JUST1000 Week 1 Notes
JUST1000 Week 1 Notes JUST 1000
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Miles on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JUST 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Joseph Bartlett in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Criminal Justice I. Crime data and Social Policy a. Looking at the statistics of crimes can be helpful in creating social policy b. Crime data helps: - Develop strategies to make community safer - Design new initiatives - Plan new laws - Present funding c. Public opinion towards crime is greatly influenced by the media and can cause a public demand for tougher crime policies II. Uniform Crime reporting a. Created in 1927 by IACP; adopted by FBI in 1930 b. Crime vs. Person. Vs Property - Discontinued since 2004 c. # of offenses per week # of people (100,000), preventing crime – Crime Rate d. Identified who committed the offense through arrest- Clearance Rate - Ex. Prosecution, death plea e. Data gathered from over 18,000 law enforcement agencies III. National incident- based reporting system (NIBRS) a. Began in 1988 by FBI to enhance the UCR (Uniform Crime Reporting) b. Goals included: o Enhance the quality, quantity, and timelines of crime data collection by law enforcement o Improve methodology used for competing, analyzing, auditing, and publishing the collected data IV. Crimes a. Against persons o Violent crime involving use of physical force o Ex. Murder, rape, aggravated assault, armed robbery- Pt. 1 crime b. Crimes against property o Property is taken unlawfully o Ex. Arson, burglary, theft, motor vehicle theft c. Crimes against public order o Performing in an order that disrupts the peace in a civilized society. o Ex. Trespassing, Fight- Pt. 2 Crime V. UCR/ NIBRS Terminalogy. a. Program categories that tend to parallel statutory definitions of criminal behavior, but they are not legal classifications- only conveniences created for statistical reporting purposes b. These definitions may differ from statutory definitions of crimes VI. Traditional UCR a. Consists of aggregate crime counts b. Records one offense per incident, as determined by the hierarchy rule(power passed down based off rank of order) o Suppresses counts of lesser offenses in multiple-offense incidents c. Does not distinguish between attempted and completed crimes d. Records rape of females only VII. Crime Reporting a. Crime Awareness and Campus Security Act was passed in 1990; required colleges to publish annual security reports b. College students experience violence at average annual rates, than that are lower than those for nonstudents in the same age group VIII. 2012 Crime Clock for Violent Crimes a. One murder occurs every 35.4 mins b. One forcible rape occurs every 6.2 mins c. One robbery occurs every 1.5 mins d. One aggravated assault occurs every 41.5 sec IX. The National Crime Victimization Survey a. Established in 1972 in response to the dark figure of crime- crimes that are not reported to the police and that remain unknown to officials b. Based on self-reports, rather than police reports c. Designed to estimate the occurrence of all crimes, reported or not d. The Bureau of Justice statistics and the U.S. Census Bureau e. Approximately 15% of American household are touched by crime every year f. About 22 million victimizations occur each year g. City residents are almost twice as likely as rural residents to be victims of crimes h. About half of all violent crimes, more than one-third of all property crimes, are reported to police X. NCVS Statistics for recent years reveal the following: a. Victims of crime are more often men than women b. Younger people are more likely than the elderly to be victims of crime c. Blacks are more likely than whites or members of other racial groups to be victims of violent crimes d. Violent victimization rates are highest among people in lower- income families XI. Underreporting a. UCR/ NIBRS o The belief that the police can’t do anything o Fear of reprisal o Embarrassment about the crime itself, or fear during b. NCVS o False or exaggerated reports o Unintentional inaccuracies o Memory problems/ may not remember the exact details o Forgotten crimes XII. Special Categories of Crime a. Crimes against women b. Crimes against the elderly c. Hate crimes d. White-Collar Crimes e. Organized Crimes f. Gun Crime g. Drug crime h. Cyper Crime i. Terrorism XIII. New Types of Crimes a. Flash rob b. Identity theft c. Computer crimes d. Cyberstalking e. Gender Identity Reported Cleared Clearance Rate Year Robbery 144 30 20% 2014 1. Nature of Law ● Rules of conduct inherent in human nature and in the natural order ● Knowable through intuition, inspiration, and the exercise of reason, without need for reference to created laws ● Ten Commandments ● The U.S Constitution of Independence 1. Law Defined ● A rule of conduct, generally found enacted in the form of a statute, that prohibits certain forms of behavior 1. What Laws do ● Maintain order in society ● Regulate human interaction ● Enforce moral belief ● Define the economic environment ● Enhance predictability ● Support the powerful ● Promote orderly social change ● Sustain/ protect individual rights 1. What Laws Do ● Provide a redress for wrongs ● Identify wrongdoers ● Mandate punishment and retribution 1. Definition of the Rule of Law ● The maxim that an orderly society must be governed by established principles and known codes that are applied uniformly and fairly to all of its members ● Sometimes referred to as the supremacy of law ● Jurisprudence: The philosophy of Law. Also the science and study of law 1. Types/Categories of Law ● English Common Law ● Case Law ● Statutory Law ● Civil Law ● Administrative Law ● Criminal Law 1. English Common Law ● Originates from usage and custom rather than from written statutes ● The basis for much of modern criminal law in the U.S 1. Case Law ● Judge-made law that is refined and changed by actual decisions that judges make when ruling on cases before them ● Known as Law of Precedent ● Refined through system of appeals courts ● State Appellate Courts (Court of Appeals) ● State Supreme Courts ● Federal Appellate Courts ● U.S. Supreme Court ● Stare Decisis: previous decisions guide future deliberations, helps ensure predictability 1. Statutory Law ● Laws passed by legislatures, written or codified law (NCGS, CFR, etc.) ● Substantive criminal law ● Describes what constitutes particular crimes and specifies the appropriate punishment for each offense ● Procedural Law ● Determines the proceedings by which legal rights are enforced ● Criminal law (one type of statutory law) ● The body of rules and regulations that define and specify the nature of and punishments for offenses of a public nature, or for wrongs committed against the state or society ● Violations result in punishment upon conviction in a court of law (ex. Fines, imprisonment, both or other sanctions) ● Statutory and case law ● Also called penal law ● Procedural law (type of Statutory Law) ● Specifies the methods to be used in enforcing substantive law ● Criminal procedures (ex. NCGS 15A-401) ● The U.S. Constitution through the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 8th Amendments ● 4th: Search and Seizure ● 5th: Double jeopardy/ Self incrimination ● 6th: Rights afforded during criminal trials ● 7th: Trial by jury in civil cases ● 8th: Excessive fines/bails, cruel and unusual punishment 1. Administrative Law ● Made & enforced by regulatory & administrative agencies at federal or state levels ● Rules & regulations created to control the activities of industry, business, and individuals ● Violations are generally not criminal (rare)…. (ex. Health codes, building codes, tax laws, pollution control, licensing laws, import/export, agriculture, vehicle registration, product safety) 1. Civil Law ● Governs relationships between & among people, business & other organizations, and agencies of government ● Rules for contracts, divorces, child support and custody, the creation of wills, property transfers, negligence, libel, unfair hiring practices, the manufacture & sale of consumer goods with hidden hazards for the user, and other contractual social obligations 1. General Categories of Crime ● Felonies ● Misdemeanors ● Offenses of Infractions ● Treason ● Espionage ● Inchoate Offense 1. Felony ● A criminal offense punishable by death or incarceration in a prison facility for at least one year. Normally served in a state or federal corrections facility. ● Murder, rape, aggravated assault, robbery, burglary, and arson ● Convicted felons typically lose certain privileges upon release from prison 1. Misdemeanor ● Offenses with a maximum punishment of incarceration, usually in a local confinement facility, typically for one year or less, also fines, and other sanctions ● Petty theft, simple assault, being disorderly in public, writing bad checks, drunk & disruptive, simple affray 1. Offenses/Infractions ● Minor violations of the law that are less serious than misdemeanors ● Jaywalking, spitting on the sidewalk, littering, and certain traffic offenses ● Offenders are normally ticketed and released 1. Treason ● A U.S citizen's actions to help a foreign government or overthrow, make war against, or seriously injure the U.S. ● Also, the attempt to overthrow the government of the society of which one is a member ● 18 USC 2381 1. Espionage ● Gathering, transmitting, or losing information related to the national defense, in such a manner that the information becomes available to enemies of the U.S. and may be used to their advantage 1. Inchoate Offense ● Consists of conduct that is a step towards the intended commission of another crime ● Incomplete or partial ● Conspiracy ● Terrorist plot 1. Elements of a crime ● Actus reus ● Mens rea ● Concurrence 1. Actus Reus ● Guilty act ● An act in violation of the law and includes both an action taken, or a failure to act ● Crimes of commission ● Crimes of omission ● Thinking alone is not enough to make it a crime 1. Mens rea ● Guilty mind ● The state of mind that accompanies a criminal act ● Based on the assumption that individuals have the ability to make reasonable decisions about right and wrong ● Reckless Behavior & Criminal Negligence ● Reckless Behavior is activity that increases the probable risk ● Criminal Negligence results when a person's negligent actions endangers others and ultimately causes harm, even if unintended ● Strict Liability of Absolute Liability Offense ● Exception to requirement of both mens rea and actus rea in that it requires no culpable mental state (mens rea) ● Routine traffic offenses, statutory rape 1. Concurrence ● Requires that the act and the mental state occur together in order for a crime to take place ● One can't occur before the other ● Crime prevention triangle ○ Desire - Ability - Opportunity 1. Other Features of Crime ● Causation ● Refers to the fact that the concurrence of a guilty mind and a criminal act may cause harm ● Legal cause ○ Must be demonstrated in court in order to hold an individual criminally liable for causing harm ● Harm ○ Not all harms are crimes ○ Victimless crimes ■ Social harm caused by the behavior ● Legality ● Highlights the fact that a behavior cannot be criminal if no law exists that defines it as such ● Includes the notion of ex post facto laws ○ Latin: "After the fact" ○ Laws are binding only from the date of their creation ● Punishment ● No crime can be said to occur where punishment has not been specified in the law ● Necessary attendant circumstances ● The facts surrounding an event ● Includes such things as time and place ● May be classified as aggravating or mitigating circumstances ● Aggravating and mitigating circumstances are not elements of an offense 1. Elements ● Elements of a crime are specific legal aspects of a criminal offense that must be proven to obtain a conviction ● Ex. Elements of first-degree murder ● Unlawful killing of a human being ● Intentionally ● With planning or malice aforethought 1. Defense to a criminal charge ● Evidence and arguments offered by a defendant & his/her attorneys to show why the defendant should not be convicted for the criminal charge ● Rights provided by the 6th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution include: ● Right to confront accusers (cross examination) ● Right to present a defense ● Right to speed and public trial by jury 1. 4 types of Recognized Defense ● Alibi: Not present at scene when the crime occurred, completely innocent ● Justification: Had a reason for completing the action ○ Self defense ○ Defense of others ○ Defense of home and property ○ Consent ○ Necessity ○ Resisting unlawful arrest ● Excuse: Personal reasoning where he/she shouldn’t be held liable ○ Duress ○ Age ○ Mistake ○ Provocation ○ Unconsciousness ○ Insanity ○ Involuntary intoxication ○ Diminished capacity ○ Mental incompetence ● Procedural defense: Defendant discriminated against in justice process ○ Entrapment ○ Double jeopardy ○ Collateral estoppel ○ Prosecutorial misconduct ○ Denial of a speedy trial ○ Police fraud ○ Selective prosecution Ch. 5 History and Structure i. History of policing a. The British Model - Mutual pledge system: community response in the form of a posse to pursue offenders - Watch and Ward system Development of Day Wards and Night Watches (mainly baliffs). First codified in 1785 required citizens to respond to the “hue and cry” for assistance (statutue of Winchester) - Justice of peace - Bow Street Runners: first they organized police force fielded by Magistrate Henry Fielding in the Bow Street region of London to address - Sir Robert Peel, the father of modern policing. ii. The New Police a. “Bobbies” b. Founded by sir Robert Peel in 1829 c. Created the first organized police department d. Preventive in nature, mission = to discourage crime e. Uniformed and adopted the military iii. Sir Robert Peel’s 9 Principles 1. Mission= prevent crime and disorder 2. Public approval of police actions 3. Secure willing cooperative police in voluntary observance 4. Degree of cooperation of public can be secured diminishes proportionately to necessity and misuse of physical force 5. Police seek and preserve public favor no one is above the law (Supremacy of law) 6. Police use physical force to extent to secure observance of law (Use of force as a result) 7. Police maintain relationship with the public 8. Police direct actions towards their functions; no usurp 9. Test of efficiency absence of crime and disorder iv. Early policing in America, New York a. 1658: Paid watchmen b. 1693: 1 uniformed officer c. 1731: 1 neighborhood precinct / police station (Boston, Cincinnati, New Orleans) d. 1830: Philadelphia night & day watch e. 1844: NYPD formed f. American frontier: Vigilantism; semi professional law enforcers th th v. Late 19 / Early 20 century a. Advances in law enforcement o 18951897: Theodore Roosevelt o 1902: International association of chiefs of Police (IACP) o 1915: F.O.P (Fraternal Order of Police) created to represent officers o 1910: Alice Stebbins Wells (LAPD) First female police officer in world had limited number of roles. o 1918: Ellen O’ Grady First woman to hold administration post in large city NYPD vi. Early Mid 20 century a. Advances in law enforcement: - FBI formed under Roosevelt administration - Technological advances (phone/ radio cars) - State police agencies (Massachusetts & Pennsylvania) to address threat of mobile offenders - 1920: Prohibition (18 amendment, illegal to buy and sell alcohol), organized crime, corruption in law enforcement ($$$$ $) - 1931: Wickersham Commission - 1933: Prohibition repealed - 1940: National Sheriffs Association. vii. August Vollmer; specific policing a. Berkeley Chief of Police, 1905 1932 b. Supported: - Polygraph/ lie detector test - Fingerprint identification - Firearm Exam - Toxicology - Dthument exam viii. Late 20 Century a. 1960/70s: Court begins addressing civil rights and effects on policing b. 1967: President commission on law enforcement and Administration - The challenge of crime in a Free Society - Police often isolated from the communities they serve c. 1969: Law enforcement assistance administration ( established $$ $$) d. 1973: National advisory Commission on criminal justice standards and goals (part of LEAA) - Strategies for improving quality of law enforcement at all levels ix. Management a. Scientific Police management - The application of social science techniques to the study of police administration for the purpose of increasing effectiveness, reducing the frequency of citizen complaints and enhancing the efficient use of available resources x. Evidence – Based policing a. Use of the best available research on the outcomes of police work to implement guidelines agencies, units and officers b. Efficient policing goals can be guided by: - How can policing produce greater public safety without eroding civil liberties? - How can more value for the money be returned from investments in policing to cut the costs of crime? - Can crime be better forecast for (absent crime) predictive policing by time & place? - Can unsuccessful police methods be distinguished from cost effective ones? - Can better policing reduce the high costs of a growing prison population? (reduce crime) - Can evaluation tools used in evidencebased medicine be adopted by police? - What are the possibilities for a police service based on cost effectiveness? - What are the prospects for developing the knowledge base for such evidence? xi. Law Enforcement Research a. Kansas City Preventive Patrol experiment (Founded by Fed. Grant) b. Kansas City response time experiment (no change in city awareness … increase/decrease….citizens fear of crime….. no change…… proved was a waste of time) c. Effects - Directed patrol - Split force patrol (1 taking calls…….portion of officers doing any kind of patrol) - Prioritized calls (top priority) xii. Federal Law a. Agencies have nationwide jurisdiction but concentrate on specific crime b. 14 U.S government department and 28 nondepartmental agencies - Conduct criminal investigations - Execute search warrants - Make arrests - Carry firearms c. 137,929 federal law enforcement officers - Investigate, search, arrest, carry firearms xiii. State agencies ( State wise jurisdiction, state police) a. Centralized ( state police department) - Tasks of major criminal investigations are combined with the patrol of state highways b. Decentralized - A clear distinction between traffic enforcement on state highways and other statelevel law enforcement functions by creating at least 2 separate agencies xiv. Local Agencies ( make up a vast # of officers) a. Enforce applicable state laws and local ordinances and laws b. Municipal departments c. Rural sheriff’s department d. Specialized groups such as campus police and transit police xv. Private Protective Services a. Selfemployed individuals and privately funded business entitles - Contractual - Growing b. Types of security - Airport security - Executive protection - Hospital security - School security xvi. Integrating Public and Private Security a. The resources of proprietary and contract security should be utilized in cooperative, communitybased crime prevention and security awareness programs b. 85% of the nation’s critical infrastructure is protected by private security. ○ The Police Mission ○ Enforce the law ○ Investigate crimes and apprehend offenders ○ Prevent crime ○ Preserve the peace ○ Provide enforcement services to the community ○ Historical Developments in American Policing ○ The Political Era: 1840s-1930 ■ Close ties between the police and political officials ■ Police organized in paramilitary style ■ Politicians appointed/hired police ■ Cronyism, nepotism, favoritism ■ Came about because of a need for social order and security in a dynamic and rapidly changing society ○ The Reform Era 1930-1970s ■ Police start to show pride in profession ■ Beginnings or professionalism in policing ■ Separation of police and politics ■ Focus on traditional crime-fighting and apprehending offenders ■ Crackdown on organized crime ■ Progressive policing (August Volmer, O.W. Wilson) ■ Came about due to citizen call for reform and removal of politics from policing ○ The Community Policing Era: 1970s-Today ■ Police work to identify and serve the needs of the community ■ Partnerships between police and community ■ Police & community are one and the same ■ Root causes of problems ■ Focus on quality of life offenses ■ Broken Windows model ■ Came about from realization that effective community partnerships can help prevent and solve crimes ○ The New Era: 2001-Today ■ Developing since 2001 & still evolving ■ New role for law enforcement: policing to secure the homeland ■ Local and state law enforcement instrumental in combating terrorism ■ Intelligence gathering and dissemination ■ Local, state and federal agencies working together and sharing information ■ Came about because of the terrorist attacks of Sept.11, 2001 ○ Enforcing the Law ○ Police agencies are the primary enforcers of federal, state, and local criminal laws ■ Society/community determines which laws are enforced ■ Organization & co workers influence officer actions ○ They answer calls for service, control traffic, write tickets ○ Respect for the law begins with the personal and public behavior of law enforcement officers ■ The public has higher expectations of its law enforcement officers ■ Actions are judged in hindsight, often out of context ○ Apprehending Offenders ○ Some offenders are apprehended during the commission of a crime or immediately afterward ○ Many are caught only as the result of extensive police work involving painstaking investigation ○ Investigations depend largely on the help and cooperation of the community ○ Crime Prevention ○ A proactive approach; the anticipation, recognition, and appraisal of crime risk, the initiation of action to remove or reduce it ○ The goal is to lower the potential rewards of criminal activity and lessen the public's fear of crime: increase the risk, lower the reward ○ Cooperation & participation from community ○ Crime prevention triangle: ● Desire - Ability - Opportunity ○ Crime Prevention Techniques ○ Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) techniques include: ■ Access control ■ Barriers ■ Video and other surveillance ■ Theft-deterrence devices ■ Lighting ■ Landscaping ○ Programs include efforts to focus resources on school- based crime, gang activity, drug abuse, violence, domestic abuse, vehicle theft, property theft, and burglary ■ G.R.E.A.T ■ Community Watch ■ Crime Stoppers ■ Public Safety Cameras ■ Operation I.D ○ Predicting Crime ○ Police planners use tools to help predict where crime will occur ■ Crime mapping ■ Predictive analysis ■ Trend analysis ■ CompStat or ComStat ○ CompStat is a process of crime analysis and police management using crime mapping ○ CrimeStat identifies crime hot spots, spatial distribution or incidents, and distance analysis ○ Preserving the Peace ○ This is a virtually limitless police activity addressing "quality of life" & "livability" issues ○ Quality of life offenses: excessive noise, grafitti, vandalism, parking ○ Nuisance offenses: barking dogs, loitering, trash, drunk- drinking offenses ○ Mediating, referring, just plain listening ○ Broken-windows theory & medical model ○ Providing Services ○ Most calls for service are placed through the 911 system, which is for emergencies ■ Police/Fire/Ems ○ 70% of 911 calls directed to police ○ Some areas have started a 311 system for non- emergency calls ○ Five Core Operational Strategies ● 1.) Preventive patrol ○ The dominant operational policing strategy since the time of Sir Robert Peel ○ Uncommitted time ○ Interactive: Koper Curve, CRIA, C.O.P ○ Expected by the public ○ Deter crimes, interrupt crimes in progress, position officers for quick response, increase the public's feelings of safety and security ● 2.) Routine incident response ○ Traditionally referred to as "Code 1" or routine response ○ Usually not "in progress" or immediate danger ○ Officers collect information and typically file a written report ○ The objective is to restore order, document information, or provide and immediate service ○ By far the most time spent ● 3.) Emergency response ○ Critical incidents in which human life may be in jeopardy ○ Takes priority over all other police work ○ Training can include first aid, hostage rescue, and the physical capture of suspects ● 4.) Criminal investigation ○ The process of discovering, collecting, preparing, identifying, and presenting evidence to determine what happened and who is responsible ○ First responders are the first investigators on a scene and provide critical information to detectives through the preliminary investigation ○ Secure & preserve the scene, collect evidence, interview victims, witnesses, document activities ○ Assess the scene & situation ○ Neutralize threats, render aid ○ Arrest offenders if present, or disseminate offender info if available ○ Determine the need for additional or specialized assistance ○ Document observations and efforts ● 5.) Problem solving ○ Problem solving ○ Problem- oriented policing (P.O.P) seeks to reduce chronic offending in a community and use programs such as SARA and CAPRA ○ SARA: Scanning, Analysis, Response, Assessment ○ CAPRA: Clients, Acquired/Analyzed, Partnerships, Respond, Assess ○ Problem oriented policing is fundamental to community policing and similar strategies ○ Support Services ■ Support services include activities such as dispatch, training, human resource, property and evidence control, and record keeping, which are all vital to effective law enforcement ○ Response time ○ The time it takes for police officers to respond to calls for service and is directly linked to citizen satisfaction ○ Call received, processed, and dispatched ■ Dispatchers have call taking protocols ■ Certain information necessary to determine dispatch priority, officer response, what the officer can expect ■ Public misperceptions ○ Organizational Structure of a Police Department ○ Structured on divisions and authority ○ Chain of command: order of authority, usually quasi- military ○ Span of control ○ Roles ■ Line: directly related to daily police work ■ Field activities, Supervisory activities ■ Staff: support roles ■ Administration, training, fleet, PIO ○ Policing Styles (James Q. Wilson) ○ Watchman: Order and maintenance ○ Crime control over crime prevention ○ Heavy handed tactics ○ May create tension, fear, or distance ○ Legalistic: Enforce the letter of the law ○ Laissez-faire policing "just the facts" ○ Hands off approach to community issues ○ Service ■ Helpers, soldiers in a war on crime ■ Less enforcement, more assistance ○ Police- Community Relations ○ The increased social disorganization during the 1960s and 1970s prompted the goal of understanding these new problems ○ Three "corporate" policing strategies of modern American police departments*: ■ Strategic: traditional crime fighting ■ Problem-solving: crimes caused by existing social conditions (SARA, CAPRA) ■ Community: a philosophy based on forging partnerships between the police and community ○ Community Policing Issues ○ Why variety of so-called community policing initiatives ○ How is "community" defined ○ Quantifying citizen satisfaction ○ Acceptance of the concept within the ranks ■ Police subculture: particular set of values, beliefs, and acceptable forms of behavior characteristic of American Police ○ Post-9/11 Policing ○ Increased time and resources preparing for possible terrorist attacks ○ Intelligence gathering ○ Information sharing across jurisdictions and between agencies ○ Intelligence-led policing ○ Fusion centers ○ Racial profiling ○ Professionalism ○ Professionalism: Organized undertaking characterized by a body of specialized knowledge acquired through extensive education and by a well-considered set of internal standards and ethical guidelines that hold members of profession accountable to one another and to society ○ Police Professionalism and Ethics ○ Police professionalism: the increasing formalization of police work and the accompanying rise in public acceptance of the police ○ Police ethics: The special responsibility to adhere to moral duty and obligation that is inherent in police work ○ Police code of ethics ■ "I will keep my private life unsullied" ■ "I will be exemplary in obeying the laws of the land and the regulations of my department" ■ "I will never act officiously or permit personal feelings, prejudices, animosities, or friendships to influence my decisions" ○ Police Discretion ○ The exercise of choice by law enforcement officers ■ Decision to investigate or apprehend ■ The disposition of suspects ■ The carrying out of official duties ■ The application of sanctions ○ Education and Training ○ Call for better educated officers came as early as 1931 with the Wickersham Commission calling for "educationally sound officers" ○ In 1967 the average education level was only 12.4 years (high school) ○ Only 1 in 3 states have college requirements ○ About 1 in 4 municipal & count police departments, and 1 in 7 sheriff's offices have a college requirement ○ Education and Training ○ Benefits of better educated officers include*: ■ Better written job performance ■ Enhanced communications with the public ■ Fewer citizen complaints ■ Greater initiative ■ Wiser use of discretion ■ Heightened sensitivity to racial and ethnic issues ■ Fewer disciplinary problems ○ BLET: Basic Law Enforcement Training ○ POST: Peace Officer Standards Training ○ Field Training Program ○ PTO: Police Training Officer Program ○ Alternative to FTO program ○ Continuing in-service and professional development training ○ Ethnic and Gender Issues in Policing ○ Racial & ethnic disparity at all levels in L.E. ranks continues to be an issue in law enforcement ■ Lack of qualified candidates ■ Competition for those candidates ○ Ethnic and Gender Issues in Policing ○ Progress is being made ■ In 2000, racial and ethnic minorities comprise 22.7% of all full time sworn personnel, up 17% from 1990 ■ From 1990 to 2000 the number of African- American local police officers increased by 13,30 (35%) and Hispanic officers increased by 17,600 (93%) ○ Female officers ■ Increasing in number ■ Minority women are underrepresented ■ Departments aggressively recruit and retain females ■ Consent decrees mandating the hiring and promotion of women and minorities significantly affected the gains women have made in law enforcement ●
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