History 150: Exam 2 Material
History 150: Exam 2 Material 150
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Rusnak on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 150 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Malone in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
2/8/16: The Reformation The Reformation. ***test questions*** October 31, 1517. o Martin Luther unwittingly started the Reformation with his NinetyFive Theses. Stimulate a debate within the university. Response to Johann Tetzel. #27: It is mere human talk to preach that the soul flies out [of purgatory] immediately the money clinks in the collectionbox. #28: It is certainly possible that when the money clinks in the collectionbox greed and avarice can increase; but the intercession of the Church depends on the will of God alone. #81: This wanton preaching of pardons makes it difficult even for learned men to redeem respect due to the Pope from slanders or at least the shrewd questioning of the laity. #94: Christians should be exhorted to seek earnestly to follow Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hells. #95: And let them thus be more confident of entering heaven through many tribulations rather than through a false assurance of peace. Indulgences. o A piece of paper that granted remission of part or all of the time an individual might have to spend in purgatory due to sin. o Johann Tetzel’s sale of indulgences. Sales used by the Pope for the construction of a new basilica in Rome. “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from the Purgatory springs.” o The Council of Trent. 15451563 Prohibited the sale of indulgences. 1520. o Luther published a pamphlet, To The Christian Nobility. Could purchase for themselves or dead relative. Moving in a more radical direction. Directly addressed to German Princes. Cast off their allegiance to the Pope and help establish a reformed church in German states. 1520. o Pope Leo X issued a papal edict condemning Luther. Recant theoretical ideas. Burnt the paper edict. Luther was excommunicated. 1521. 2/8/16: The Reformation o Charles V (the Holy Roman Emperor) summoned Luther to a meeting. o Luther refused to recant his heretical ideas. Frederick of Saxony saved Luther when he “kidnapped” and hid him for a year. Spreading the message: o The development of printing. New technologies in communication. Crucial in spreading religious thinking and Luther’s words. o Johann Gutenberg’s invention of moveable type for printing (c. 1450). o Printing press. Shift from parchment to paper. The cost of books will drop by 1/5 percent. By 1500 there were more than 1,000 printing shops in Europe. o Woodcuts by Lucas Cranach. Medium for this time period for those who could not read. Follower of Luther. A new faith (the first Protestant faith). o Lutheranism. Roman’s 1:17 “The just shall live by faith.” Final authority by religious matters. German translation for the Bible. No biblical implication in indulgences. Salvation. Achieved through faith alone. Final authority on religious matters. The Bible. Everyone should read the Bible. Beliefs and practices that had no basis in the Bible were eliminated. o Catholicism: Salvation. Achieved through faith and good works. Final authority on religious matters. The Bible and decisions made by the Popes and Church Councils. Only the clergy can read and interpret the Bible correctly. Implications of the Reformation. o Establishment of other Protestant groups; end of religious unity and papal supremacy. o Religious warfare. Examples in German states from 15461555. o Religious persecution and massacres. August 24, 1572. The St. Bartholomeus’s Day massacre. 2/8/16: The Reformation Massacre of Huguenots (French Calvinists) in Paris and the provinces.
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