrast to see the shape of the cell, nucleus, membrane etc. (Brightfield stained specimen) 2. Confocal: light microscopes are specific wave of lights that can excite fluorescent dyes or give off color. -‐Hooked up to a computer 3. Fluorescent: stain specimen with dye so when you hit it with a specific wavelength of light it will give off a color. -‐Very specifically stain individual components of the cell. o Light Microscopy: -‐Big pro lets us look at living organisms; you can see them moving, functioning, see things inside of them moving. -‐Use stains/dyes -‐Negative is that detail is limited because most microscopes will max out magnification at 1000X. Maximum resolution is 0.2microns. -‐Example: amoebae o Electron Microscopy: shooting a beam of electrons at specimen not a beam of light 1. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) -‐Use them to look at fine surface detail of organisms -‐Beams bounce off surface of specimen -‐Kill the specimen and coat it with thin layer of golds -‐3D image -‐Example: amoebae looks differently and can see its covered with cilia 2. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) -‐Use them to look at the very fine inside detail of organisms -‐Beams goes through the specimen -‐Organism are cut it very thin sections and then coated heavy metal atoms -‐Kill the specimen o Cell Fractionation(animation on BB) -‐Technique used to purify organelles -‐Take a big tube of cells that you need to rupture called homogenization -‐Rupturing cell membrane and releasing all interior contents of cell -‐Next, you put the tube into a centrifuge -‐Different parts of cell have different densities so by spinning homogenized cells you can separate out different components/fractions of the cell you want to study -‐Pellet and supernatant -‐Used for experiments to study function of specific organelles