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Note for HRMA 1345 with Professor Neal at UH


Note for HRMA 1345 with Professor Neal at UH

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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Houston taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 70 views.

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Date Created: 02/06/15
HRMA Exam 1 Review 39239 Chapterl gt Terms Foodborne Illness a disease carried or transmitted to people by food Foodborneillness outbreak an incident in which 2 or more people get the same illness after eating the same food Warrany of sale rules stating how food must be handled in an establishment Reasonable care defense defense against a foodrelated lawsuit stating that an establishment did everything that could reasonably expected to ensure that the food was served was safe Immune systemThe body s defense system against illness People with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to foodborne illness Contamination Presence of harmful substances in food Some food safety hazards occur naturally while others are introduced by humans or the environment Biological hazard illnesscausing microorganisms that can contaminate food such as certain bacteria viruses parasites and fungi as well as toxins found in certain plants mushrooms and seafood Chemical hazard Chemical substances that can contaminate food such as cleaners sanitizers polishes machine lubricants and toxic metals that leach from cookware and equipment Physical hazardForeign objects that can accidentally get into food and contaminate it such as hair dirt metal staples and broken glass as well as naturally occurring objects such as bones in fillets Timetemperature abuse Food has been timetemperature abused any time it has been allowed to remain too long at a temperature favorable to the growth of microorganisms Crosscontamination Occurs when microorganisms are transferred from one food or surface to another Personal hygieneHabits that include keeping the hands hair and body clean and wearing clean and appropriate uniforms Avoiding unsanitary actions and reporting illness and injury are also features of good personal hygiene gt Chapter notes Foodborne illnesses 0 Defined as an outbreak when 2 or more people get sick from the same food 0 High risk populations O Infants and children O Elderly O Pregnant women O People with compromised immune systems gt Cancer gt HIVAIDS gt Diabetes Prevention o Contamination broken into 3 categories O Biological hazard causes greatest number if illnesses gt Microorganisms 4 types contaminate food and cause illness I Virus bacteria parasite fungi gt Certain plant mushroom and seafood toxins O Chemical hazard gt 5 kinds of special concern I Pesticides 0 Receive most media attention 0 Danger has been controlled by increased controls and legislative requirements I Contamination of food with food service chemicals 0 Are often poisonous I Use of excessive quantities of additives preservatives amp spices I Acidic action of food with metallined containers I Contamination of food with toxic metals O Physical hazard gt Hair dirt broken glass bandages gt Naturally occurring objects such as bone in fillets o How food becomes unsafe 5 most common risk factors O Purchasing from unsafe sources O Failing to cook food adequately timetemperature abuse O Using contaminated equipment crosscontamination O Poor personal hygiene gt PowerPoint or other notes I Spoiled vs contaminated o Spoiled implies a decay or quality issue O Easy to identify 0 Contaminates cause illness without changing appearance odor or taste O Nearly impossible to identify I Cleanliness vs sanitation 0 Cleanliness is concerned with the removal of visible soil for the surface of equipment and utensils o Sanitation is the creation and maintenance of healthful of hygienic conditions O Reducing microorganisms to a safe level I Infection or Intoxication o A foodborne illness is a disease that results from eating food containing living harmful microorganisms O Symptoms do not appear immediately 0 A foodborne intoxication results when toxins from bacterial or mold growth are present in ingested food ampcause illness O Symptoms appear quickly Q Can cause illness after being killed o 00 O May be present in foods naturally Chapter 2 gt Terms Microorganisms Small living organisms that can be seen only with the aid of a microscope There are four types of microorganisms that can contaminate food and cause foodborne illness bacteria viruses parasites and fungi Pathogens illness causing microorganisms Lim Poisons produced by pathogens plants or animals Some occur in animals as a result of their diet FAT TOM Acronym for the conditions needed by most foodborne microorganisms to grow food acidity temperature time oxygen moisture Temperature Danger Zone The temperature range between 41 F and 135 F within which most foodborne microorganisms rapidly grow Water activiy Amount of moisture available in food for microorganisms to grow It is measured in a scale from 00 to 10 with water having a water activity of 10 TCS food typically has a water activity 085 or higher M Smallest of the microbial food contaminates Viruses rely on a living host to reproduce They usually contaminate food through a foodhandler s improper personal hygiene Some survive freezing and cooking temperatures Bacteria Singlecelled living microorganisms that can spoil food and cause illness Bacteria present in food can quickly multiply to dangerous levels when food is improperly cooked held or reheated Some form spores that can survive freezing and very high temperatures m Form that some bacteria can take tiprotect themselves when nutrients are not available Spores are commonly found in soil and can contaminate food grown there A spore can resist heat allowing it to survive cooking temperatures Spores can also revert back to a form capable of growth This can occur when food is not held at the proper temperature or cooled or reheated properly Parasite Organism that needs to live in a host organism to survive Parasites can be found in water and inside many animals such as cows chickens pigs and fish Proper cooking and freezing will kill parasites Avoiding crosscontamination and practicing proper handwashing can also prevent illness Mg Ranging in size from microscopic singlecelled organisms to very large multicellular organisms Fungi most often cause food to spoil Molds yeasts and mushrooms are examples M Type of fungus that causes food spoilage Some mold produce toxins that can cause foodborne illness Yeast Type of fungus that causes food spoilage gt Chapter notes Pathogens o 4 types of pathogens O Virus O Bacteria O Parasites O Fungi I Viruses FAT TOM O 9 Food Acidity gt pH between 00 and 69 acidic gt pH between 71 and 140 alkaline I Pathogens grow best food that contains little or no acid a pH of 46 to 75 Temperature gt Pathogens grow well in food held between 41 F and 135 F known as the temperature danger zone Time gt After 4 hours pathogens grow to a high enough level to cause illness Oxygen Moisture gt Water activity measure on a scale of 00 to 10 I Food with a water activity of 85 is ideal for pathogen growth Foods most likely to become unsafe 9999990999999 9 Milk and dairy products Eggs except those treated to eliminate Salmonella spp Meat beef pork and lamb Poultry Fish Shellfish and crustaceans Baked potatoes Heat treated plat food such as cooked rice beans and vegetables Tofu or other soy protein Synthetic ingredients such as textured soy protein in mean alternatives Sprouts and sprout seeds Sliced melons Cut tomatoes Cut leafy greens fresh leafy greens that have been cut shredded sliced chopped or torn Basic characteristics O Smallest amp simplest form of life Q Can survive refrigeration and freezer temperatures O Cannot grow in food they grow inside a person s intestines Q Can contaminate both food and water O Transmitted from person to person from people to food and from people to foodcontact surfaces Prevention O Keep foodhandlers who are vomiting or have diarrhea or jaundice from working O Proper handwashing O Minimize barehand contact with readytoeat food Foodborne illnesses caused by viruses O Hepatitis A gt VVV gt gt gt Virus Heptovirus Common source Human intestinal and urinary tracts contaminated water Food Commonly linked with it Readytoeat food shellfish from contaminated water Most common symptoms mild or no illness then sudden onset of fever general weaknessamp discomfort abdominal pain and jaundice after several days Incubation period 10 50 days Duration of illness 1 to 2 weeks severe cases may last several months Most important prevention measure Practicing personal hygiene O Norwalk virus Gastroenteritis VVVVVVV Virus Norovirus Common source Human intestinal tract and contaminated water Food commonly linked with it Readytoeat food shellfish from contaminated water Most common symptoms Vomiting Diarrhea nausea abdominal cramps Incubation period usually 1 to 2 days ranges from 10 to 50 hours Duration of illness 1 to 3 days Most important prevention measure Practicing personal hygiene obtain shellfish from approved sources O Rotavirus Gastroenteritis gt VVVVVV I Bacteria Virus Rotavirus I llness more common in children than adults Common Source Human intestinal tract contaminated water Food commonly linked with it Readytoeat food shellfish from contaminated water Most common symptoms vomiting and diarrhea abdominal pain mild fever Incubation period usually 1 to 3 days Duration of illness usually 4 to 8 days Most important prevention measure practicing personal hygiene Basic Characteristics O Controlled by keeping food out of the temperature danger zone Q Will grow rapidly if FAT TOM conditions are right O Some change into a different form called spores to protect themselves O Some produce toxins in food as they grow and die Cooking may not destroy toxins Growth broken into 4 stages O Lag bacteria is first introduced number is stable Log rapid growth bacteria splits in 2 O O Stationary just as many bacteria are growing as dying 9 Death number of bacteria dying exceeds number growing o Foodborne illness caused by bacteria 9 Salmonellosis nontyphoidal gt gt gt gt gt Bacteria Salmonella spp Common source poultry and swine Food most commonly linked with it Most common symptoms Diarrhea abdominal cramps vomiting fever severe dehydration in elders and infants Most important prevention measures Preventing crosscontamination cook poultry to at least 165 F for at least 15 seconds Shigellosis bacillary dysentery gt Bacteria Shigella spp gt Common Source Human feces flies transfer bacteria polluted water gt Food most commonly linked with it TCS food that is easily contaminated with hands potato tuna shrimp and chicken salads gt Most common symptoms Bloody diarrhea abdominal pain fever gt Most important prevention measures Practicing personal hygiene control flies Listeriosis gt Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes gt Common Source cool moist environments such as soil water plants gt Food most commonly linked with it unpasteurized dairy raw meat readytoeat food gt Most common symptoms uncommon in healthy people Pregnant women may cause miscarriage or stillbirth Newborns septicemia meningitis gt Most important prevention measures Controlling time and temperature Camplylobacteriosis VVVVV Bacteria Campylobacter jejuni Common Source poultry unpasteurized milk unchlorinated water Food most commonly linked with it milk and dairy raw poultry Most common symptoms diarrhea watery or bloody abdominal pain muscle pain Most important prevention measures Controlling time and temperature proper hand washing Hemorrhagic Colitis gt gt gt gt gt Bacteria Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli Common Source intestinal tract of cattle unpasteurized milk Food most commonly linked with it ground beef contaminated produce Most common symptoms may cause kidney failure in the very young abdominal pain and vomiting more severe in the immunocompromised Most important prevention measures Controlling time and temperature Vibrio parahaemolyticus Gastroenteritis gt gt gt Bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus Common Source waters where shellfish are harvested shrimp other shellfish Food most commonly linked with it oysters from contaminated water gt gt Most common symptoms diarrhea vomiting cramps People with chronic illness may get primary septicemia which leads to death Most important prevention measures Purchasing from approved suppliers O Vibrio vulnificus Primary Septicemia gt VVVV Bacteria Vibrio Vulnificus Common Source contaminated waters where shellfish are harvested Food most commonly linked with it raw oysters Most common symptoms skin lesions hypotension chills fever Most important prevention measures purchase from approved suppliers avoid cross contamination Yersiniosis VVVV gt Bacteria Yersinia enterocoliticus Common Source domestic animal soil water Food most commonly linked with it contaminated pasteurized milk tofu fish Most common symptoms vary by age group diarrhea is common Most important prevention measures time and temperature control 0 Foodborne intoxication caused by bacteria O Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis gt gt V gt gt Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus I Most common bacteria causing foodborne intoxication Common source humans particularly in the hair nose throat and infected cuts Food most commonly associated with it High protein foods dairy products custards potato amp macaroni salad Most common symptoms Nausea abdominal cramps projectile vomiting amp retching In severe cases headache muscle cramps changes in blood pressure and pulse Most important prevention measure Practicing personal hygiene O Clostridium perfringensGastoenteritis VVVVV Bacteria Clostridium perfringens Common source soil water sewage intestinal tracts of humans amp animals Food most commonly linked with it meat poultry stews and gravy Most common symptoms Explosive diarrhea abdominal pain and cramping nausea Most important prevention measures Proper time and temperature control O Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis gt gt gt gt gt Bacteria Bacillus Cereus Common source soil amp dust cereal crops Food most commonly associated with it Diarrhea illness milk meat products and cooked vegetables Vomiting illness cooked rice dishes including fried rice and rice pudding Most common symptoms Diarrhea illness watery diarrhea no vomiting Vomiting illness nausea vomiting Most common prevention measures Controlling time amp temperature O Botulism VV gt I Parasites Bacteria Clostridium botulinum I prefers lowacid anaerobic environment cannot grow in the precence of air I Contaminated food usually demonstrates noticeable changes Common source water soil Food most commonly linked with it untreated garlicandoil mixtures incorrectly canned food baked potatoes Most common symptoms initially nausea amp vomiting Later weakness double vision difficulty speaking and swallowing Most important prevention measures controlling time and temperature 0 Characteristics O Cannot grow in food needs a host to survive O Found in feces Q Can contaminate food and water 0 Major foodborne illnesses caused by parasites O Trichinosis gt gt gt V Parasite Trichinella spiralis Common source Pigs rats bears walrus In US wild game is responsible for more infections than pork Food commonly linked with it undercooked pork or wild game Most common symptoms Nausea diarrhea abdominal pain swelling around eyes thirst hemorrhaging fatigue Incubation period 2 to 28 days Most important prevention measure cook food to minimum internal temperature sanitize equipment O Anisakiasis VVVVVV Parasite Anisakis simplex Common source raw or undercooked seawater fish Food commonly linked with it herring cod halibut pacific salmon Most common symptoms tingling throat coughing up worms Incubation period a few hours to 2 weeks Most important prevention measure Purchase from approved suppliers O Giardiasis gt gt gt gt gt Parasite Giardia duodenalis also called G lamblia Common source Intestinal tract of humans contaminated water Food commonly linked with it water produce Most common symptoms Initially fever Later Diarrhea abdominal cramps nausea weight loss intestinal gas Most important prevention measure Purchase from approved sources use properly treated water O Toxoplamosis V Parasite Toxoplasma gondi gt Common source Animal especially feline feces mammals gt Food commonly linked with it raw undercooked meat especially pork lamb wild game poultry gt Most common symptoms Often no symptoms occur Rash may include enlarged lymph nodes in head and neck Most commonly affects fetuses gt Most important prevention measure Proper handwashing cook meat to proper minimum internal temperatures O Intestinal Cryptosporidiosis gt Parasite Cyptosporidium parvum gt Common source Intestinal tract of humans cattle and domestic animals water contaminated with runoff from farms or slaughter houses gt Food commonly linked with it Unpasteurized apple cider salads milk readytoeat foods gt Most common symptoms Nausea abdominal cramp watery diarrhea gt Most important prevention measure Practice proper hygiene use sanitary water sources O Cyclosporiasis Fungi gt Parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis gt Common source Intestinal tract of humans contaminated water supplies gt Food commonly linked with it raw produce marine fish raw milk gt Most common symptoms Sudden onset nausea abdominal cramps watery diarrhea fever gt Most important prevention measure Proper personal hygiene wash produce Mold O Basic characteristics gt Spoil food and sometimes cause illness gt Produce toxins such as aflatoxins gt Grow in any condition Grow well in acidic food with low water activity such as jellies bacon ham and salami O Some produce toxins that cause allergic reactions nervous system disorders kidney and liver failure gt Aflatoxin I Can cause liver disease I Associated foods corn products peanut products cottonseed milk and treenuts Yeast O Basic characteristics gt Spoil food quickly I Signs of spoilage smell or taste of alcohol yeast may look like a white or pink discoloration or slime gt Grow well in acidic food with low water activity Biological toxins Seafood toxinsWlLL NOT BE ON EXAM l BUT WILL BE ON FlNAL O Characteristics gt Cannot be smelled or tasted gt Cannot be destroyed by freezing or cooking one formed in food O Systemic fish toxins produced by fish itself gt Puffer fish moray eels and freshwater minnows O Major foodborne illnesses cause by seafood toxins gt Scombroid poisoning histamine poisoning Common source Eating high levels of histamine in scombroid and other fish species Food commonly linked with it Tune mahimahi bonito mackerel Most common symptoms Initially sweating reddening of the face amp neck burning or tingling in the mouth or throat Later diarrhea vomiting Most important prevention measures Purchase from approved suppliers prevent time temperature abuse Ciguatera fish poisoning Common source certain marine algae Food commonly linked with it Barracuda grouper jacks snapper Most common symptoms Reversal of hot amp cold sensation vomiting nausea joint amp muscle pain Tingling in fingertips lips or toes Most important prevention measures Purchase predatory tropical reef fish from approved sources Paralytic Shellfish poisoning PSP Common source shellfish that filter toxic algae from the water Food most commonly linked with it shellfish found in colder waters such as those in pacific and new England coasts including clams mussels oysters scallops Most common symptoms numbness dizziness nausea diarrhea tingling of the mouth face arms and legs Most important prevention measure purchase shellfish from approved sources Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning NSP Common source Shellfish that filter toxic algae from the water Food most commonly linked with Shellfish found in warmer water of the west coast of Florida the gulf and the Caribbean sea Most common symptoms dizziness vomiting diarrhea reversal of hot amp cold sensations tingling and numbness of the lips throat and tongue Most important prevention measure purchase shellfish from approved sources Amnesic shellfish poisoning ASP Common source Shellfish that filter toxic algae from the water Food most commonly linked with it Shellfish from coastal water in the pacific northwest and the east coast of Canada including clams mussels oysters scallops Most common symptoms initially vomiting diarrhea abdominal Later confusion memory loss disorientation seizure coma Most important prevention measure purchase shellfish from approved sources 0 Mushroom Toxins 0 Plant toxins 39239 Chapter3 gt Terms Biological contaminates Microorganisms such as viruses bacteria parasites and fungi as well as toxins found in certain plants mushrooms and seafood that have contaminated food Chemical contaminants Chemical substances such as cleaners sanitizers polishes machine lubricants and toxic metals that leach from equipment that have contaminated food Toxicmetal poisoning Illness causes when toxic metals are leaches from utensils or equipment containing them Physical contaminant Physical objects such as hair dirt metal staples and broken glass as well as bones in fillets that have contaminated food Food defense Program developed and implemented by an operation to prevent deliberate contamination of its food Food allergy The body s negative reaction to a particular food protein Cross contact The transfer of an allergen from a food containing an allergen to a food that does not contain the allergen gt Chapter notes Chemical contaminants o Toxic Metals O Arsenic gt Chronic low levels in water O Lead gt Found pewter can be used to make pitchers and other table ware O Copper gt Sometimes found in cookware such as pots and pans O Mercury gt Found in large fish O Zinc gt Found in galvanized items Q If acidic food is stored or prepared with this equipment toxicmetal poisoning may occur 0 Foodservice chemicals O Such as cleaners sanitizers polishes and machine lubricants O Prevention gt Store chemicals away from food utensils and equipment used for food gt Follow manufacturers directions gt Keep all chemical containers labeled gt Only used lubricants made for food equipment Physical Contaminants 0 Metal shavings from cans Staples from cartons 0 Glass blades from plastic or rubber staples 0 Fruit pits bones o Fingernails hair bandages jewelry and dirt I Food sensitivities o Allergic reactions mediated by classical immune mechanism specific for that food 0 Food intolerances nonimmune adverse reaction to food enzymatic lactase deficiency o Toxic food reaction large doses of scombroid fish poisoning I Food allergens 0 Symptoms Itching in and around the mouth face and scalp Tightening in throat Wheezing or shortness of breath Hives Swelling of the face eyes hands or feet Abdominal cramps vomiting or diarrhea 9999999 Loss of consciousness or death 0 Common food allergens account for 80 of food allergens Milk and dairy products Eggs and egg products Fish and shellfish Wheat Soy and soy products 999999 Peanuts and tree nuts 0 Prevention O Service staff gt Describe dishes gt Identify ingredients gt Suggest simple menu items O Kitchen staff gt Wash rinse and sanitize cookware utensils and equipment before preparing food gt Wash your hands and change gloves before preparing food gt Assign specific equipment for preparing food fir customers with food allergens 0 Children O Typically outgrow allergies to milk and soy O Typically do not outgrow allergies to fish shellfish and peanuts 39239 Chapter 14 gt Terms I US Department of Agriculture USDA Federal agency responsible for the inspection and quality of grading meat meat products poultry dairy products eggs and egg products and fruit and vegetables shipped across state lines I Food and Drug Administration FDA Federal agency that issues the FDA Food Code working jointly with the USDA and CDC The FDA also inspects foodservice operations that cross state borders interstate establishments such as food manufacturers and processors and planes and trains because they overlap the jurisdictions of 2 or more states I Regulations Laws determining standards of behavior Restaurant and foodservice regulations are typically written at the state lever and based on the FDA Food Code I Health inspectors City count or state employee who conducts foodservice inspections Health inspectors are also known as sanitarians health officials and environmental health specialists They are generally trained in food safety sanitation and public health principles I Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC Agencies of the US Department of Health and Human Services that investigate foodborneillness outbreaks study the causes and control of disease publish statistical data and conduct the Vessel sanitation program I Environmental Protection Agency IEPAI Federal agency that sets standards for environmental quality including air and water quality and regulates pesticide use and waste handling I National Marine Fisheries Service NMFS Agency of US Department of Commerce that provides a voluntary inspection program that includes product standards and sanitary requirements for fish processing operations Chapter notes I Government regulatory system 0 Federal level O US Department of Agriculture gt Responsible for inspection and quality grading on product shipped across state lines gt Has larger fiscal budget O Food and Drug Administration gt Issues the FDA Food Code gt Inspects foodservice operations that cross state borders gt Inspects 80 of food in the country 0 State level O Most food regulations affecting restaurants are written gt Each state decides whether to adopt FDA Food Code or some modified form of it Q Regulations enforced by state or local departments O Health inspectors conduct restaurant and foodservice inspections O All counties in Texas are regulated by Texas Food Establishment Rules TFER I The FDA Food Code 0 Lists the government s recommendations for foodservice 0 Updated every 2 years 0 FDA recommends adoption by states but cannot require it I The inspection process 0 Inspection frequency O Required every 6 months but will vary depending on determining factors gt Use a riskbased approach to inspection frequency O Determining factors gt Size and complexity of the operation gt An establishment s inspection history gt Clientele s susceptibility to foodborne illness gt Workload of the local health department and number of inspectors available Steps in inspection process 9990999 Closure Ask for identification Cooperate Take notes Keep the relationship professional Be prepared to provide records upon request Discuss violations and time frames for correction with inspectors Act on all deficiencies noted in the report O fa facility poses and immediate and substantial health hazard inspector may ask for a voluntary closure or issue an immediate suspension of the permit to operate O Hazards calling for closure gt VVVV gt Significant lack of refrigeration Backup of sewage into the establishment or its water supply Emergency such as building fire or flood Infestation of insects of rodents Long interruption of electrical or water services Clear evidence of a foodborneillness outbreak related to establishment I Federal Regulatory Agencies Centers for Disease control and Prevention CDC O Investigate outbreaks O Study causes and control of disease O Publish statistical data O Conduct vessel sanitation program an inspection program for cruise ships Environmental protection agency EPA O Sets air and waterquality standards O Regulates use of pesticides and the handling of wastes National Marine Fisheries Service NM FS O Implements a voluntary inspection that includes product standards and sanitary requirements for fishprocessing operations


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