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Date Created: 03/15/14
Talking about Communities the focus now on the Ecological Level of Organizations an assembly of two or more pops of diff species occupying the same geographical area What is comm tightlg integrated super organism one kind of speciesassemblage loose random association depends on env who gets their first and interactions Community Boundaries depends on scale of organisms 39 ex in an oak woodland consider comm of annual plants associated with tree canopies or acorns Communities change over time i can be predictable gt ex in Midwest woodlands abandoned fields turn into annual plants then replaced by shrubs then young trees and then diff trees at the end Succession patters of change in a comm generally following a disturbance can be directional ie predictable progression called a climax comm l Drimarg succession beginsafter a disturbance that removes all I Community ecology succession disturbance diversity 11713 Ecological Levels of Organization Ecosystem Community I Population I Individual Community an assemblage of two or more populations of different species occupying the same geographical area 11713 What is a community Frederic Clements 18741945 Henry Gleason 18821975 superorganism looserandom association wwwwkueduNsmithchchronobCLEMENTSjpg Sciwe b nybgorg imagesgeaSOnJpg Community boundaries Community boundaries SCALE MATTERS Gall on valley oak Quercus lobata N quotOak apple galls Cynipid wasp 11713 Communities change over time Communities change over time lta0nu4 raga an Fovbvar 8mo n you Vouuo Hroaooo his now 91 hm Irvvn 11713 Succession Patterns of change in community composition following disturbance can be directional ie predictable progression of community assemblages until a persistent stage deveops the climax community c52LlE cL l PLtLl39llS x2l Primary succession begins after a disturbance that removes all organisms and exposes bare substratum Volcanoes glaciers and sometimes floods can create 39 1 these conditions c smarmelZl I 11713 film il 3939l 3939 into 1 1 Secondary succession occurs following disturbances in which some organisms survive gqgt N SOIL 7Uw a Q U I WuE 5ucc2ss0M 11713 OW Wet Smlt SSb um CzlC WELD aamgtooED 39 GOES EPrCl To THE w tj Fr w s b U2P MOE 3TlL JE Lcte mca X1E DJ3FTZE HEB sum W212 SEE vu mTs um 397 M012MaL QEE t 22 DEC sDEampquot7 F39I URN S B C14 39T c0MeF0ZUg 11713 u 39 ab 3 139 39 39Aw Iquot fAJquoton f fI 2 39 I o n 39 I I o I I J 3 7 39 Some questions ecologists ask about succession what is the time scale over which succession occurs what is the order of species arrival and replacement how predictable is the change in species composition are there different trajectories or is end point always same how does diversity change through successional stages what factors CAUSE the changes in species composition mom var oHxa1usecm sucoz SSl7SU 3986 ampL E l0 SUE PM El quot ll E1 rC H l Sl39 SPECIES CFl rWEE aw quot u ce 2113539 at we eazt g Connell Jos stabi39 a d T eph H and Ralph 0 Slatyer 197 11713 l7ElgtltS Nelxwim W cUEsSlbkl ocwlzi I Vd I I asac4 b vvonu u uau4nn 39 3997 u4 onlljtbcnxpa ll h Facilitation Tolerance Inhibition g 39 j viva 1391quotquot IthlcuIns un an r asnunuuquuuui n 1 Q uu u I aun4 amphcIuc II uvuv un t1lllib I C oath17 o moovsinha 4 l 9 an uuhno I or anizationTheAmerican A retreating glacier in Glacier Bay Alaska leaves a series of gravel deposits called moraines The temporal pattern of succession can be inferred by studying vegetation on moraines of different ages 11713 Succession is caused in part by changes in the soil brought about by the plants themselves Moraines are deficient in nitrogen the first plants to colonize have Nfixing bacteria in root nodules 11 The soil is improved enough for spruces to grow which then outcompete the early colonizers Dryas quot39 1 A5139 Yi1m u Ii Pri 39u1 v39y V111 t39fl Facilitation During succession species tend to modify the environment so as to facilitate colonization by other species Example The Nfixation by Dryas and alders that allows spruces to become established in Glacier Bay However work by T Chapin suggests it39s a bit more complicated see your text Some questions ecologists ask about succession what is the time scale over which succession occurs what is the order of species arrival and replacement how predictable is the change in species composition are there different trajectories or is end point always same how does diversity change through successional stages what factors CAUSE the changes in species composition what disturbances disrupt the progression and cause a reset to beginning or earlier stage another local example of succession re in chaparral Chaparral 11713 WE N22 Q1ZSSl2 Nl7ampHlZv amph rlgt l00igtLampM7 Yalwe 11gt Hm out wttlfl HOME U 2S EPlE MT C 6lAl F39rEF DIsTl l2fvN CE 10 11713 Chaparral fire 6MES3M N 2A lIl 11 Since only the kiss of the ame is needed urouseckntnantseedslron1decades4ong sleep is it not strange that botanists do not turn arsonists on occasion that some oral phoenix might arise from the ashes John Howell Sierra Club Bulletin 1946 11713 Chaparral 239 yr after burn California buckwheat Eriogonumfasciculatum Deerweed Droughtdeciduous woody subshrubs Lotus scoparius common in chaparral 12 11713 Arctostaphylos glauca Big berry manzanita Arctostaphylos glandulosa Eastwood manzanita Heteromeles arbutifolia Toyon or Christmas beiiy or California Holly 13 Adenostomafasciculatum chamise note small tough lvs Ceanothus Sp California lilac leaves have thick cuticle 11713 2030 years later 14 Postfire chaparral succession re foowing annuals owering bulbs resprouts herbaceous perennials dominate in rst year diversity highest herbaceous and woody perennials subshrubs dominate in years 24 onger ived woody species mainly shrubs dominate after 10 years diversity lower yi ll i ii ii iii il ill 3939i lii What model fits chaparral succession I u 4 Ov39Vquotquot 4 uagt n o null u fonhsw v at it O39v lt 393 quotquotVquot39 uu duoseqany vv 11quot I 39 n uo oqp 5inf mintOntauhvc areaon Iron I gj on oo 5 o pvuheha 39 usqA 9ucmg I no0lt MAYBE nitia floristic compositionquot or none of these ctors influence pw 395 quot haparral succesion 1 39quotr W 7 y 11713 i EDlCl igtLquotlt 45Tl W03 FWCTOPS an mu iiiweuczsii CUESSIDM 15 11713 J V IIISTIIIIBAIIBE g amp 3Llt speci c to communities K P 0 disturbance REGIME or pattern very important see Table 141 Lgt not a swN m lt39 wwmL n meaev wen lHPllCr W W E Some elements of disturbance regime spatial extent frequency return interval intensity severity see Table 141 modi ed from Pickett and White 1985 quot73939 regime 39 F U 3 n how often at what interval P 7 39 I n S rate of energy released how fast bums ecological effect magnitude of disturbance mortality Season 16 11713 Two communities same disturbance C 1bD 39 N1 KEG DFCNDJESEVWU but different Fireregime EMS 0 k we s JEl2 ampm2 1 Pn LL i d SEKEXLE Chaparral shrubland Ponderosa pine coniferous forest 3 4yrold stand 3 yrold stand 1yrold stand reburned after 2 yrs Chaparral being typeconverted to weedy nonnative grassland ff 17 crv will prucnl 9 oufcflk on1139irc 1 httpwvvwr5fsfedusstanis1ausgrove1andgranitefemmonsdetai1shtm CDYK 2QL D HZE 11713 18 11713 Fire regime Frequency Intensity Severity Season eg surfaceunderstory re in coniferous forest vs no ulru oclx u rV allan Ruugvqh crown re in chaparralshrubland natural vs humanin uenced I So is re good for these reprone p4 communities 5 53E S N HES we ewe 34 1quot 355 3 Anna n 7 quot39 19 Apphedinu ma ons communities change know your community its successional trajectory and mechanisms of change eg vernal pond grasslands chaparral forest 11713 Canyoum de ne community de ne succession describe difference btwn primary and secondary succession and give example of each describe what is meant by disturbance regime list attributes of natural re regime in chaparral or ponderosa pine community describe how changing the re regime can impact that re adapted community is re always good for them 20 102713 Interspecific interactions swoon wadwaavounmuaunau o 8 8 o 8 8 o 8 8 Competition 2 or more individuals using the same resource that is in short supply To ointraspeci c competition same sp V interspeci c competion diff sr9iv amt shorthand lt3pc1Es Types of competition Exploitative or Scramble indirect through limiting T resource QQWPTE H72 AsDzsJS intraspeci c Types of competition Exploitative or Scramble indirect through limiting resource nte4fer e direct via physica jj aggressive action intraspeci c Interference competition interspeci c An early and noteworthy competition experiment THE STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE IIY G F 4L39SE Inpulnua marmnry l39nw iv Georgyi Frantsevitch Gause 19101986 P caudatum 102713 102713 I n ltn39liu illuIId gmuur 1rpulIlIltm IIk39 mm M mu than I r uIrIAI39HIIx Ikvlli l llulfxlrcngllu grmxlh Inulxum I1 I LlU 1 ln 1nll ucnyllI T gumlll mt lium ll KlU5 0 i vrclulixc Lmncl IIllll E 3 an R caudatum alone 40 0 I I I I I I I I I 24631012141913 c P aurelia alone o quotE 3 Q o D 5 40 OJ E I I I E 0 12 14 11 P aurelia grow ihinixed 5 culture 40 Gause 1934 o C19m petitive39E7lttlusion I3441eiple if 2 spp use same limited resource in same way the species that can use the resource more efficiently will eliminateexclude the other 39 quotCOMPLETE COMPETITORS CANNOT COEXIST J Georgyi Frantsevitch Gause 19101986 102713 Freshwater diatoms Interspeci c competition in freshwater diatoms a AsrenoneIa alone b Synedra alone T m 10quot 39 30 I0quot 30 O o o o O 0 0 06 O 10 O 10quot 20 J 101 10 E E 10 it so 10 39 l10 o 10 p Q 013 ooi 2o H y j A tom KEUEL 1 quot Tnme days 0 Asrerionella O Synedra o SiIncate Tilman et al 1981 How can competin Pquot 39 1 I quot13 395 g species coexistent if resources do not overlap completely in their use of resources E the role played by a species in its community its ecological position and the range of physical conditions and resources it requires niche concept developed by Grinnell 1917 Elton 1927 Hutchinson 1957 102713 Niche defined by an organism s requirements and tolerances Performance of species quotThe niche relationships of the California Thrasher Grinne1917 jag BIFP Reproduction Individual growth Individual survival 8 Intensity of condition eg a single condition 39 Hutchinson 1957 multidimensional quotn dimensiona hypervolume where n environmental factors important to the survival and reproduction by a species 2D 30 Yin Temperature Ci I0 15 20 25 PIHII5 cem va 1 Picv1 411quot Beluia penrxzla Pruvlurs Luurocruuu Ocercus urex b 30 miooss modality 50 modality 25 20 i E l 1 3 IIuput ly I l 3 15 l a l r W J9 l 10 f 0 5 so 15 20 25 30 35 20 45 Ternpe1ulute o sannnyiae fundamental theoretical vs realized actual niche Fundamental Nlche Reallzed Moisture Niche Temperature Interactions such as competition may reduce environments in which a species may live to the more restricted realized niche COMPETITION AND INTERTIDAL ZONATION IN BARNACLES BALANu large QllTHAMALus small v I high tide 1 levels W 7 H A i 39 ROCK t E E I gpdgan luLu level settlers adults settlers adults FUNDAMENTAL NICHE 39 HEALIZED NICHE NICHE BREADTH W M 7 wleLlAlgtlLT J S B OF lzeslvl 395 3 En 8 SMALL LARGE 3 NICHE OVERLAP E 2 E lt S SPECIES 1 SPECIES 2 m 6 l Tamp 3 SMALL meg Va 6 RESOURCE AXIS EG SEED SIZE 40 102713 102713 u39n ground rmxI39nls 4 I ho mod hnch mtmI no4 u n Luge qtimd lunch ICC rfulgrl39cI nxIo1i39 rtgseon E7 600 w 39 P quotC Q 02 d w v Seed size mm Figure 78 The realizcI feeding niches of three of Darwin s nches on the Galaipagos Islands The separation of feeding niches in these species reduces possible competition for food Dam of Schluter I982 03 3 02 Rodents 01 00 03 Frequency in diet es Brown Diane Davidson Competition Between SeedEating Rodents and Ants in Desert Ecosystems Science 1977 Vol 196 pp 880 882 How can competing species coexistent 1 if competitors do not overlap com etely in their use of resources 2 species may coexis 39n a stable environment due to differentiat39 of their realized niches ie niche diff entiation Interspecific interactions competition 5 namu run 4 u u I g BlV9CII pow Ican I 5 I HR O quot39 ltLnHwnuIa 3 I 1 W I W an I u n I i 103013 The mull ground nch oospwar rugvnoup can nulrly I 09 Yho mo un ground nd C form can Infwvncdutodrod rho Lingo ground nch C rv13mosm gt on a nod 08 hrs 9 o E 5 06 E E Q 04 02 016 0 2 4 6 Seed size mm Figure 78 The realized feeding niches of three of Darwin39s nches on the Galapagos Islands The separation of feeding niches in these species reduces possible competition for food Data of Schluter I982 Sonoran desert VvPsLS Prki 103013 Frequency in diet 140185 279333 333396 James Brown Diane Davidson Competition Between SeedEating Rodents and Ants in Desert Ecosystems Science 1977 Vol 196 pp 880 882 5 1 oV39Eamp 39H3 P i m T How can competing species coexistent 1 if competitors do not overlap completely in their use of resources 2 species may coexist in a stable environment due to differentiation of their realized niches ie niche differentiation m1o1ESS u6raLuh4ST JE How test for com petition BWJN SRHE SP CE S Evidence for interspecific competition just assume if using same resource Evidence for interspecific competition 1 Experimental removals if remove one does other do better increased growth survival fecundity 39 ll 2 SFECiES2EHb E6klE EFFECT OF BALANUS REMOVAL ON CHTHAMALUS pre expt start expt end expt one mm mam O mgmm rm rm m m 0 m 930 m D m mm in B 0 I m m mm m mm mm an O on D I Q control treatment control treatment 43 Cbl Tl kl C7 Is l21eS6UlZCE uiinJa7 we 1 SPECIES cmuwetin e 9 103013 103013 03quot 4 treatments 02 2 x 2 factorial design 01 rodents rodents Z 5 00 5 ants 3 03 LL 5 c 02 Ants ants 01 vomcnrxonnwcommcooo quot 9 quot ltquotquotquot quotquot OOOOv v wv ltlt3939ltflt V I I I I I I I I I I I I ltl39CgtquotCl39CgtIOltDDO Ilt39D 9quot quot 7 Q quot2 OOOOvvvVNClC39quot Seed size mm James Brown Diane Davidson Competition Between SeedEating Rodents and Ants in Desert Ecosystems Science 1977 Vol 196 pp 880 882 4 treatments L 2 x 2 factorial design ants increased twofold on rodents rodents plots where rodents had ants control 2x been removed moreants rodents increased to lesser degree in the ants 39nets absence of ants James Brown Diane Davidson Competition Between SeedEating Rodents and Ants in Desert Ecosystems Science 1977 Vol 196 pp 880 882 i2 M0l P AK J M In it Q vo39 ngta l 4 FIGURE 1323 Two species of granivorous rodents living in the Chihuahuan Desert a the kangaroo rat Dipodomys spp a large granivore b a pocket mouse Pergonathus sp a small granivore Removal of large granivore Dipodomys resulted in increases in small granivores but no effect on insectivorous mice 103013 Evidence for interspecific competition 1 Experimental removals if remove one does other do better increased growth survival fecundity 2 Character displacement in sympatry vs in a3939opatry sympatry occurring in the same geographic area allopatry occurring in separate nonoverlapping areas Danivin39s finches Geospiza in the Galapagos Character displacement G Iuliginosa G fonts K 39 39 39 gt KBeak 15 idcplh 5quot 0 ncrlst bal Cm 6 631 I1 class 5 O opulallons J Q g4tE l5 4 Vsvtf C quot C 3 V Los Hermanos V V 5 O l V E r co 5 G Iuliginosa F L allopotrlc O V V u l u 7DzIpl1no W Vt 7 N N V L 1 GIoris nllopamc x x V 10 12 Beak aopm mm zg N 9 l 5 O A l Percentages of Individuals in each s M O O A Lack 1947 Evidence for interspecific competition 1 Experimental removals if remove one does other do better increased growth survival fecundity 2 Character displacement in sympatry when together vs in allopatry separate jmsjge Competitive release when competitor removed expansion of resource use COMPETITIVE RELEASE IN HONEY EATERS NEW GUINEA Mt Michael M1 Wilhelmina Mt Saruwaged ALTITUDE m Jared Diamond 103013 EVOLUTION LEADS TO SPECIALIZATION narrower niches D m D 3 2 D O W l ur 0 u 0 I39 z SMALL LARGE 3 2 lt RESOURCE AXIS EG SEED SIZE How can competing species coexistent 1 if competitors do not overlap completely in their use of resources ie niche differentiation Can we assume lack of overlap niche differentiation result of competition 103013 Robert MacArthur s warblersz nicheresource partitioning T 8 1 M8 S 7 i quotsmegma Q caused by competition UM thxieiiiwaieb A LON C mile ago l l 5T F C lWETlTl N WET QQQQQQQQ O0 390 Joseph H Connell 1980 Diversity and the Coevolution of Competitors or the Ghost of Competition Past Oikos Vol 35 pp 131138 How can competing species coexistent 1 if competitors do not overlap completely in their use of resources 2 if environment is heterogeneous some places or times wherewhen sp1 does better than sp2 and vice versa oEDbE5wELL lkl 1SPPrG PilE rl Zl bog mat in 1 DIFF SW 1 103013 Gold elds Lasthenia californica growing in serpentine soil 397 Fmzus PATCWES Sea palms v mussels HthL d SUZF CM FOP sAUE meat wy smzess umgt1FF ww HUSSELS vmmws m S cbLE JYEE CAM mm 339FPrNV39HE3 tU mxnesa Tb 2 MS Environment is temporally heterogeneous 4 Can you de ne competition intraspeci c and interspeci c describe the two types of competition exploitative interference describe the Competitive Exclusion Gause s Principle list two hypotheses that explain how competing species coexist de ne niche and difference between fundamenta theoretical and realizedactual niches de ne niche breadth niche differentiation describe two sources of evidence for interspeci c competition and give an example of each de ne sympatry allopatry environmental heterogeneity 103013 Conservation ecology 12113 Goals of conservation biology 1 document range of biodiversity 2 understand human impacts on species etc 3 develop practical approaches to prevent extinctions maintain genetic variation within species protect and restore communities and ecosystem function Approaches 1 investigate attributes of small populations to try to reduce risk of their extinctions 2 examine populations in decline and determine causes of decline and try to address those 7 W 1 I mltNe lb RHALL 1 6l s examine mechanisms that affect I Small populations what are the consequences of rarity 1 genetic variability inbreeding genetic drift 9 39 2 demographic variabilityanomalies 3 chance events disastersdisturbances up 2 0 v egtlt 12113 Vt bid lt31 quot9 Demographic risks assoc with small SVMHL quot Gag IE asp populations 7 grM1253 lllcsllE l39 PEIZSKTEMCE P u v L quot c i39139mCTbH emoialililiiiirii JriZ i Z2Fifi 39oZ2 l5 fZl3i 7Zi TaE E 39 a39 i sheeP rrctzo Extinction vortex I quotto ys13939 l5I r I 39I I g L00P Fig xs NEC 12113 Ecological tools 7 behavioral ecology mating strategies etcPFFET3959393d assessment of genetic diversity population counts39H IF population structure analysis population modeling MVP determine interactions comp pred mutualisms and other limiting factors II Declining populations what are the causes Habitat destruction W mumunms Mame 39kNMfl co EXT lN lEN7o mmm mt 1MtrchusEDauL S J u l F39 CR NEW 4JmsImvesiwcum 1 1 P 0 High rates of deforestation in the tropics ze 3 5lt Clear cuts on private timber land Coos Bay OR Habitat destruction M DES loss fragmentation degradation disturbance gray bat Myotis grisescens Habitat degradation disturbance 12113 mw3gF392EP am 05 arms in mzcam caves kUHiN mgr 7 uomutii 6 am no LBW 39 ti two 2 1quot 139 1quot 39quot h it 5 1r77r39quoti39139quot39quot lh1 0g quotf 1 if 5 B1 s 115 W 0 13 S39 is 05 i swck p CO K 3 burwpvtunqm H O O quot 0 0 mlhwwpluoq 08 O O O O o004 coco Identify and protect Site representative Reserve Siting and Design hotspots systems UC NRS httpnrsucopedu 12113 uaPsutoe mm MSS 6Hh Br1m WLTECTED PeiAS ucTlowrL ms nu uztts D owe THE Ha vRS 12113 44oTsFoTS 5 Pg193911 P o39m I J 39 LAl39C Air Conservation International 39 Febvuarv 2 O6 16 Identify and protect Site representative Reserve Siting and Design hotspots systems UC NRS httpnrsucopedu zav 12BQS SYEHamp mmxaazme TH M auultNr3em5SIeHs L2E Ev5t mam UCSB Cgpinteria Salt Marsh Reserve Coal Oil Point Natural Reserve Kenneth S Norris Rancho Marino Reserve Santa Cruz Island Reserve Sedgwick Reserve Sierra Nevada Aguatic Research Laboratory 1SNARL Valentine Camp 12113 Concerns with reserves Leakage Size Enforceability Impermanence o Climate change i xus mv Egmont National Park on Mount Taranaki New Zealand rst protected as a Forest Reserve in 1881 later as a National Park in 1900 RM Ewers and ASL Rodrigues 2008 Estimates of reserve effectiveness are confounded by leakage Trends in Ecology and Evolution Vol23 No3 II Declining populations what are the causes Habitat destruction Invasive species i7 1 O Invasive species and biocontrol major topic in resource management 12113 rn1 1quotl Cquot bzxrco lUlo What are the characteristics of communities that are easily invaded How did invaders arrive What are the characteristics of a good invader eg izELgt Tgr Why are disturbed habitats more prone to invasion Are diverse communities more resistant Why are islands more invaded ext tHLll How did they get here Most invertebrates and insects accidental W eg zebra mussels mosquito avian malaria J v x KM l Y2 ma p2 39 mi I 4 Dreissena polymorpha Zebra Mussel o 8ifs 1Tlquot ampF iWi39 How did they get here Most birds sh mammals deliberate eg European starling nile perch Nile perch introduced to Lake Victoria E Africa 1960 x7 Mosr DllES E l SWEHS Sturnus vulgaris European Starling 1 IIXI Wk w39 tsxe H544 so mob pz D 39 WE N Tl gt How did they get here Though some mammals reptiles accidental Lj eg Rattus rattus R novegicus brown tree snake brown or Norway rat STMAI fwli l Boiga irregularis brown tree snake sum MN m SHIP ucrtun um wk on em q 35 quotP an c o 0 0 N I 7 s I E quotD II 39 I w 0 U 0 1 4 I 1 ma 0 Jfl E IKYWOV Fig 143 Townsend etal Decline in number of forest bird s ecies at 5 locations on Guam Large arrows indicate T e Brown tree snake at each location In location D snake Hrst sited in early l950 s necvev1m n How did they get here Most plants deliberate he eg Tamarix spp Salt cedar Salt Cedar in bloom Big Bend Texas Photographs by Gertrud Konings Tamarix sp Salt cedar What are the characteristics of communities that are easil invaded e the characteristics of a good invader A good invader OHMZPICVEQ fast growing high reproductive rate generalist 5piZJS weeps Wt TREP5 WE 39 4 M an END SP i1CS moat s xmme JPftLE5 PrCLMUi i ES srsCF Wm N W not snob F67 N Ftli SYJEUES 12113 ms am Deb ma chm FEE cm3rP6t3gt 10 Hawaii non native arthropods 20 per year Y s 0E lVl rU EC I 39 r L A attacks 300 sp of plants 12113 A good invader fast growing high reproductive rate generalist enjoying the great escape at least for a while free from its nat ral predators and competitors llGlMC TB lZESiPCl riEM mo i l39 l7 ulrr tixieuiesl Lion sh invasion who mu C Nil01gt MP 1 gar01gt WEQkW 1 cm so into lift0 S iiB39F tS CBSllE lint S i eN mils SPNES 11 II Declining populations what are the 12113 causes Habitat destruction Invasive species Pollution o Habitat degradation pollution 3 Esxg G656 c lt 3 1 Some potential steps to reducing 391 I 1 C eutrophication in Gulf of Mexico l Use fewer fertilizers and adjust timing of application to limit runoff of excess nutrients from farmland Control animal wastes so they do not enter waterways Monitor septic systems amp sewage treatment facilities to reduce discharge of nutrients to surface water and groundwater Improve industrial practices to limit discharge of nutrients organic matter amp chemicals from manufacturing facilities Restore wetlands along the Gulf coast to naturally lter the water before it enters the Gulf 12 II Declining populations what are the causes Habitat destruction Invasive species PoHu on Population human population growth 5 ii Human Population The Next Half Century 1cu2am Cohen J 2003 Human population the next haf century Science 11721175 Human Domination of Earth39s Ecosystems Paov M I1ngtuak Hamid A Mooney Jana Luocamco Jury M Memo 39I39x r kn P 3939i I IN s o I gtA7I 39 39 quot THIE SUSTAINBll BIOSPHERE l39iTl Tl F39 AN lI 0l0Gl39AI Rl SICARCH 39END A Kr u hm hrIuhpnIxw1y cl Menu IAon huntsn Anluuvrl M an Inna ll IIItau 39quot 739 lIrNIh I 1 unsin xhuuxn M Nmuuu 39 39 u urm I H nun Mum Inn JA A l4 hnu Punzn A hrn Jun H Munnn Ilumn A unvuv NAIIII II hnuvs II ll Nun Pvluud ll llu hunt Inn PAILU Knnul Man at in ennmnmmul vmbtnm mu Salktor henna Jtn at fudxurnulls cro upal n mm 1 your hunt ntupulnhco and In unusng we and mum olrnouws we dent all ma Io mu dcus am uni1n34 Lb huh runurvu bul uxh dtnuom cannot hr mu r n1nrty nth 1 n funSunrnuI undn sunninglib vu In nuts 15 umul umnu ol lgnh one ileum tvg human nunun Imu 12113 13 12113 II Declining populations what are the causes Habitat destruction Invasive species Pollution Population human population growth Overharvesting aivvzueo mwve m mswmz nulvd5391V annu liD0ampC0lCCC39 F09 Anchovy 1933 2739 39 in it is if is 71 7 is 77 1399quot n 1 is I7 Fvgunr 4 Touh ovn avman awbwy oho I9551909 Iha ak nymbcbrgorn no ow 39ltapnJal972 JI olmbal nhngttonbabnnlmhxcuvouwttbnflllu oI Yuvbociao tubaysauntu DS gfigcuue AMtEquotFEES lt l 39 ame sum coUECTlk 14 BU3939ES 6 Mu ans I lwauulooln Q hnurr llto n y 9 1 o a r u Empirica xamples of Activities where the Price of Species Is Relate to Rarity or Perceived Raril rices of collectible butter ies in Papua New Guinea unting trophy prices of 57 Caprinae taxa C Selling prices of exotic pet species according to CITES status Species that have a CITES status open squares are more expensive solid sq than species with no CITES status uares I 0 I 0 H P ce ere standardized ividing by A male wingspan B 04 ma non 1 t u s w phy size and C adult wei tical bars standard error sample size in parentheses 13 quotThe alarming nding that human perception of rarity can precipitate species extinction has serious implications for the Cgruan val an conservation of species that are rare or that may become so be they charismatic and emblematic or simply likely to become fashionable for certain activities 3 I In Courchamp F n ulo E Rivalan P Hall RJ Si noret L et al 2006 Rarity Value and Species Extinction The Anthropogenic ee Effect PLoS Biol 4l2 e J also mentioned in your book chains of extinction interdependence of ecological communities AMGFIFEVZ cmse o3 IT mac HGT E PrJ ET DEPENDENY Ml Ecological tools physiological and behavioral ecology population dynamics rates of growthdecine population structure analysis reproductive rates 12113 lM S SP EECSBVCE WE EH BLampiEiN IUIJI Po A7 3L OP oxiemeuimc v mm 2e1gtus r quot DAxG2gt 9 SI WUIJII was sonata Im39II39Iox SLIP a Ia Fol act mu 1 law wcTs oF LtIosm A T lII8 Igt6LU W32 16 was an cm LBOSE emu 1gt Uc S awn MIMI is or Tb T P 0I7 HSH lt39I1 E57 etc 7 w 39l39 J32EC E determine interactions comp pred mutuaisms and other limiting factors establishment of reserves island biog theory management of reserves succession disturbance concepts 15 12113 Can you describe the goals amp approaches of conservation biol ogy explain how rarity itself can increase the likelihood of extinction list the ve causes of current biodiversity ossJUP P O 39 discussed in lecture describe an example of each of those causes describ e means by which ecological scien c ib to an understanding or managem of e of those causes describe what is meant by chain of extinction zest secousev Uxl UP Qmxsg 2 s23L V0 Igt Jvlt3lE Pb 5 swe tMest2 4xvEeisEgt C 335 W 90SLlPrES igtgSSTllE QECBUWH Q1 l 3 39 CO NSTFM at yeTtfampb E LCIgt bJ g Cg 1ZaclgtltJl Y bl 3 B1zJLquot 3FQEiZ7 sgt KWD 9 CJmktLEs39TbT1 lt S min DN EE8TU J an Cmcm sen mus 8 1563 Qm e w ltsu s 3 39 3 D Vquot 5 Zquot quot ZwP N 4l gtTPltTs in man 9 QTZGEN POOPS 16 Community ecology diversity Biodiversity what are some local and global patterns what do we mean by diversity how many species are out there Local patterns species diversity in a community Numbers of species reaches an equilibrium T Bird species richness O 56 160 150 Years since abandonment of old eld 111413 Mt gig gm V2341 mm gmgeol CtNSTPrlT 111413 J94pT 1 may 60MP 8S Beme I Local patterns sp es diversity in a community Waide R B et al quotThe r a ship between pr 39vity and species richnessquot nual Re ew ofEcolo ands ematics 1999 257 0 Chas onathan and Mathe Lei dquotSpatiascae 39 ates the pructivity bi versi elationship quot H u 4166879 02 42743 Fuka 39Tadashia s eter Morin quotP ductivity biolversity rel onshi depend 0 he history a 39 community a embyquot ature 46947 2 42342 J usens ane D Wr39 t PauD cBride en N Gillman 20 What is e form of e pro ctivity ima speciesric ness rel onship A cltical r iew and meta analysis 00 10 224122 a raxeit W m EI 3T Local patterns species diversity in a community Number of rodent species present 01 Lower Ecosystem productivity Species Richness Peaks Species Richness Peaks at Intermediate Productivity At Sedgwick Reserve nutrient rich grassland sites have relatively low diversity one species dominates cm 1 ampPECES THPFI DOHMTE 1 P E ma smj HELDS 4 UTE 539 3 arr it Mr V F trnatJTS 111413 4lMALts 91 Vim Local patterns species diversity across a landscape a N GT jS 0 N Diversity declines with elevation iopliri2snlxvt as aeumm y 37l43x 26286 R o9337 ii of species lt500 500101 I000I500 1500201 20002500 25003XU gt3000 Elevation zone m Fig 2 Observed species richness of reptiles along the elevation zones of Teesta valley Sikkim Regression analysis shows declining trend of species with elevation Chettri B Bhupathy S ampAcharya B K 2010 Distribution pattern of reptiles along an eastern Himalayan elevation gradient India Acta Oecologica 361 1622 some local patterns of diversity number of species may reach an equilibrium diversity can vary spatially with productivity diversity can vary temporally eg with rainfall diversity declines with elevation Es w LPrTTllgtE some global patterns latitudinal gradients W ctoseirib 1Z ltltTll1 i 8 btgtliel2amplquot3l Latitude As with a wide variety of plant and animal taxa oocurnng in both aquatic and terrestrial domains a signi cant latitudinal gradient in species richness exists for New World Ieal nosed bats r7 016P ltlt 0001 Latitudinal Gradients in Diversity swallowtail butterflies Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricom I I l I I I I I I 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Number of species H vMllgtrLS 20 40 60 80 100 120140160 Number of mammal species Figure I23 lrw p39 ms ml mumiur nl xg uwl lI1I1Ith I1IlXL Llmutl l1ugts 39onrrgtuv Lrmncu pumla mlh 3939 n17o1m1lxI nl spL397L39 39m l Ull uy l ulNl quotu T 111413 NS mm aJ EllErrHIll mo raw i nu DllElzSlTEl UJHEI3 L6lamp0F JflZllgtFll0lJlNTlF0 1 lPH PATTERNS OF GLOBAL SPECIES RICHNESS IN BIRDS 111413 1000 Diversity increases towards 10 the equator 10 0 0 W Latitude degrees N 300 U Ll 039 u u W 200 Diversity decreases with LL 0 elevation 13 Ll no 100 E 0 I d 4000 Z Atitu em Diversity increases with island size Area km Sq 1000000 v s 0 7 Alcids Seals so so 40 5 20 3 3 0 E 20 4o 50 quot39 30 o 1 2 3 o 1 2 3 Species richness FigulI 11 I39HI4 l39iii39 r l 0 mix I rml ill wit 1 ma lIIV i39il IIl I l l l1 i391i139IILl Hll39 li l 39 gt it l i ln 1 vi I li lu ixivi i H V wiuiziu iiiivi0 ll39IZ iiugw il u39 1 uiuii39 nm li w 10 mu m i ilcr ElgtE iquot5 Flill flTS iPFii Ei2N gPSJ39S E39fY LlLlS39 quotiPlgtilSl lE will 0U39ltS 439 Figure 1 Prominent biodiversity holspol man 39 39 N ralquot39 0 00 and gr 5 hot Louise 00 piiorilies Nature 403 353 2000 Blmgtli ll liTSigtCi S 39 l f Div xi lA39iiJ Slgt clE 0 I ioizigtorrIoN BF SPWES Qgi M eri H l1El339l39ENlV species one that occurs in only one relatively small geographic area and nowhere else eg Hawaiian goose 111413 uuloillz vlt EPl2 S ElT J TiJE LMDS ieulvszrl c 81715 was some California endemics Valley oalw Pt 1 P J Golden trout some global patterns of diversity number of species in many taxa increases toward the equator some regions a 1 have high species diversity and many endemics 111413 Biodiversity what are some local and global patterns n wN39l39llIw nr Q 1 vwr Types of biodiversity genetic species diversity richness evenness community and ecosystem gene cDll WIN PS POP species diversity richness evenness Types of biodiversity fg community and ecosystem gm BIC FF 1 CWT Pltmst I73 CfMl6Eamp39 lFN L DE OUT gt mgti2 Etgtllle i0ES 39 WST 0F eexmlcvlv v v6tzmmrowceiileac1azi flCamp pagvpop tr kkk 9 skiks zik k Q i39 kkk M eeea 3 SE 9 927 5amp5 Types of biodiversity genetic species diversity richness evenness community and ecosystem MEASURES of SPECIES DIVERSITY Species richness number of species S ecies evenness component of diversity that measures the relative abundance of species ie a weighted representation of species present A at 4 5I2 5 1 Biodiversity Indices Species richness S Simpson s index D ofspecies S S D E Relative abundance of 1 1 quotS speciesi 1 Accounts for evenness as well as richness Ranges from 0 infinite diversity to 1 no diversity 2 uuvcweuts I 111413 1 at as 3PEClt39S 111413 Species Richness and Species Evenness Contribute to Diversity S CommunifyA T A a K Q 39 71 a a a f is 1 512 N Types of biodiversity genetic species diversity richness evenness community and ecosystem Species richness and genetic diversity do not go hand in hand in al ine plants 4 i 1 w 11 I pQV pccic hness lbw V OOOOIOEOOOOOO Wk Q 0 Z Z 39 ass Z sss S ii 4z 535 5 3935 39 quot i quot 1 390 quot2 39 zs W L6 quot e coo XX 1 1 L i j L httpeoorg httpeowisonfoundationorg Lj39S 111413 newly discovered species 1 39 r PassiIora Iangf lamcnlosa Bmzil I Para in 2013 Togcxhcr with vivid purple petals the new species displays fantastic and quirky noodles or 39spaghcmquot comna laments that burst out of the ouer39s centre A new species of passion ower was discovered in the min forests of the B 39 12 111413 in I Callicebus caquelensrk Colombia This new species Callicebus caquetcnsis is one of about 20 species oftiti monkey which all live in the Amazon basin The babies have an endearing trait When they feel very content they purr towards each other explained scientist Thomas De er Yes that39s a dime that fog is sitting on Te miniature amphibian given the scienti c name Paedophryne amanuensis is reportedly the wcr39icl s s39i ai es verzeirate the category of animals that have backbones It was discovered the tropical rainforest of Papua New Guinea in 2009 but was only described in a scientific journal earlier this year Scientists found it because of the highpitched cricketlike sound it made according to the scientists that found it Continuing with the Lilliputian discoveries this chameleon discovered on a tiny island off Madagascar is small enough to perch on the head of a match or a human finger as in the picture above Brookesia micra is the smallest known chameleon species and was one of four tiny chameleon species announced by a group of researchers earlier this year The researchers warned that the species are threatened because of habitat loss and deforestation 13 New Species of Legless Lizard Found at LAX wmmn 5 3939r 5 391 quotquot 39 37 Y V 0 551 Papenfuss I J amp Parham J F 2013 Four New Species of California Legless Lizards Anniella Breviam 117 gt 111413 14 productivitv 5 THEN PM BEIDHTFD area size and heterogeneity interactions competition predation disturbance 111713 Species area curve 0 0 0 wz s 8 R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 cumulative area sampled m7 Factors affecting species diversity Q time evolutionary speed 397 96 OF S nms g 1 Ls ambient energy souk N E 39EHP3quot 7 W6quot 4 as vb UN 03 111713 Larger area potentially greater spatial HWFPEER quot H lZESl il3ES quot 39Pl39l iCl 3 heterogeneity 5 g9 0 g39f P 2 iilgt Vl NET 7 I39J H see Essay 122 in text 5mgt lSLeM39 sic easy 10 DEFINE mt T 4 Species richness related to area What controls diversity on islands a x 5 sLND Si tE igpulf men as BeeetUeczelgtc 5 0 V uuwe HUEIZOGENHH I Areaikmsql 39 39 9 Wm HiC31gS RESP FOIL THIS ltl vVL 47 S ecies richness in an area is determined b COLONIZATION new species immigrating inu EXTINCTION species going extinct locally ra J C13UlJ39 tlVlml emtuw we S bq 39 cuu5JI1r o W mt BIOGEOG it is to the mainland greater if the island is larger CONCLUSIONS FROM THE COLONIZATION EXTINCTION MODEL OF ISLAND 1 for a given size island the equilibrium number of species 8 will be greater the closer 2 for an island at a given distance the equilibrium number of species 8 will be species richness mainland which island would have the highest equilibrium 111713 IL 1 V EQ W Rate fa ival of Extinct VaCA 39son 2 news EC 5 rat C E 2 if 7 Qt 39 0 cu E 5 A E 3 2 I 2 Model of diversity is I on islands 3 I P 5 0 5 gt60 Equilibrium of Siz effect Sp S I5 Wheredthe 3 Island Island l m C0 onization an E is near is small I extinction rates are E lt gt 12 E M O 39 equal 3 g k 5 E If I V 7 3 K H I f Island Island is E 3 isfar large Near P W Distance effect 3 0 Far V SSF s SLF SSN LN m Number of Sp ies u I 111713 1 FTEP voxcauo 2u To ls LMJD m mmxtcr Ssk UM sr mav Neil mo oes Krakatau Indonesia Lan Island Verialen Island Island before 26 August 1883 Krakatau Island 0 5 kilometers I 0 3 miles Inst mes ODEL moXl 7 2 D H 5 B 395 5 Number of Species of Resident 5 E a Land Birds on Krakatau Quu39 t quotu39nd W quotD p M E 0 0h p E NUMBER PERIOD or SPECIES EXTINCTIONS COLONIZATIONS S 1908 13 5 39 39 19081919 2 17 C J 19191921 28 19211933 3 4 19331934 29 19341 951 3 7 1951 33 19521984 4 7 19841996 36 13 Island 1917 1968 Extinctions lmmigationsturnover S g Los Coronados 1 1 11 4 4 36 San Nicholas 11 11 6 6 50 San Clemente 28 24 9 5 25 Santa Catalina 30 34 6 10 24 quotU 5 6 Santa Barbara 10 6 7 3 62 San Miguel 1 1 15 4 8 46 Santa Cruz 36 37 6 7 17 Anacapa 15 14 5 4 31 Diamond 1969 139 Diamond J M 1969 Avifaunal equilibria and species turn over rates on the Channel Islands of Califomia Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 643763 Habitat fragmentation islands Forest fragments Atlantic rainforest Brazil 111713 wt c rBES7 wvtsHwv lV PiiCiS or J ED 1EsEPAJ Since the remaining habitat begins to resemble an island the ideas of island biogeography theory are applied to them Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project Laurence WF Lovejoy TE Vasconcelos HL Bruna EM Didham RK at 7m 39 22 ear inVe5igaion Cgn5e B3917 lSS0518 Reserves and island biogeography theory J M Diamond 1975 The island dilemma lessons of modern biogeographic studies for the design of natural reserves Biol Conservation 72129146 STA Pickett J N Thompson 1978 Patch dynamics and the design of nature reserves Biol Conservation 13 2737 A J Higgs 1981 Island Biogeography Theory and Nature Reserve Design Journal of Biogeography 8 117124 D Simberloff L G Abele 1982 Refuge Design and Island Biogeographic Theory Effects of Fragmentation The American Naturalist 120 41 50 Single large or several small SLOSS Ian Reserve size Better WOYSQ ID Number cl IOSONOS SL lcl Reserve proximity I 1 Reserve proximity ii C ej Reserve connectivity W O ll Reserve sliapn Habitat Loss Biotic relaxation 39 After size reduction extinction rates increase and immigration rates decrease Over many years the area slowly loses more species than gained A new equilibrium rmy be reached if no further change I10 Of 1 I39 9f lOl 0 extinction F Nurnbor of species on i Iand bElfoct of island size 111713 321 U 12E839c PlJ bl aspu 0lJ N s c lt39 7 si fV lgampkb1UH 17 Mt Rainier National Park established 1899 111713 Mount Rainier National Park o c C 6 gram d 3 3 quot 68 species of mammals have historical ranges that overlap Mt Rainier NP By 1920 50 species remained 74 of original By 1976 only 37 species remained 54 Factors affecting species diversity time evolutionary speed ambient energy productivity area size and heterogeneity island biogeog interactions competition predation disturbance 111713 P gs ugt 4 pIEsl L J SHOIZY E 5 so alocrizeu 61 m we quot lL39a139a139z1394139139 P aurelia alone 3 8 8 40 0 P aurelia grow 39n mixed cu1ture K 40 39 P caudatum in mixed culture Gause1934 0 Days MM S Cii FYl0U kh iF WU EVOLUTION LEADS TO SPECIALIZATION 6 H narrower niches D 2 MDVLF Dn2sM U3 4 1 3 O U LLI CE u 0 SMALL IARGE 2 lt RESOURCE AXIS EG SEED SIZE Hawaii birds example one common ancestor 6 Wm mE gm 39E I3F i 39 S v39 39 111713 Effects of competition on diversity Ecological timescale short term may decrease dominant competitor exclude others or reduce evenness Evolutionary timescales ongterm increase via niche diversification Factors affecting species diversity time evolutionary speed ambient energy productivity area size and heterogeneity island biogeog interactions competition predation disturbance MKWSP effects of INTENSE predation eg introduced generalist predator decrease diversity Brown tree snake bwgmqou r SP DN WEN 3 NIOD THPH ENS 39 l EF JT39l1lMe cmsme a lClo3 l7s1gtw or Rsllts 10 111713 Predation may increase diversity by reducing abundance of competitive dominant Rocky intertidal ul39BCFh9uI 5515 yr5 competitors EFFECTS OF PREDATION BY STARFISH PISASTER ON A ROCKY INTERTIDAL COMMUNITY Results of Paine39s experiments 1966 A consumer can promote diversity by allowing coexistence of Treatment starfish removal control same as only 2 species prestudy mussels barnacles same as only musselsl quot prestudy 18 39 quot 915 gt seersrmzs lrlFECT pm BF Husstu mowing owe SPTO cnwe ID 11 a predator having a major in uence on community structure its removal or addition leads to major changes In abundances of many other species 3UPPt2EE6sM1i CV Macrocystis pyrzfera giant kelp Urchins eat kelp algae 111713 USED TO Egt 1bilD9rlJ39 47 etc otcurE1Nc mv men men gtsTueIMs will an WE 12 111713 Barren grounds 13 EFFECTS OF SEA OTTERS ON KELP FOREST DIVERSITY ALASKA AMCHITKA ISLAND lots of otters 20 30 km2 T 1 sparse population of small urchins dense canopy of kelp lots of sh harbor seals eagles etc HIGH SPECIES DIVERSITY SHEMYA ISLAND no otters T re dense population of large urchins little algal cover LOW SPECIES DIVERSITY JA Estes and JF Palmisano 1974 Sea Otters Their Role in Structuring Nearshore Communities Science 185210581060 111713 Da rwin 1859 Origin of Species Strugge for Existence f turf which long has been mown be let to grow the more vigorous plants gradually kill the less vigorous though fully grown plants 920 plant sp died in unmown Quadrapeds browsers would have same effect herbivores can increase diversity After 7 years diversity lower in areas where cattle have been excluded 7397 0T 4 7 i pit Bromus dicmdrus ripgut brome is competitive dominant Herbivores can increase species diVersityI grits mtH 72 CWJE PIZESENT wlb CIYIILE 7HPNE DOM SI T lllgtFT Tpeult3 owe 14 111713 Predation may increase diversity by reducing abundance of competitive dominant eg keystone predator opening up space for different species to colonize eg Janzen Conne model tropical rain forest I Jo of seeds per sq meter Recru arent can be occupied by other species maintaining high Proba Recruitment curve P obability that a seed will reach maturity 0 Distance from parent tree itment curve peaks at distance from parentwhere CLOSE 10 mm mm DlSElZ SEXgt tel 32 ii S lice M W Plri1 il Hi UFHEP SP new adult most likely to establish Empty space near diversity s 213 Janzen Conne model for high tropica forest tree diversity Most seeds fall near parent However 0 ones killed by herbivores amp diseases living on parent so probability of survival higher away from parent P time evolutionary speed ambient energy productivity area size and heterogeneity island interactions competition predation distuIbarE3e intermeeiate disturleanzee Factors affecting species diversity biogeog hy petl1 esris tor kl Dl7 T uagtra 15 LONC 3 uuue se2vsa21gtlSi2B 111713 imgticr I1rterrnediate Disturbance Hypothesis DISTLIIAICIS ml lI ll0Il39 I A DISIUBAICK j2 TC LQC AVYII DISHIIAMCI LAIGI 339HLL Connell JH 1978 Diversity in Tropical Rain Forests and Coral Reefs Science 199 13021310 iSi tMDV r1 TM 131 i1E2 DN Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis Heron is 739 39 Queensland rainfore Connell JH 1978 Diversity in Tropical Rain Forests and Coral Reefs Science 199 13021310 kiYz12icigtciias IIKYPEJNSE Moire Cn2igtltL s Algae on boulders at Ellwood beach 1l KUE WELD 5 TDi Si N LL i a BDULDEZX cm were some KvampT rm and st L S 39 11 KFNS CEHEW Cc Ltioe iwe 391gtoH SP 1 ON I Mi U ciELlti1gtTU 16 Z 4 Wayne Sousa 1979 test of intermediate disturbance hypothesis Small boulders that were frequently rolleddisturbed had little algae colonizing Ulva When not disturbed small boulders covered with algae Gigan ina Highest diversity on rocks that had intermediate levels of disturbance eg intermediate sized rocks Test of intermediate disturbance hypothesis Lubchenco 1978 I nde pool b Emergent substrates No of algal speclgg in 0 50 seJ f Lmorina density P97 9 1 WI u 39 lazing on the dixorsily 39 1 p0 u or 4551 lls and Maine Thu in by 0 1n r 1 wr39nl r 15 Nludv vd from Lubxzhcrxu I I Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis 4 r Succession J Specieschness Little or infrequent Much or frequent Amount of disturbance 111713 1729 oaxisw 1 3 93991 is many livisilzxsh ltl Div 3 lt comgtDiiM 1W Dll r39l 4 7l I l 5 W 39 p EQKrebs Fig1217 17 Can you give two examples of local patterns of biodiversity give one example of a global pattern of biodiversity define endemic species species richness species evenness keystone predator describe the eneral relationship between area and species richness an draw a speciesarea curve draw the graph and interpret the colonizationextinction model of island biodiversity describe one set of evidence supporting an aspect of the coloniz extinct model describe how competition can affect species diversity short vs longterm describe how predation can affect species diversity and describe one example of keystone predation describe how disturbance can affect biodiversity and draw the graph illustrating the intermediate disturbance hypothesis 111713 18 m 112213 to E37f Won T137 Wm cm etlt 5l ltE Ecosystems Nutrient cycling and anthropogenic effects Ecological Levels of Organization j Ecosystem Community I Population I Individual Ecosystem biological communities of interacting organisms and their physical environment biotic and abiotic components linked through nutrient cycles and energy ows 112213 Biogeochemical cycling T The jaier Cycle 9 Water storage guj In I08 and SHOW Water storage in the atmosphere condensation Sublimation L P 55 frecipitation Evapotranspiration P r X Tr Evaporation xi i P Q el r Surface r off K J I V 1 str Water storage in oceans Ecosystems Nutrient cycling Macronutrients needed in large amounts M hm l 7 I F 3939 N P Kprimary V 39quot Micronutrients needed in very small amounts K B Cu Fe etc 1s tlTlPL Tb LlE Ecosystems Nutrient cycling Anthropogenic inputs to 1 the nitrogen cycle 2 the phosphorous cycle 112213 tgtt NT 3 HPrZi012iii6Lamp39VEampoU2I0i1l Pr39Hiiiv lt iS39FLVYS Hows EIGGEST 60L39 riHBi1ii1 ZE Foot I I quot h ct c P 30T 0 5L QK M238 lt 4 KgHYr Low 46 Yr Moderate 1 HYFHi gt104K8HYrVer i h Total wet dry deposition in So Cal and coastal Cal dry biggest input mzrdrs settue on E39I W5 39i 9r3 cmzrzvas To SQl m i m lt 4 KgHYr Low Yr Moderate 46 KgH 610 KgHYr High gt10 KgHYr Very High Nitrogen is one of the 2 elements that most often limits plant growth esp terrestrial Effects of N addition on species richness in grasslands Species richness 0 Wedin and Tilman 1996 0 5 1 15 2 25 30 see also Krebs Fig 1614 Nitrogen addition glmzlyearl Serpentine grasslands nutrient poor soils also relatively high in Ni Hg Pb Cu Mg 112213 man its klMl llkl s39l vlgtigt MORE l wail l cCl iF IT LVTlllCs iMPPiCT 6 ligtigtilic M39 iv llxl DlF2Sl39iEl elc 5l2 i TFPrSl39 1Z0ilil VON gtll it3TS iFiiIeJifieutroo1zan meuwv M1 lZINESS 112213 N J F l IlquotWZl E U l 1 l mu wv 39 39v F L E j 339 an 5 4oo g39 4 3 at gt 0 ca 1 quot O E 0 200 0 C G C 2 0 Con P N N N N P K Cu trol K K P P P K K UL Ell 00 Nutrient addition Stephen N Turitzin 1982 Nutrient Limitations to Plant Growth in a California Serpentine Grassland American Midland Naturalist 10729599 Fertilized serpentine grasslands increases in biomass and abundance of aT non native annual grasses subsequent decline in native species 2 Huenneke LF Hamburg SP Koide R Harold A Mooney HA Vitousek PM 1990 Effects of Soil Resources on Plant Invasion and Community Structure in Californian Serpentine Grassland Ecology Vol71 pp 478491 1 w V V 39 H 39 vquotquot 1 quot N r ev My v pn can p 1 ix L 3 High N sites dominated by Bromus diandrus rip gut brome 39 Cars Cows and Checkerspot Butter ies Nitrogen Deposition and Management of Nutrient Poor Grasslands for a Threatened Species Stuart Weiss 1999 Conservation Biology 13 14761486 Bay checkerspot butter y restricted to serpentine outcrops Host plants Plantago erecta Castilleja exerta nectar sou rces include Lasthenia 112213 rtw c L NM NJ39b ru1Nvnu C low Numbnvcf Lnfvnn SWquot A Cessation ofgrazing quot1990 leading to increases in nonnative annual grasses decreases in host plants Ndeposition a likely contributor to grass invasion F4 2 LG C1 Bullarlly Populalnon O PDHlAllO Monnonng Smon Ohm I nmxl Reintroduction of cattle grazing leading to reduction in cover of grass I Plantago Total grass 10 0 Mean percent cover SE a 3 8 3 8 3 3 8 O 1995 I 996 1 997 1 998 Year TU eexmvmletv 1 Managed GRAZING reduces loss of diversity on serpentine resulting from N deposition j 112213 112213 Cars Cows Checkerspot butter ies Checkerspot butter y populations crashed where cattle grazing stopped High N deposition in areas studied Annual non native grasses replaced host forbs Reintroduction of cattle grazing reduced dominance by grasses Anthropogenic N deposition lt 4 KgHYr Low 46 KgHYr Moderate 610 KgHYr High gt10 KgHYr Very High rizian mm olLS mm 05 smzua 112213 1 Annualgrassesincreasin u deosition ampw x lt 9 lt 4 KgHYr Low 46 KgHYr Moderate 610 KgHYr High gt10 KgHYr Very High Distribution of desert communities in California 39 3034 of state39s total land area Rainfall range 5 22 cm annually lrregula r highly variable 39 sononm lS texture varia ble rockysa ndyst ossem l ybe extremely saline and alkaline Pig ls1 lInIulIunnllin11lhuuln Inn r sunuu nuIWIl 1394nlml Al y Iaxrm Ill IlIlnmL llu ZnqI lhsm MuI v am Sunurun Ilt fl All rxlrml urll lwvnlld Ilu IumIm 0 lt IllltgtnIII 112213 ltl Mojave Desert dominated by Larrea creosote bush Red brome Bromus madritensis ssp rubens Non native annual grass invasion in the Mojave Desert 10 Burned yucca Mojave Desert 112213 Anthropogenic inputs to 1 the nitrogen cycle 2 the Di cei a The phosphorus ybi Atmosphere 1 ll Pools Pathways Terrestrial 0 communities I Water in in rivers soil lakes and oceans Ocean sediments 11 112213 11 1 1 quot tG addition of nutrients to an aquatic system causing increases in algal abundance may lead to a depletion of oxygen hypoxia Natura Humancaused or Cutura eutrophication Natural process of eutrophication eg s Lake i Albert Bierstadt 18301 Mirror Lake Yosemite Va 864 Mirror meadow J lt YQp 12 112213 gm l Ucl2MT WW8 u NE was lt30 wlim l39ml6 like v 9 CHFVNGES N WEH LTl Qkihiw ii i l l l l lllhlcle llgolt 7uh iweMl Ca tll6T ahaL160 u rP6E Lake Washington 1963 Lake Stinkoquot EUTROPHICATION AT LAKE WASHINGTON mm C 7 W H K 7439 I To WDGEF slimdb P E my ads 7 clr no rllSPllbPlamp 63 6 75 is 74 N NC39Pquotlt 3rlLllV 393l lg an um2igtrTc 4 7kTNEgt mmaxr WOSPWE I 63 68 75 78 Edmondson w T 1970 Washington after diversi LTltQ L 7 VPNFliLP ED THE ugt lt w BMW Ll 7CLEfrrl CMLBP 7 Q1 L l5U6lquotl by David Sc quot Ier in Canada Schindler DW 1974 Eutrophication and Recovery in Experimental Lakes Implications for Lake Management Science 184 897899 Lake 226 13 Schindler DW 1974 Eutrophication and Recovery in Experimental Lakes Implications for Lake Management Science 184 897899 1 nu l sun on NI 1 ca 3915 2 Chlorophyll it c0nnIrIiuI39 in lake 301 In I963 I96 uJ 1393 ll Likr was no fcvlilixcd In l97l and it 1 lt lticiI anlmzul znldilions 01 040 of pllus phurux 52 1 01 nitrogen and 55 0 carbon r1 xquarc meter In I973 addiliors of nitrogen md carbon wen conlinunl i lhc um mic but l7V Ih0llN Hl In J in ma Nu Aw 112213 ii gm wmvutawmeVmre was B rCTb39FHE wharrwas in freshwater aquatic systems often the limiting macronutrient in marine aquatic systems often the limiting macronutrient 1 o k s Suwannee quot Rlver outflow V rH iZE rxzeecivmeiz eves Io we sail 39iN 5UPUTf lJl11EYlS 7NTlZFlCi Fil0N 14 from Ch 16 In the News 112213 mmcal WON lltllci12ehs Hl rCl HSH NDUSYR9 7 swrsee mun 47 l slll 7 rC mm mnrr A l NM1 lt lxlme NWT biswales on campus quotBioswales are planted with a diverse assemblage of local native plants that attract insects and wildlife and therefore enhance habitat value By allowing water to slow down in these vegetated swales it is slowly absorbed into the soil where sediments are prevented from running off and plant roots and microorganisms can break down or use pollutants The end result is cleaner water and a healthier environment Topdown control or trophic cascades 15 112213 TROPHIC CASCADE MODEL Primary CRABS Carnivores Herbivores INVERTEBRATE GRAZERSSNAILS Producers ALGAE Sea grass Ag N size of circle re ects abundance of each group l iKlC ems mu bFE l ears 7 sum mam Won zaiumls emss were lilttzsuve LQtnSS i 7 7agtrcmgt473 39 Nla 39E15 S Na emss Trophic interactions N cycing Effect sea otters on sea grass Elkhorn slough Otte rs V 9 n lquot Equot VV quot V gt 5 5 3 Pkg 39 s2 4 S6 Small Inverts 33 39A o39 If 1 E g J gn39 1 1 Sea grass Algae 0 e N 16 Can you de ne ecosystem list the three major macronutrients limiting plants name the major abiotic pool of nitrogen in the biosphere describe one source of anthropogenic N deposition explain how it impacts terrestrial plant communities and give one example de ne eutrophication describe at least one study that revealed what macronutrient was mainly responsible for limiting pant producer growth in freshwater aquatic systems and what was that macronutrient describe eutrophication in coastal marine habitats and the macronutrient mainly contributing to it there describe the function and value of bioswales 112213 17 Geographic patterns of distribution Distributions of Species rge scaegeographic factors controlling the distributions of organisms 4 i 0 39 3939 quotW 39 cgt 394 1 Tropical evergreen ChaparralShrubland 7 Boreal forest Tropical deciduous JCold desert I Arctic tundra Tropical thorn forest 1 High mountains IlTemperate l 1 Savatma Z Temperate evergreen grassland l J Hot desert I2 Temperate deciduous Polar ice cap nun 2 10613 no SF C1ES39FHPrT LNES eve2 NHEEE xmierr me Tikese Lmnsl cmsnamms 39 SM l3lPrkl39l Clbllll lll Ell ClM1 rTES TAOHE I ERSED 6J CLUl ltTE Chaparral Convergent evolution analogous traits Matorral 15 Arctic Alpine 10 E7 E T C E E 5 2 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Mean animal precipitation cm Santa Barbara 289 Most Biomes Have a Distinct Temperature and mean rainfall cm Precipitation Range Figum 5012 mean temp 16 C Arctic A39lpi139139 Il Q5 aa EIUEJ 350 WU 150 Mean El1139Il1Ell precipitation cm 250 5U EUU T r2cIp1llall39Iarn Range Figure 5I2 239 Most Bitomrs iil39aw a DisEiincl Tcn1i Ir1llunanal a 39 M 39 0 arnwjadmaj mnuuu uuow 10613 S Ul lt39 PL CE 9 SlMlLH nQ 7iZPl39l S CLU1 VT Q ll tk TEMP 39 Qau PiZEquotDlcT PLWT UPE Ll3C MERE 2 of CD CD your book has the figure in this orientation Distributions of Species Large scae patternsfactors controlling the distributions of organisms Climate temperature rainfall also in uenced by solar radiation ocean currents topography STATE OF CALIFORNIA Distribution of capuchins worldwide 10613 CLlHFEFEDOESMYl PKEDICT lMT SPECKES ML 56 FoNlgt lkl Pr PL C OLIW Numb N MEUJ w 012 U 10613 White headed capuchin ow uomte mm m a SMRLLPAHGE Distribution of Cebus capucinus Adansonia grandidieri giant baobab mum wk N UES T C0rPrS T lt3 uab e smxp Adansonia grandidieri giant baobab How determine what limits W915 distribution of a species HlklEgt Compare conditions physical biological where it is vs where it is not correlation Discover the reasons why it DOESN39T occur in places it isn39t found experiments transplants Mechanisms or factors that set mm its present range musnmr ePa2MeNT quotI Plt39rNTS alga Distributions of Species Large scaegeographic factors controlling the distributions of organisms Climate temperature rainfall biomes Barriers to dispersal expts insights from human introductions amp barriers Dispersal movement or spreading of an organism or species from one place to another Sturnus vulgaris European Starling j 10613 D gy 1gtpr5391LkELl 4 SEEDS sllow mt P FFECTED Elj Dlamp39lZl5quot Dlamp 3 L 7llitlgtrlL OCEPltll E sllEl2 nor lEl21E aerate an was new SPECKES llOTlZlgt ltd llll The Spread of the European Starling in North America to 1928 by May Thacher Cooke 1928 10613 q s 4 39 o kn1 1000km I u G I quotx I I x 3939 39 39 39 39 39 I 39 quot4 39 39 39 39 J439I I Iquot European Starling Dreissena polymorpha Zebra Mussel M39Lquot 3 quotFquot 1 native to Russia introduced accidentall Wquot W I to US Great Lakes 1 PFSTS To GLO 393 successeu LN DsP1e2E1gt xcC20SS HP US xcLnemL TH120 5HPS mTs2 m cHlcm0 sPz agttgt TD C gtEPT takes quot392 S F JtgtFFlt I1S BUT CMPHE wemue mss39eL5 Sm me lo ErEZh3 lMQ ewe Pumas introduced Invasion and impacts of Zebra Mussel 1985 10613 I L H I Fr t lrr i 3AKSMVv F wyl I 39I0u n bop i Slo i GOV Division of Boating and Woievwoys mm n an occur HOME SAFEYY A EDUCAYION ENVIRONMENY LICENSING LAW ENFORCEMENY GFLANYS A LOANS Tsei C0lii Meruzuri F sn 8 Win An Rivet Corcilnrs Pimicabms lriimonsu f 5 Quagga Zebra Mussels About Rasourca Vmeillestricaions hN BOIdK anus mussels Calfoma H i514 9 Dealers to bill WIN llld fj their boats 39 me new 39 rovluviov Ifld hora rum vwant mean vivivie cpa2cv is v1 Il111 wee nle lawn a 23 gm quot v3939 3 ixuaa39u39All ledn1Ioneloem9Dee9tIed olmian COUNTY OF SAN A BARBARA N I 5 1 Parks Home in A 4 Who W0 Are 5 C OurParksamp Facilities Quagga Information R39 quot39quot quot 0 Boat Launch Protocol Prograrrlsai Acmmu D Cachuma Lake Quagga and Zebra Mussel Management Program September 10 2010 Getlnvolved I Procurement Opportunities C00 U8 Cacriuma Quegga Report May 2013 C ornrniulons at ommittees Cachuma Lake Boat Inspection Hours 700 AM to 300 PM To help prevent the introduction of Quagga 8 Zebra mussels ALL boats will be SUDJEC1 to inspection wash treatment andor quarantine prior to being allowed to launch at Cachuma Lake Please refer to our Thank you for helping keep cecliume Lake Quagga Freel Seiecl Language V Cachuma Home Fee Lake Hours Camping Boating Fishing Marina 5 Boat Rentals Hiking Nature Cruises Calendar of Events Live Oak Camp School Field Trip Activities Quagga iiilormalion cachuma Lake Nnlure Comer Cechunu uke Recmation Ana County Home Livlnul worklngl Buelneee Visiting Governrnentl Contact county Site Mepl Site Info Copyright 9 2009 2013 County of Santa Barbara All Rights Reserved i Li PlTi To i2lPiigt UiilP 10613 CM mo ulcers new em E113 wean lgt1eJ skQPH rlTD PMS Distributions of Species Large scaegeographic factors controlling the distributions of organisms Climate temperature rainfall biomes Barriers to dispersal expts insights from human introductions amp barriers Dispersal movement or spreading of an organism or species from one place to another Anthropogenic barriers to dispersal T eg fragmentation roads lZ01 vgt Can you Describe two factors that may control distribution of organisms on a large scale M lE l39gtPdl PS Describe the relationship between climate and biomes De ne dispersal Describe how one could experimentally determine if a species distribution is limited by a barrier to dispersal Give examples of natural physical barriers to dispersal Give examples of species that were limited by barriers to dispersal prior to their introduction by humans Give examples of new barriers to dispersal created by human activities IQ Interspecific interactions predation 1 i 3939o39 S R 2 lo Predation Consumption of one organism by another Predator any organism that consumes all or part of another living organism its prey or host thereby bene tting itself but reducing growthsurvival of the prey NaturaIenemie any organism that consumes all or part of another living organism its prey or host predatorscarnivores animal eats animal gt1 oherbivores animal eats plants l 1 lparasites diseases parasitoids insect or microorganism lives inon animal or plants 102413 9 as la l lLL gt 0gtT 0 39 333 quot quotE tmsroups M0 rnsNoae masrres usuM l HLLS Rad Parasitoids I Hutu 1 l 1rnilui uuxps uhwlop insinlu Ihv ldndc or 39h39In 1quot39m39 pupnv ul nthr inxuls Herbivores grazing T 1 102413 mm M eMe1 quot H39ED I DIEEST SPEND xcsrs m39 mE2e39u TBFIND 493 tcre2t m grr 012 GELLULOSE How predators impact prey mwazla mines PEP abundance lm dynamics selective pressure 102413 Distribution limited by introduced predator now J 5 i I A 1 ohm M Q Figure 311 un nu Inrnnrr 39nu39nIIn39 rnllges nr I p mull 2 K llI1IkIlIIII I h mm uvll l avquot Wesnm Auunlm nml auuupn arr Ivim nlmlr In rrimrmIu it an un Iuuilllnlld lmli td nun lIuoII l39I N Burrowing bettong or Boodie Distribution limited by natural predator Distribution limited by natural herbivore Louda S M 1982 Distribution ecology variation in plant recruitment over a gradient in relation to insect seed predation Ecological monographs 521 2541 Q ISQEB Obsevved REAYI39E F EoNcv Hazardia squarrosa men LuI sawtooth goldenbush on pIy mni39 n I39ui39lll39l39lI arc cilII C hy uln numhcz 1 jku r nru pa if llII39l39I ml in cmh mn g A F k v o Ii frcqiunn uwd uiumJu39r 1Ldl the g Bi5quoti tES Z igt H02ES 39Eigt ms eCHEPBl NYUEE E Q0iST How predators impact prey distribution 2abur1daIaee dynamics selective pressure ABUNDANCE limited by introduced predator millions ol kg Lake trout can A i 3 5 D E ILI J I C3 Q3 r D 1 53 1 Q 0 E3 5 2 Q 5 I Sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus iilOR i CPM CCNWOL 102413 gt 102413 Abundance limited by natural herbivore sp ng Kaye v LESSRU E summer 0NampW quot1Z 1uquot39I i rn 39u 39x n E g m 0 n d Daphnia a herbivore Zaca Lake bag experiment 102413 A natural enemy Daphnia as a limiting factor to plant algae abundance Example from Zaca Lake Ace Sarnelle Season Spring Summer T j Observation water CW Qllt99 clarity L A Plant Algae lt High Low Resource P Moderate Higher Herbivore Daphnia Low High Conclusion Limiting P ltHerbiyoLe factor for agae va39iquot fti cVPE gtiESl l summer i0S tbGUS 102413 Applied questions Can predator control be used to increase desirabe wildlife populations eg skunk ducks wolvesmooseampcaribou Can predators be used to control pests One applied area of predatorprey interactions Bieaeeagiea eontiogt using natural enemies to reduce population densities of pests cassic bio control introduce control agent natural enemy where it didn39t exist before A good control agent after introduction maintain itself reduce pest but not cause extinction stable wweour c0Jl120L 5El3T To lg European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus 1N39i20Duc D39IDHUNT See textbook Krebs p 164167 No healthy rahhila 5000 See textbook Krebs p 164167 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 KEPT For 9 QNWQL 1zTF l NW Figure 169 Population crash of the European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus at Lake Utana New South Wales after the virus disease myxomatosis was in troduced in 1951 Numbers of healthy rabbits were counted on standardized transects After Myers er al 1954 DJ ltmMET A quotgood control agent after introduction maintain itself reduce pest but not cause extinction stable rhostspeei c pest scale insect on citrus control agent parasitoid wasp mmucs talent on 6Be gt6tW0EFQQ N39lR L 102413 102413 A good control agent after introduction maintain itself reduce pest but not cause extinction stable host speci c present in the pest s home so good control or absent from the pest s home so not evolved to resist v 4 0 D comma vraasem in lime 39 F 3 k8 m i oi1iOSigt 7 0hCTi3 SlZE i gt GUT bl CDVJTPAL H554 U l39Pi E quot76 iTS CfC l39US 39gtsu cuss 1zxgtiUP C l tCquotI3 Prickly pear cactus Opuntia stricta introduced to Australia in 184O 7 quot22 I Cactoblastis cactorum A good control agent after introduction maintain itself reduce pest but not cause extinction stable host speci c present in the pest s home absent from the pest s home nouiaielesira ble sid D quot i 102413 Some famous disasters 0 An assault of sexmad glam toads munching their way across Australia N 0D 39fl2Iotouly igr i rdliilarlg z39slby391twlstedl T isoemrev1iLEs H5 is 12leL12aSE39F6l0NgtFPFFPcL fb39llHPNS Black rats introd gged accidentally from Polynesian and Western North America nocturnal EGSS Mongoose introduced intentionally from India 39 coLtIzoL il39 diurnal D39 10 Cactoblastis cactorum 102413 How predators impact prey distribution abundance ggyna im selective pressure Snowshoe hare PredatorPrey Cycling W 5 vs 5 9 AI E S o 6 O 9 E 39 3 I I I I 0 1850 1875 1900 1925 Year ozongnu1 25 suvsgn E hn p r39msrng asv dIsltn lt vvxmr an m 11ear J Lynx population size thousands 11 Predator Prey Relationship Kendall BE et al 1998 The macroecolo of population dynamics taxonomic and biogeographic patterns in populations cycles Ecology Letters 11 164 102413 How study predation experiments exclosuresenclosures observations compare areas with vs without consumers eg fence ines determine what predators have consumed Fence ine studies grazing 12 102413 know 1zeHmueMoumT or lSQIP 1TC L gm ELLlt How predators impact prey distribution abundance dynamics selectivepIessure 13 Co evoution of predators prey organisms prey evolve defenses quot predators may evolve to overcome defense FlOMS LESS 4quot TROZNS on plant defenses Thorn density 1995 Year 0 39 7 Lfliangc5 In the numlwr of thorns un IhvMrriliurr1nea1 shrub ilomm hr Jhyl1 spinma In lcIlCL39l Iblack mm d med 39U39 phlls There is 1 l1lC f39i lL l C39391 thorn prluLli0n an ruiling in 1hltpl1nI The 139wi lhorm l l n quot 39 i mrv iruir ilc1nlo139 l392L39r mm Im Imm I mevout39Lon Two or more species 1 exert selective pressures on each other and 2 evolve in response to each other 5elect39ive environment is constantly changing 102413 sisL rN em COOSTANTLY Czl iNQW C 14 102413 Co evoution of predators prey organisms prey evolve defenses predators may evolve to overcome defense coevo39utior1ary armsnace Ehrlich amp Raven y Gj 1 amp Q0 FAST TD 3133 N EH9 l C E Can you de ne predation name the four types of predators natura enemies and classify them in terms of prey consumed and impact on prev we 1reLE39A1 10 describe one examplestudy of predators limiting prey distribution describe one examplestudy of predators limiting prey abundance de ne bio contro list and describe 3 attributes of a good control agent describe an example of successful biocontrol and one failure de ne co evoution describe co evoution of predator prey 15 Course overview amp introduction to ecology pR Environmental Ecology ES 100 quot 0 v Aw 39 3939s39 w 6Q 6Q 2 Environmental Ecology ES 100 Instructor Claudia Tyler TAs W Sara Baguskas Th Stephanie Ma F Heather Dennis Who YOU are Envir Studies Envir paming Biology Law Economics Energy Globe Studies 3 World Studies History Natural Resource Manag Hydro Sci and Policy Political Science Psych Religious Studies Spanish What is Environmental Studies study of humans interactions with their environment amp impacts on envir G aIOOO to develop the tools needed to be an effective environmental problem solver and leader What is Environmental Studies study of humans interactions with their environment amp impacts on envir social and human environment physical environment biological environment eg population dynamics function of ecosystems Goals of the course Learn important concepts in ecology Understand how they can be useful in addressing environmental problems See how ecology is done experiments observations models hypothesis testing Learn the language of ecology Learn how to use the primary literature in ecology Spark an interest in ecology and natural history Understand why you see some ofthe things you see outside Text and website The Ecological World View By Charles Krebs 5 copies on reserve in the library 7 ECOLOilLL httpgauchospaceucsbedu Course Elements Lectures Discussion sections Some section logistics Adding the course 214 enrolled max 216 Sections rooms are small 24 max Week 1 next week Go to assigned section unless it absolutely won t work for you In that case see me after class today If you must switch sections discuss it with your proposed TA We may require proof of your schedule conflict COUFSG Assessments Exams 2 midterms 1 final Written assignments based on section activities Evaluation for the course Midterms 20 each 40 Final 20 Discussion attendance participation 5 homework assignments 35 If you have special test needs or other concerns please see me or email me and make sure you contact the UCSB Disabled Student sProgram Schedule a few sample weeks Fri Sept 27 Course mechanics and Introduction to Ecology Chapter 1 Week 1 Sept 30 Oct 4 M Methods in ecology and the concepts of scale and hierarchy W Ecology39s evolutionary backdrop natural selection adaptation online reading evolutionberkeleyedu see GS and text p169 F Geographic patterns of distribution biomes and barriers to dispersal Chapters 21 31 Section Adaptation exercise group project completed in class Week 2 Oct 711 M Smaller scale distribution patterns abiotic and biotic factors Chapter 3233 W Autecology ecology at level of individuals Behavioral ecology Chapter 4 F Autecology ecology at level of individuals Physiological ecology Section Behavioral ecology article and discussion Article on Gauchospace completed and uploaded worksheet due before section My Expectations Attendance Be on time Respect for your peers and instructors please no chatting cellphones texting websurfing during class Active participation Academic honesty TODAY S GOALS What is ecology Why study it How related to environmentalism quotthe comprehensive science of the relationship of the organism to the environmentquot RDQTS IN Mm 11 STOii l Kunstfnrmen rler Nrztur Art F arms a f Nature 1111131511 Wikipedia OTEWikiEmS1Ha5Ck51 A current your text s definition Scienti c study of the interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms Su E E Wm Mani WW 7 Distribution and abundance of red kangaroos in Australia From Krebs 2008 Ecology Ecology is the scientific discipline that is concerned with the relationships between organisms and their past present and future environments These relationships include physiological responses of individuals structure and dynamics of populations interactions among species organization of biological communities and processing of energy and matter in ecosystems Ecological Society of America my gegimm In men SPOT Basic and Applied Ecology Pure basic science knowledge for knowedge s sake May not appear directly useful to us Ex Processes responsible for determining the structure and composition of shrublands in South Africa or Southern California Note Pure science sometimes ends up being very valuable to humans eg link btvvn gypsy moth amp Lyme s LDSE SE Basic and Applied Ecology Applied science knowledge that is practical for benefiting humankind science applied to a specific problem Ex Processes responsible for determining the distribution and abundance of mosquitoes in highland Kenya Benefit helps us avoidcontrol malaria Applied ecology sue clgtt eolZlE 39 Application of ecological Conservation biology concepts theories global Change models and methods to Ioollutlon biology the maxrIrargezmretnit of wildlife and habitat biological resources in ma a9eme t their widest sense 39339 Se alld management British Ecological Society aquatic resources restoration ecology nuisance species effects of genetically modified organisms Why study ecology Opportunity to know more about natural world around you Snta Ynez Mtns Haske s beach Why study ecology Opportunity to know more about natural world around you Provides valuable insight into natural resource problems How much can be harvested without depleting a State of world stocks in 2004 Figure A2 1 State of world stocks Ill 2004 Rezawngm r 399919110 hor eoo 39ed 0 5 93990 QdFt Mo axe eon ted Mo her or o39ed Lil Rare species How many need to be released to achieve stable population What do we need to know about life cycle to avoid extinction Relationship of ecology to infectious disease Why have some diseases become so prevalent Two39ar Life Cycle for I39mI 3939 smmIuri39 3 Nymphs attach an ind 01 smal marrrrals and auras r I 2 Larvae hatch andleed I C9 39 i quot v Iiarzl la39cr 39 Fem Jecembe J 5Aducks urrvu Jamar vurm days winter 39 A Aduts son muduum I of quot39quotYiquot99quot 7 K la Mgr mammalian host prrnmly deer What will the loss of certain species mean to our forests What are consequences of species additions How will changing global temperatures affect species abundances and ecosystem services Global Temperatures Annual Average Five Year Average Temperature Anomaly C 61860 1880 1900 1920 I940 1960 1980 2000 Applied issues in ecology challenges opportunities for win win 39 quot 5 v pr Q pk W 4 1 V V 1 5 AV L 39 Whitefaced Ibi Im 1 Rice FlZLDS elaou eHT svllacllas BACK DaHfQE CROPS wee gtEsTs PMfl J Why study ecology Opportunity to know more about natural world around you Provides valuable insight into natural resource problems To understand the interconnectedness of living organisms EVEK39 N6 cMJEClEV You cannot alter just one component of an ecological system Krebs Why study it What is ecology TODAY S GOALS How related to environmentalism Environmentalism Environmentalism may use information gained from science but is not a scientific discipline is a v E Focus on preventing degradation or improving environment L Ecology Ecology is a science is study of relationships of living things to one another and their environment Focus on gaining knowledge about natural world V v Should ecologists be environmentalists 7 art PLHH PM H btr J t ROLE Can you Define ecology Give at least one reason why study of ecology might be useful Provide some examples of applied ecology Distinguish between ecology and environmentalism Methods in ecology and the concepts of scale and hierarchy TODAY S GOALS How do we do ecology What is scale in ecology and why is it important GGtrk39 NOT PlE SOHEHllvxl c 3 e e mv SWETHNe oUT seeks to explain z z relies on evidence from natural world tests explanations against observations reject those that fail subject to peer review and replication parsimonysimplest explanation has advantage Ecology and the scientific method Observation 07 3 P3 EH4 Question 397 SPECFlCquot 39TlE2 Hypothesis formation conjecture prediction Hypothesis testing Data collection Data analysis role of statistics Conclusions confirm reject revise hypotheses Theory formation Courtesy NPS A black rat is caught on camera eating a Scripps s murrelet egg ppmgzgoz m0UES some 39elt t uC Soak NilEl7 ANPGTHESW 39 EDPrTlMl 332 T2933 EMS E2D caTE391gt 39 1gtm7 wem Hzovl 367 To 80 ll LA Ecology and the scientific method Hypothesis testing using evidence from several types of sourcesmethods observations experiments lab field models Types of evidence used to test hypotheses Observations U k g Make detailed observations to describe or detect patterns look for best explanatory variable PFOSI useful for detecting patterns can be relatively less costly may be only choice 39 C0115 correlative may indicate but not confirm underlying mechanisms G nh Avrrig r T1quotm1I 7 IYIlH C Correlation Causation lb 139 gt 9 II 39 139 1 H h I L 6 I5 I 1 5 i I4 3 A 14 39 I1 3901 T v 0 quotlt lt39J I 00 gt l IVI 0 Number of Pirates estimated L cozeat tgtlUim quot uczc MOVING to co oKAgto39 S NEH sruzrr com gt you KNJN Q P HAM tum quotjr3 COLORKDOHAS me LO39 l ST J OBESIH LE Ec3r39 am arm Jr 1 J z R I Types of evidence used to test hypotheses Experiments One or more factors manipulated treatments and compared to a control other important elements replicates randomization PFOSI can reveal underlying mechanisms causes 39 CONS may be more difficult costly messy nature is variable Stock tanks at the Tyson Research Center hold artificial pond communities that are manipulated in various ways to explore ecological interactions Scientists also survey natural ponds at the research center and in its vicinity Credit Travis MohrmanTyson Research Center Field studies Natural experiments eg following a disturbance go in and study effects of that disturbance may compare to an undisturbed site but is it a true contro Pros Cons Assumptions Types of evidence used to test hypotheses V G Models conceptual mathematical PFOSZ useful for predicting effects adding in complex factors no mess I 1 Ibquotfl JIM ll Cons K 7 I Ir 7 w s simplistic less realisticlmessy L H n 1 7 EY C14SSU llgt EXP Types of evidence quot7 MMIE How do we ensure rigorBELlEVABLE replication random assignment of samples when 7AW 0H H39 cquotquot S co FROL J H39 CH S TREATMENT appropriatelcau iLP A com ale publicationcommunication of findings peer review prior to publication of finding Amo2 DID S39l39UD l SEC LT1zELC TEIgt s139uD 1 zevlENsHeDiA smnzces EXP I OBSEQH39TlQll RL STUDE1 Hierarchy and scale in ecology wall FOLK L at JUST wHTCHNr S Ecological hierarchy levels of Hp NEUL39Pm0U am I organization C WQEL Pattern and scale NE Ecological Levels of Organization Imlivilelual limpnulaiimm interacting individuals of a species Gommuwitty interacting individuals of multiple species Eeosysutenm interacting physical and biological systems of an area at a point in time community physical environ V Isandaem interacting ecosystems L962 9 LevE LS NOT l2lELPrTFD To LnrLcG2 SCHLES King Clone individual Creosote bush Larrea tridentata 1c Microbial communities Hierarchy and scale in ecology Ecological hierarchy levels of organization Pattern and scale what we see depends on 7 7 observatien distance space time extent of measurements WHATS ISn t science 0BJECTIVE What we see can depend on what we are looking for Gradual Change Test I bmovI Francoen I Runner 1000 mm httpwwwyoutubecomwatchV1nn5usWMYc Selective Attention Test I SI on G Hahn I999 mm httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvvJG698U2Mvo Context matters In each set of parallel lines which line is longer scab DEPENDS ow Sgtrgtna vL SCRLE 1 TEMPOEAL SCALE 4 SPE Us 3 J In ecology the spatial and temporal scale b3 LONG SNDB lS we chose when observing an organism or system or addressing a problem affects what we see Scale matters Pattern and scale in ecology quotThe problem of pattern and scale is the central problem in ecology unifying population biology and ecosystems science and marrying basic and applied ecology Applied challenges require the interfacing of phenomena that occur on very different scales of space time and ecological organization Furthermore there is no single natural scale at which ecological phenomena should be studied systems generally show characteristic variability of a range of spatial temporal and organizational scalesquot Levin s A 1992 Ecology 73 19431967 Distinguish between observational and Describe what is meant by natural Give an example of hierarchy in ecology Give an example of scale in ecology Can you Describe the types of methods used in ecology and proscons of each experimental approaches experiment 11113 Interspecific interactions mutualism commensalism amensalism IVIutuai5Rn mutually bene cial association between different kinds of organisms mutua exploitation where each partner is a NET bene ciary some terms facultative mutualism obligate mutualism symbiosis endosymbiosis Faoultatzieverrrutualitsn both species bene t from relationship but not depend on it exclusively eg bees pollinators and wild owers l J 11113 m eg plants and pollinators even a SELFPOLLINATING plant coffee has een found to bee t frm bee poination I Q natural pollination of crops Taylor Ricketts et al 2004 Economic value of tropical forest to coffee production PNAS Vli ih LampH TERM 6ll r T3lZ lPMD ezoum COFFEE 11113 QOVFEE ampllELlgt3 A 1 1 r I 0 I 4 l A I quot3 W f 3 I V 39 A 39 39 47 a 4 39 l 39 I has 39u L4 A 39239 I Lee T l uI 391 C Q S W eg seed dispersal by animals whitebark pine and oaks and scrub jays Clark39s nutcracker KHSY PaPWEPES39l39kG lb see wex2gtsrolN 95 5 CUEA lJ3 239 39 ll0 Y MT 123125 GET OW Bl lT 7 eg cleaners amp cient T l n 11113 FH21ETf HEW EFT STUFF 0 1 61Ha2 FS r cua mne s mbu TWTLES TISH cow lb C4T CLEPJEP H045 OFF Fl FST 5 eg cleaner sh amp cient bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus 786891 S F S F WPS v ONH6F S21 uJ sFEkM1 U39tD S 39 1ltquotquot the client What does the client get out ofthe relationship Is it parasitism or mutualism Grutter A S 1999 Cleaner sh really do clean Nature 3986729 672673 Obligate both species entirely depend on each other for survivalpersistence eg lichen eg yucca and yucca mo h 11113 EJ3E F 3T0 CLl kYl39l lO FF 1 Hgtg lt39 ClllD lz NSHYl Pr DIFF vmaasite c39nNengt FFEE HEPM CL1gt E ua3ElD Md LEllT 1071 iR1h r 11113 The Yucca Moth and the Yucca Yuccas genus Yucca and yucca moths genus Tegeticula are involved in mutually bene cial and obligatory relationships that have been well studied including phylogenetic reconstruction Cum INSECT TlH sT CW f603ll3iell DEPOSVT 0UElJ 4 L1 M6 secs umllzlaces DTcPELLSBllir39esquot 1 sT sews arr pm PM mm 39 6l3 TBlo em muse SAME SEED S Details of the YuccaYucca Moth Mutualism The yuccayucca moth relationship is obligatory the moth larvae have no other food source and the yucca plants have no other pollinator adult female yucca moths carry balls of pollen between yucca owers by means of specialized mouthparts during pollination the female moth deposits eggs in the ovary of the yucca ower after the eggs hatch the developing larvae feed on some of the developing yucca seeds but less than 30 of the seed crop the yucca exerts selective pressure on the moths through abortion of heavily infested fruits to limit moth genotypes predisposed to lay large numbers of eggs cheaters A 6 gtCJl FE l S J9l35is gtFI LllleTE Rll two different species living together in a close and often ong term even ife ong mutualistic relationship eg lichen algae fungus others PLQPYE 39 HALE To we Ul lt l5E Ts UN 00 my moles Lots of W l UJClS 12PTs Sl6irZ 39F B l Ugt1 FE Endosymbiosis symbiotic relationship in which one partner symbiont lives within the tissues of the other host eg lichens mycorrhizal fungi amp plants N xing bacteriarhizobia in root nodules of legumes gut micro organisms amp herbivores corals 439 t mycorr Izae Of cows and sheep l How Does Ruminant GI System Work Herbivores cannot produce ceIIuIases enzymes that break down cellulose depend on endosymbiotic microorganism Ruminants have four chambered stomachs rumen reticulum omasum abomasum 11113 EPW G iS 395 CEKKU L08 11113 abomasum omasum LIIh39hu93011 f i Ruminant Gastrointestinal sg j I The rumen and reticulum contain microorganisms that P r metabolize the cellulose into nutrients for the host I Food then travels to the omasum where it is concentrated by water absorption I The abomasum is the true stomach Microorganisms are also digested by the host and provide Protein P CBST Tb P Moos microbes and methane I 11113 come uTiJisL T0 Pxi Lee 2 UVESOIEQLS eg corals mutualism with zooxanthellae endosymbiotic algae COPAL SU61 ri2F7DH PLQHE ALGAE 39 SPFE PL1 C ET0 LNE t i10rcr com coLoi2S cove mu 39 LbCgt P WIHELL F Corals coral bleaching mass expulsion of zooxanthellae endosymbiotic algae p A Akeeee 739Ibo MINA quot E rm HUGH SUQHZ W caLLED C0ilPrLa 6HlIC 93 Q pgpg Cm 3mguy wl0n rL eE wuzmvg Pramp CW kiPP L iU LE wio rLGPltE WTiEU iErii WE some terms facultative mutualism obligate mutualism symbiosis endosymbiosis 39d0S i GELXGPWE Co evoution of mutualists mutualism not necessarily but may be co evoved 11113 CNSV El EHl5C S A l 2IquotCl taxiJet mlaa VGESWT wefm uvEJ0 EX POLLl039l flBTiS 7 l39l lquot kl 3 VJ SlEC1 uT L7 R1313 ucsize DEWMDENT 7M6iZ LOSS 10l FEEL 17oLwgtc1 OP 1EDU CED coHe1nloJ 17PslkT391Z EklP 393iLTEl39i si1 l3 GET 5frHE 39PLEN Other relationships commensalism O epla in in 395 oncltU5 Other relationships amensalism O 6 O P g m alism U 2 J I Saguaro all grown up C C39S EHNDE OUT U 1 pt H 3 quot 5quot 1 emzma T gr we c cws 10 Types of relationships competition predation mutualism commensalism 0 amensalism O indirect interactions When is not competition Apparent competition an indirect interaction shrubs vs herbs Hg 1 A man of Raina lumpaglla uurrorulwt by turns 9 palully ulutoning amh39m of manual I1the From Muller 1965 11113 TquotQQ v 213 Iquot Uw A 193 um S 2 mE S eirEMC tSPOISM5 11 11113 F4 1 Solnc lavapbyaa vvluring Afnootiul 39vpdkiI H Iuni punL 1 us 3 kn at A OVIA hula I39 la1l hvltanv A uI N A use 2 A In Nn 0 all kvh n n In alum hllluI main 01 Its not I u 0 lrb ink 34 III right I vs oyvtruu at no uni en ntnfo fulng u nub 3 Hr Inno I us 1 an cl nameI 1uniII ranu39u u39 Iunll pbnu c InDIn Anlcncu tnsu vutno R sauna and farms Olpdul minim Jon JPN nu BN01 ngtloi I3 k the v6N M 0 onnllwhl guu AA III kip luau of lldarn nary n Iutuas nuohu Moan ruku I uuuu ll nndu Juana dug In all Kuhn From Muller 1966 Th W R useaxmss rm cwaznvom so roo 939 quotAL me To game THEN go 1trCi quotAppa rent or Predator mediated competition Relevance to applied environmental ecology ie so what quotcan39t change just one thing if lose one partner in a mutualism may lose both 11113 Fl0xlY4 7 aim suurVGrM I0 U lal fuiwzias Mutualistic relationships Hawaiian honeyeaters amp Lobelias E SEEDS Can you de ne mutualism facultative and obligate symbiosis endosymbiosis describe one example of a mutualism including the costs and bene ts to each species and 7 whether it is39ol5Igafe or facultative3 INHg describe one example of an endosymbiotic relationship and costs and bene ts to participants define and provide an example of commensalism and amensalism describe why an understanding of mutualisms may be important in conservation 13 101013 Behavioral and physiological ecology c7 39quot Ecological Levels of Organization Biome l Landscape l Ecosystem l Community l Population l T Individual behavior physiology Physiological ecology study of how an organism s physiology mueohenliulgph93ieaI and lauiuoiolluemioal functions help it meet the challenges imposed by its environment aka eco zcologj 101013 Physiological ecology V PM lt 39i 39 C0l391tl39OS OHS FV IlS0lI I uomcv survival growth reproduction geographical distribution as affected by interactions with physical chemical and biotic environment Environmental properties that limit species eenditiens physiochemical features of the environment eg temperature humidity pH lquot 39LJIFGES what39s consumed by the organism eg solar radiation CO2 H20 methane plants How do physical conditions and resources limit distributions How do species respond adapt to physical conditions they encounter J 0 2 A 6 B 10 12 14 16 Mean annual temperature fl i i lv gtu H mili I r was is of mi aewmrr 101013 Response curves range of conditions affecting performance Individual survival Performance of species ampj I 1 on Rcgrlwlc Intensity of condition What is harsh benign quotextreme Ekmvzws ow Pbisnokoeicfvt UABVZETC 1 39aquotquot7 V OF Squot Cl E kir quot SEUES sigteciFIC3 Antarctica near coast 18 F in winter up to 20 F in summer cow What is harsh benign quotextreme 39 A 739 s f lt v 5 K H39 395 7quot A W S 4 39 5 I 39 I 39 t J quot quoti I quot 39 7 g L Mojave desert below freezing in winter above 125 F in summer 101013 Each species has range of tolerances what39s good for one not necessarily good for another Deep sea vents V bf now Prreii gtm2kl tot PPESRSl Each species has range of tolerances Extremophiles thermophile at hydrothermal vents 39 klCES llE2 T Credit Richard Lutz Rutgers University Stephen Low Productions Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Antarctic Ice fish Notothenioidei Hofmann GE cl nl 2005 Some like it hot some like it cold the heat shock response is found in New Zcalzind but not Antarctic nololhcnioid lislics Journal of Expcrinicnlal Marine Biology and Ecology 3162 7989 illLE 7coLo w39iEl239 39ltf NE 1 N lFl E 39zquotEkl E5P l Response curves range of conditions affecting la 9 Performance of species performance I x A quot 32 Reproduction S 391 z x J 3 of X f Individual survival u quotE R R G G S S Intensity of Condition gt Hi Individual growth I L I I I l K I 3 101013 Diet fol DIFF less 700 eTlol0 flSl9 l7 Response curves range of conditions performance affecting performance what is this point where the organism does its best Reproduction Indiv growth Survival intensity of condition Response curves range of conditions performance affecting performance Reproduction Indiv growth Survival intensity of condition how wide is this actual range Response curves range of conditions performance affecting performance Reproduction Indiv growth Survival intensity of condition how manage at these extremes what options available 101013 How do organisms handle environmental variation How do YOU handle chaenging unpleasant conditions Too cold Thirsty hungry If things are toughunpeasant impossible to live with 0 Deal with it tolerate acclimate avoid Move disperse migrate 33 Change adapt What are some physiological characteristics that allow species to cope with changing conditions with one of these strategies rn UEPEHDS N US C rgtl tFgtlU lEl 39lll4 SCl rl 101013 Hlllll lMlMlS DEAL lid CMl L kl 6lN 6 coubnxous 7 101013 Example chaparral plants Challenges Mediterranean climate high temp high solar radiation when rainfall low ie summer If things are toughunpeasant impossible to live with Deal with it tolerate acclimate avoid Move disperse migrate Change adapt What are some physiological characteristics that allow species to cope with changing conditions with one of these strategies 39 Tolerate drought by reducing water loss it gtTgtll Hlml8ool F Ceanothus sp California lilac leaves have thick cuticle Stomata openings in leaves that allow gas exchange 1 Closed stoma V gt water machmom molecules between 4 d ll 9quotquot 3939 Chaparral shrubs fewer or recessed om 50 stomatzgsreduced water loss ew lt1 Tolerate drought by reducing water loss and reducing overexposure to sunlight Arctostaphylos glauca Big berry manzanita thick leaves vertical orientation Arctostaphylos glandulosa Eastwood manzanita Tolerate drought by reducing water loss and reducing overexposure to sunlight thick leaves vertical orientation Heteromeles arbutvfolia Toyon or Christmas berry or California Holly 101013 How Ueecve S NZE o12H1ED H21 L mean T AeS6 EgtAS WCll 101013 Another strategy to handle summer drought in chaparral avoid it T Some shrubs amp subshrubs are droughtdeciduous lose leaves when drought arrives summer Eg black sage snowdrop bush deerweed buckwheat perennial herbs like bulb plants 5tVquot X J7c C quot 539 5 quotquot quot p bush Late summer deciduous deep rooted Bush sun ower Encelia californica moggs some or LEfltV E5 10 393 11 I j 39 3 3 WI cit7 1J39i 39sirr 0 vjl f Dichelostemma pulchelum Wild Hyacinth Zigadenus fremontii Chaparral zygadene Perennial herbs bulb plants dormant in summer 101013 If things are toughunpeasant impossible to live with Deal with it tolerate acclimate avoid Move disperse migrate adapt What are some physiological characteristics that allow species to cope with changing conditions with one of these strategies Photosynthesis 6 CO2 6 H20 sunight gt C6H12O6 6 02 Rate controlling factors Radiation Temperature Water Carbon dioxide Nutrients nitrogen 11 Where do trees come from What are trees made of New s nave rm u M2 ne 101013 3 photosynthetic pathways WUE water use efficiency C3 plants WUE 13 g CO2 intake kg H20 loss 313161 2035 C optimal temperature 5 g ITDUNG p HID KOSINE H10 PILFW5 EH wxxxmaav COOL WSW Hum umza N EF U1EtJl In SlMw1 a1 C3 plants 3M0S39fPl NT wild owers Maple tree 12 3 photosynthetic pathways WUE water use efficiency C3 plants WUE 13 g CO2 intake kg H20 loss 3bya 2035 C optimal temperature WUE 1040 gkg 72 mya 3045 C hot or low CO2 no problem at x iaMEHgt s 6i HPNP SW5 SfFlCVU3 E 101013 70T0S ll ocwzzs H ltT2Z sugar cane 3 photosynthetic pathways WUE water use efficiency C3 plants WUE 13 g CO2 intake kg H20 loss 3 We 2035 C optimal temperature C4 Plants WUE 1040 gkg 3045 C hot or low CO2 no problem gt CAM Plants WUE 2040 gkg 2035 C adapted for hot dry cm STDED S PM MAD 12 mya STbW OVEN G NGHT SVOVE CO1 01 PK WHEN m639 39 N UEKEVZT 13 CAM plants Crassulacean acid metabolism 1 4 I V i 2 1 1 Desert barrel cactus Ferocactus acanthodes v 39 P J Agave salmiana Large scale studies of effects of warming and increased CO2 FACE Free Air coz Enrichment sweet gum Direct effects of C 03 on plant growth Mr Barney Kgope SANBI Acacia karroo Courtesy of Guy Midgley 101013 C01 EHHTS LomuLoN9 cmmr U WE gmliv LVLOl3i39H 14 101013 If things are toughunpeasant impossible to live with Deal with it tolerate acclimate avoid Mamp disperse migrate Change adapt What are some physiological characteristics that allow species to cope with changing conditions with one of these strategies Dis 15 101013 How 1715 am 2agogts39i39 EH97 Ecophysiology of animals some examples Can you draw a response curve of the range of conditions that affect aspects of performance explain that what is a good range of conditions for one species may not be good for another provide an example describe three general means by which organisms handle challenging conditions describe the Mediterranean climate provide examples of ways that chaparral plants deal with the challenges of a Mediterranean climate list the general trend in water use ef ciency of the 3 photosynthetic pathways 16 102213 Po 39f pulation Ecology Sudan Population Pyramid 1995 ta 1000 39 Population interacting individuals of same GORE To POP species living in same place same time MOST QWNTA size what is average abundance and what limits that Zip 17012 5 D E SE distribution how are individuals distributed across an area structure how many in diff life stage and what are transition rates growth rate what determines how pop varies over time P5P rtF lS gtTHm lMMlGFiaA39F N BHrrts 393939gt 955 4 DEATHS EMIGRATION 102213 POPULATION GROWTH Example r 03 Lr pop size new recruits unlimited 1 X 103x N N 2 x03x 03x03x or 103x time 13quot rate of increase slope r intrinsic growth rate or birth rate death rate 25 2X 1 gt F N L N number of individuals population size Arlizlexample ofexponentialgeometric population increase c e Elephant seals 0M PO ea 0 2 unIlN39r nl imp hum E 70 72 I YaJr ll Nnlllul M on M ImIimqi1iinQurIrufr 1 Another example of exponential growth um 39u lIm Iv lull I1 m iu r u mu E Agrkuliunlf Industrial nsvulu um I W ARE 3 l 5 E Plague iqimiinnxiiu nu aw Tnw mm 39m LII um gm llnl l39n lt39nI rn 1 pnril ltl39l quot p wg u 7 act 3003 Density rgt0 g N 10 7SLdE 0 gt EW USCLll Time 102213 lE Comparison of r and R0 when r gt O the population increases ROgt1 when r O the population is stable RO1 39 when r lt O the population decreases ROlt1 ab Ylt l xW 522 Townsend Exponential growth quotunimited Logistic growth imited K carrying ca pacity maximum N that can be m supported by given habitat mem gt wA clEs THROU BH TIME Densitydependent equilibrium or K carrying capacity Resources becoming limiting Births deaths Resources abundant Fastest growth of population Population size gt Births exceed deaths Time gt 102213 Assumptions of both these models Populations are closed no immigration emigration No agesize structure Continuous growth with no time lags individuals become reproductive instantly 9 DON39T iEllEll15El2 g Jr b Arsestuzmptieznzs of these models Exponential There are unlimited resources P Logistic Constant carrying capacity K An equilibrium with K will be reached Population growth governed by density dependent factors eg density dependent competition for resources Station break 102213 DENSITY DEPENDENCE acts in response to density eg the greater the population density the greater the impact 1 eg Density dependent BIRTH RATES FECUNDITY births per individual decreases with population size eg seed production of plantain clutch size of sparrows in Canada DEPEND ow 397 S39T J POP I HFPCT Declining Birth Rates with Density i 4 Density dependence 5 10000 quot393 3 e 3 K13 W a 51 5 S E 3 1000 T33 21 D U OJ c 13 9 oi u 9 V 393 E 3 3 3 100 lt 3 100 O 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Plants per quot12 log Scale Females per unit area a Plantain The number of seeds b Song sparrow Clutch size in the song sparrow pinduted by plantain PlaIiIago riiajor on Mantlaite Island British Coluniliia dotreases decreases as density increases as density increases and food is in short supply r39n iiri Pmn iiai lquot4 i1iiii 1 uvi iium rmiilt i IIi s v CN b fEB EZ N E decrease the population density when it39s high amp increase it when it39s low 102213 densitydependent competition for resources Competition 2 or more individuals exploiting the same resource that is in short supply intraspeci c competition same sp interspeci c competion diff sp Assumptions of these models r1N av Exponen ak There are unlimited resources W Kl 1 K Logistic Constant carrying capacity K An equilibrium with K will be reached Population growth governed by densitydependent factors eg densitydependent competition for resources Useful points of logistic modeling Demonstrates mathematically how population density in uences population growth density dependent growth Forces you to think about value of K and proximity of N to K How does K vary with environment As population approaches K INTRASPECIFIC competition becomes important Growth slows Is this evident in the population L sake lg CUM I 39I M Do species show logistic growth 0 b E 3 C 8 C W 0 Z L3 3 E 3 0 O 10 20 30 Time h Lactobac lus bactena 100 50 J l L L Number cl trees No Time 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 days NDJFMAMJJA Month Juncus hme andsedge Sahx vvmoun 102213 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 Yeai Other values of these models 2 Compare r values across species Allows quick comparison of GROWTH potential if there were no regulation of growth r in exponential model 2 Compare r values across species lahlv ll I lllll ul l and Llmilvlii1 inns iui klIlll39l39L39ll uiLiniii1 Species Cnmmon r ini iiduals Qoubling name individual day time 391 phage Virus 3000 33 iniiuitus Esclicricliiii colt Bacterium 587 17 minutes Piii iiiiii39i i39iim ciziidiiliiiii Protozoan 159 105 hours llidrii Hydra 034 2 days I rilmiiiiii i2Sl1HL lHIl Flour beetle 0101 69 days lltiius iiigti39i39qqic ii Brown rat 00148 468 days 80 aui39iilt Domestic cow 0001 19 yea rs x lvimiiiiii niizriiia 39Iangrovo 000055 35 years Noliiiiigiisjiimi Southern beech 0000075 253 years l39riin F39l139l1 l l W74 3 Examine whether a species tends to behave in terms of pop growth as if growth were driven by r or by K 102213 Classi cation of organism life histories 1 r selected species 2 K seected species Where on this curve do species life histories and traits seem to t Population size gt Resources becoming limiting Births exceed deaths irths deaths Fastest growth of population Time 4 Traits of r and K species r species spend most of their lives in near exponential phase of growth Early reproduction High allocation to reproduction High population turnover Little investment in long term structures Poor competitors for resources K species spend most of lives in K dominated growth phase gt Later age at rst reproduction gt Lower birth rates gt Less total allocation to reproduction gt Slower growing gt Longer lived gt Good at competing for resources mt O0Z LW 5JlTP3 102213 Environments of r vs K species r species K species Disturbed newly opened Crowded environments Temporary high resource Constant environment 3U5 5 Little opportunity for rapid Ephermal growth Wei NEEDS El lquotquotlquot S Other values of these models 4 Allows hypothesis generation regarding population regulation Estimate r and K then see if populations are behaving as predicted if not why Natural populations are rarely stable high variability over time why rm rf1 rm quotHill IN ulvlr il UNI I KIN as pnIuhh uu1 muquotL nlnrmg KI pinI nu um 1 nut in rrulul I u 39 4 g Other values of these models 5 Management of populations eg sheries MSY 102213 The ecological basis for MSY maximum sustainable yield Logistic population growth density dependent Population Size N I Optimum Yield Annual Population Growth Rate dNdt Population Size N Can you draw a graph and the equation for exponential unlimited population growth draw a graph and the equation for logistic limited population growth describe what the relative values of r intrinsic growth rate indicate about population growth Q de ne K carrying capacity de ne density dependence and give an example of DD fecundity describe one use or value of these population dynamic models give one reason that a population may not exhibit logistic growth 10 101413 Population Ecology Decline olArlult Bluehn Tuna In Westem Atlantic 5 E 5 m v 40000 39 5 mm n 30 1 971Tl75Tl73Bl 85K189S1 Ecological Levels of Organization Biome l Landscape l Ecosystem l Community j Population l Individual Population interacting individuals of same species living in same place same time size what is average abundance and what limits that dispersion patterns how are individuals distributed across an area structure how many in diff life stage and what are transition rates growth rate what determines how pop varies over time Population interacting individuals of same species living in same place same time size what is average abundance and what limits that how de ne area what39s an individual Coast live oak Boundaries Use drainage divisions V Mainandare there any clear population boundaries in SB County Or whole state Or whole range Common gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus 101413 Jeezen ow vac me SYgtE 399 wmnace 39DlIS om 7 PQER7 Akk ov Mn Just N CH st coma 101413 SOMETIMES a e vs Hue cu at Wxuglp 9 lampU fV33S Channel islands foxes Urocyon littoralis Island subspecies is entire Island one population guenues muons quotquot739 slums quot mow What is an individual mP is gNME How many individual giant panda cubs What is an individual individual genets ramets I 2 Y GE Q0 3 mE r2EE Aggregating or clonal sea anemones Anthopleura elegantissima What is an individual What is meaningful unit to measure Genet a unique genetic individual one clone Ramet one module of a modular J organisms that could live on its own Counting individuals methods depend on species and extent of population studied Sessile solitary individuals count the number within a bounded area or sampleestimate Counting individuals methods depend on species and extent of population studied Sessile solitary individuals count the number within a bounded area or sampleestimate 39COUl39llZS estimates oiiwllm I 101413 K 39mmob i le ex 0i H29 Sampling sessile organisms 101413 Counting individuals methods depend on species and extent of population studied Sessile solitary individuals count the number within a bounded area or sampleestimate Sessile colonial organisms First must de ne an individual then count 1 an quotLv 3 quotn g A x 3937 39 hs quot V 9 41 Zn Counting individuals methods depend on species and extent of population studied Sessile solitary individuals count the number within a bounded area or sampleestimate Sessile colonial organisms First must de ne an individual then count Mobile organisms estimation techniques Mobile species Estimates using transects eg point counts birds 100 101413 Point Counts Establish grid of points across area TQIDU gt pm T3939nquot Mobile species Estimates using transects Identi cation of individuals observations 101413 How many mountain lions are at Sedgwick Reserve rJQliQt I siJJ39ALecameras at strategic locations throughout reserve how many locationsluHeB SE7 W p can you tell individuals apart so you know how many different individuals you are seeing 86292887 225853 I quot Sedgwick Reserve Oak grazing experiment lower Cucu Mesa water trough Mobile species Estimates using transects Identi cation of individuals with repeat observations Markrecapture studies see book If you can do them they are useful Must be able to capture the organism mark it recapture it Mark recapture Lincoln Peterson method V Survey 2 00 0 M marked T1 and released C total caught T2 R marked amp recaptured at T2 What is the total population size N Note that the proportion marked in the population equals the proportion marked in the 2quot sample Mi N N C R 000 000 M12 C O C39 00 0 0 M marked T1 and released C total caught T2 R marked amp recaptured at T2 101413 Aezult counts 62 Mrs EPEElgtlC clsLbllES sluls iv acrhllltl lT1flCl1 FEl rLl L1f 39lS Loczlncmz wit lS THE llkHbkE mt 101413 What is the total population size N H t u L cNgtT0lF1gt N1215 45 NMc ZquotF0S k 5DNC1ZhPG739WPED 4 R 3cquotPKi3T0 ENE EY Assumptions of markrecapture population cosed no births deaths immigration emigration marks stay on and counted no trap avoiders or trap happy individuals 3 quotI 101413 Estimates based on takequot 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 No of Lynx Pens 0 20000 10000 0 1 820 1 840 I 0 0 0 39 00 I 1 860 1 880 Year Figure 1 Canada lynx fur returns from the Northern Department ofthe Hudson39s Bay Company from 1821 to 1910 The Northern Department occupied most of western Canada The cycle for these data averages 96 years Data are from Elton and Nicholson 1942 Catch per unit effort Evidence for rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities I 39 gm 5 ir i lg Vlil39739ILquotL 0 2 u i E a a c s 5 4 V a g 5 2 7 s39v Vi I quot xvvquotu J I quotV 1 V V um VH1 iwr 3939m39I mm 1990 um um vars urn 1Ar nu Ivy 39 u H II I I A Y V q i 4 v I I N 3nn P quot 19 3 R 1 E 4 8 5 2 J 239 39 D 5 mri Ian mnn IbiI 1 l C 7eI39IL39s3 39 A svih 394Ivn 3111 Tluis i 1 pi i L vr v 11439 I93 quotVIP 2391 fl I564 NW7 39 Kl UIU VJDJ IfJ2 JES Data from Myers and Worm 2003 10 101413 Population interacting individuals of same species living in same place same time size what is average abundance and what limits that dispersion patterns how are individuals distributed across an area structure how many in diff life stage and what are transition rates growth rate what determines how pop varies over time 3 clumped W n Iufqlnxiunn 11 Random distribution 101413 12 Distribution dispersion patterns may vary depending on the spatial scale considered 101413 Can you de ne population describe two prerequisites for determining density indiv area describe several methods for determining abundance of a population work through an example of the markrecapture method describe how catch per effort provides information about relative population size describe the three patterns of dispersion and what they suggest about interactions 13 Population Ecology Sudan Populatlon Pyramld 1995 n 1000 39 100 39 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213141516 101713 Population interacting individuals of same species living in same place same time size what is average abundance and what limits that dispersion patterns how are individuals distributed across an area structure how many in diff life stage and what are transition rates growth rate what determines how pop varies over time Generalized life cycle Juvenile phase dominated I Reproductive Postreproductive by growth phase T lt phase gt I I l S I Q I 5 I o I an I 2 I lt3 I 3 I 3 I Q I an I L I I l 1 Time 1 Birth Onset of End of Death due to reproduction reproduction senescence 101713 Life histories Annual one generation whole life cycle in one year Reproductive strategies 2 Semelparoussemeparityone reproduction V A p7 1 A cr 4amp4 Iteroparous iteroparity m A sample life history 4 hr ear r Survival Parus major l4 Ill3939 5 L I Lile Table lor Beding39s Ground Squirrels Spermophilus beldingi at 1109 Pass in the Sierra Nevada ol Calilornia FEMALES MALES Number Average Number Average Number Proporlion ul Arldiliorml Number Proporliun ol Additional Allve at Alive at Dealhs Lile Alive al Alive Deaths Llle Aqe Star of Start 0 During Death Expectancy Start 0 at Start During Death Expedancy years Year Year Year Rate39 years Year cl Year Year Rate years 0 I 53 I Got 20 O l I is saw I 000 12 065 I 0 I I 2521 1155 Us 050 I 53 2431 0350 H0 066 I II 1 S l 39 01 39 639 011 I 60 I08 01 S 1 J 639 03915 I 1 63939 0 I06 I 041 I S I1 I0t 3 0521 0 H9 4 5 Is 0054 16 04o IS II OOIS 9 OH 053 5 3 I9 0079 I0 051 750 7 000 7 IOU USU 139 7 lt3 0014 4 04 I M n 7 8 S 0 COB I 0 70 I SO 841 4 0 C00 3 0 75 D 75 0 II I O CO2 I I 0 0 50 101713 is39HIEoI l01Z39lv7 A sample life table Information from life tables Population age structure lots of young vs old reproductive ages Population survivorship patterns when most mortality occur young old evenly Population growth rate how fast growing or declining where did life table analysis come from In fc39372quot11 Hz 9 c Life tables Cohort life table follows the fate of a group of Sue individuals all born at the same time a cohort Static life table records survival and reproduction of individuals of different ages during a single time period 101713 Follow cohort through each stage calculate average survival and fecundity Old adults A quot Young V K quot39 Middle aged 9 quot A a 39 Yellow bellied marmot quot3 1 Which stage is contributing JUV nil S 1 Young adults most to population change Where is mortality highest LIFE TABLE ANALYSIS 0 773 1000 0 0 000 0000 1 420 0543 0 0 000 0000 2 203 0269 95 0 457 0123 3 130 0100 102 0 734 0132 4 100 0137 100 1 000 0137 5 07 0037 75 1 122 0000 6 44 0057 45 1 020 0053 7 31 0040 34 1 093 0044 3 22 0029 37 1 680 0049 0 12 0010 10 1 330 0021 10 7 0009 9 1 286 0012 11 3 0004 0 0 000 0000 12 2 0003 0 0 000 0000 13 2 0003 0 0 000 0000 14 2 0003 0 0 000 0000 15 1 0001 0 0 000 0000 519 R0 net or basic reproductive rate overall extent that population has increased or decreased in a generation if R0 1 no change if R0 lt 1 declining if R0 gt 1 increasing 101713 1 2 9 LIFE TABLE ANALYSIS most fecund MARMOT LIFE TABLE CONCLUSIONS Population is declining with a net reproductive rate lt 1 High mortality going from first year to second year important source of low net population reproduction Females ages 24 contribute most to population growth although females age 810 are most fecund quot o T 101713 MARMOT LIFE TABLE CONCLUSIONS Old individuals 1115 do not contribute to population reproductionreplacement But are they important in other ways Alarm calls Exploration for food sources Protection in burrows Or do they compete with young for food prop alive Ix ro alive Ix 10000 39 0 1 000 00100 00010 1234557gg1111213141515 12345678910111213141516 MOST individuals are lost early Ma rmots PROPORTION or NUMBER or NUMBER or NUMBER omGmA cononr NUMBER or FEMALE vouma FEMALE YOUNG ALIVE AT SURVIVING To FEMALE YOUNG PRODUCED PER PRODUCED PER AGE THE START THE START or PRODUCED BY sunv1vmG on1GmA c1Ass or EACH EACH AGE EAcH AGE mnwnnum IN INDIVIDUAL m vEAns AGE cLAss cLAss cuss EAcH AGE cLAss EAcH AGE c1Ass x a F 0 773 1000 J 0 9 0 0000 0000 1 420 0543 0 0000 0000 2 200 0269 95 0457 0123 3 139 0100 102 0734 0132 4 100 0137 100 1000 0137 5 57 0087 75 1122 0090 6 44 0057 45 1 020 0050 7 31 0040 34 1 093 0044 8 22 0029 J D j 37 1 680 0049 9 12 0010 16 1 330 0021 10 7 0009 9 1 230 0012 11 3 0004 0 0 000 0000 12 2 0003 0 0 000 0000 13 2 0003 0 0 000 0000 14 2 0003 0 0 000 0000 15 1 0001 0 0 000 0 000 Total 519 0 670 101713 Plot IX proportion surviving data create survivorship curve Plotting on log scale allows for comparison of proportion loss or rate of change eg for marmots risk of mortality relatively constant across ages between 110 Early cohorts had more in them decline from 10 looks more dramatic YET probability of surviving interval Same for the mdmdual mortality rate constant 11 14 and lower than previous years Why prop alive Ix 10000 ro alive Ix 10000 09000 08000 07000 06000 05000 04000 03000 02000 01000 00000 0 1 000 00100 00010 uuuuuuuuuuu 1234557gg1111213141515 12345678910111213141516 Marmots n4gt lIJgtO5O3739I l3lJlCAlI3l34lgtlO5 DD 3 Z Z 3 gt co 3 l U1 ltgtwnolto O DO7lJ3JOIO5lV g aT lt 3ooaAlti39mgtwI o IF no E gm a 067 D Survivorship curves 39l I sqw lltiv w39v ytr ll lgt 11 lt cii l mo gt scale 5 F 1nV g1INo HlP quot 1i39TlEZ mg ale N0 lZE I61gt Challenges Cohort life table some main points Suitableeasiest for organisms w relatively s Can provide accurate rates of survltiva all3h for each age or size class g a STE 39P May be difficult to know age of individuals May be difficult to identify and follow cohorts Indivi als may disperse temporarily but not be dead l igration may occur into populations so new individuals how up in age classes that didn39t start there May have overlapping col1iortlt7generations Dif cult or not possible to do for longlived species rt life n on Static life table during a single time period Life tables Cohort life table follows the fate of a group of individuals all born at the same time a cohort count all individuals and record age of each live or dead TABLE 61 Number Number Proportion Age Class Alive Dying Surviving x n d I n n 1 n nn 1000 mo 1000 Q n 7 7H 89 9 A ll T l 2 32 13731 A l A 5 1 1 1 H F O I ruIugto ru l ill439 l Ill I4 Vquot IA VI5 r39 1 L52 I56 02 2 2T l N 45 no Static life table Dall sheep l 801 Cl 789 Cl 770 1 0764 714 46 Cl 734 188 48 0638 10 09 U 640 0096 6 3 CI 006 3 3 0003 Survivorship curve Ix age 101713 svi11 uHlxiesr Pot mac wl rmer use saw mIbH crlTE mes GP snavNL 2P12Ngt Cohort life table some main points Suitableeasiest for organisms w relatively short life span Can provide accurate rates of survival and reproduction for each age or size class Challenges May be difficult to know age of individuals May be difficult to identify and follow cohorts Individuals may disperse temporarily but not be dead Immigration may occur into populations so new individuals show up in age classes that didn39t start there May have overlapping cohortsgenerations Difficult or not possible to do for longlived species 101713 Life tables Cohort life table follows the fate of a group of individuals all born at the same time a cohort Static life table during a single time period count all individuals and record age of each live or dead Static life table Dall sheep TABLE 61 Number Number Proportion Agv Class Alive Dying Surviving x n d I n n v nno Q 1000 I90 1000 17 801 I2 I801 7 3 789 l 3 Cl 789 1 u 776 I2 I 770 I 4 5 754 so on s r 714 43 I 734 1 gt88 48 0658 7 5 40 of U 640 8 9 571 132 057i 1 a in 30 I87 0459 I u 0R 5 pe W 39m k j iv 39 2s 15 0252 39quot quot 0 2 9quot 390 v quot3 Survivorship curve Ix age quot24 5 6 3 Cl 006 I 5 A 3 3 0003 A static life table for a palm species xage nx Ix dx 500 100 027 10 365 073 047 20 129 026 006 30 158 032 016 40 78 016 012 50 16 003 003 60 0 000 more age 3 individuals than age 2 individuals ti I f t 39t this wouldn39t happen in a cohort table nega Ve Va U65 or mm a I V and no fecundity information gt Plot fraction of population in each age or size class at one time static Rapidly growing Not replacing itself population is likely in decline Fraction of population Age Lots of youngstersproject rapid growth Mostly old foksproject decline California Black Oak Quercus kelloggii 101713 POP WCLllllG 101713 Fig 2 California black oak age structure with standard error bars for a deer accessibe oak sites and b refugia sites with low deer browsing all sites are within Yosemite Valley The exponential functions dashed lines are based on a tree frequencies and establishment dates before the deer irruption pre 1920 and b tree frequency and establishment data between 1800 and 1999 The age structure in a illustrates a general cessation of oak recruitment ie missing age classes since the early 1900s which is in contrast to generally continuous recruitment in b Age classes outside the lower 95 confidence interval of the exponential equation are represented Black Oak TreesHectare few young individuals many young individuals Ripple amp Beschta 2008 Trophic cascades involving cougar mule deer and black oaks in Yosemite National Park Biol Cons 14ll249 1256 H rlrl H5l53961i 39 Host L EL l 11gt sulwl Rapid growth Slow growth Zero growthdecrease Kenya United States llaly Male Female Age Male Female Year of birth Male Female Before 1915 191 5191 9 19201924 19251929 19301934 19351939 19401944 19451949 19501954 19551959 19601964 19651969 19701974 19751979 19801984 19351989 I 19901994 1 ll 4 46 Percent 01 population Percent of population Percent of population ltupmni c Poqlsan Edualrn hc puzal mm cl lsoqm n Gun nln5 Lots of young individuals means Fewer young individuals means good chance of high growth rate less chance of rapid growth Static life table some main points Good for organisms w relatively long life span MAY be easier one time survey Can provide information about general survivorship and suggest population trends Challenges Survivorship only estimated May have older cohorts with more indiv than younger ones No age speci c reproduction 10 Why are population structure analyses relevant to Envir Studies Species management conservation of rare species pest species I Lin C xlrtimmn39 Yalxl u on l mu 1 lli lil u u nllvvngvxyr Urban Forest age structure Ann Arbor MI 101713 Can you de ne annual perennial semelparity iteroparity describe how a cohort life table is constructed describe R0 and what it tells you about a population describe some of the bene ts and challenges of using cohort life table analysis describe how a static life table is constructed list one advantage and one disadvantage of a static life table approach describe what the shape of an age structure chart can suggest about whether a population may be growing or in decline 11 Smaller scale patterns of distribution quotquotquotquot Paliwilsh lune I y B I Znouhmeuuk A v mm um 37r Musscllana 1 quot quotJ lnw lldeMlrk Distributions of Species Large scae patterns Climate temperature rainfall and biomes Barriers to dispersal expts insights from human introductions Smal scae patterns regional local Abiotic factors physical chemical Intertidal zonation Genny Anderson SBCC showing the Mid Tide Zone at Carpinteria State Park 10613 JYH39 TlDPrL SPEGES mgtms1gt AMOUNT l Di2 lMC ow TIME D I SP cemmxb Joe Connell Intertidal on the Isle of Skye tsgowrtnuvl COMPETITION AND INTERTIDAL ZONATION IN BARNACLES CH T HAMIL US small DIST PPTIERM GF H4531 1aa2n CkE BALAN US large 5 INTERTIDAL ZONATION IN BARNACLES we sn2llC anea BALANUS large CHTHAMALUS small A A high tide level mean tide level V V settlers adults DESICCATION settlers adults upper limit set by lower limit of Chthamalus set by mules have I33 cuwett 10613 Intertidal zonation Genny Anderson SBCC showing the Mid Tide Zone at Carpinteria State Park Splash 1 Spray lme I tell lulu Iuw F 3939gtr Q 5V 1iltl li1llt It In zgnea For many intertidal organisms Upper limits set by physical factors 7 1 239 39 0 In Hill it ill AbioticEdaphic soil factors often determine smallscale plant distributions Distributions of Species Large scae patterns Climate temperature rainfall and biomes Barriers to dispersal expts insights from human introductions Sma scae patterns Abiotic factors physical chemical Biotic factors 10613 ll 4ll lHT F02 Ml sLL C L SET B3 Drama Cm Pk ll 5 Side UP Him st ePxlE39DlF3F STquot Cl S W4 8 Q V C amp ltn BIOTIC FACTORS interactions with other spp Competition 1 or more species exploiting the same resource that is in short supply intraspeci c competition same sp interspeci c competion diff sp Predation Consumption of one organism by another 10613 COMPETITION AND INTERTI DAL ZONATION IN BARNACLES BALANUS large CHTHAMALUS small A A high tide level V A mean tide level V V settlers adults settlers adults upper limit set by DE539CCAT39ON lower limit of Chthamalus set by L EFFECT OF BALANUS REMOVAL ON CHTHAMALUS pre expt start expt end expt mm GL3 mgm Q Q m m Q 0 rs rm m m m 93 m 0 m he 0 Em m mam m mm mm C rm 0 m m control treatment control treatment 10613 COMPETITION ANDINTERTIDALZONATION H D E IN BARNACLES BALANUarge CHTHAMALUS small Jlk gzow UI39D EI2 EMPILL ONES quot PIZ I 3 sum N35 oer level mean tide level V V settlers adults settlers adults upper limit set by DESICCATION lower limit of Chthamalus set by COMPETITION ml BIGBPIIftCLE5 Santa Cruz Island Channel Islands National Park and National 39 Red Sea 39 39 r 39 39 Purple Sea 39 the rocky reef Copyright 3 Matthew Meier matthewmeierphotocom INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION IN SEA URCHINS 8 83 39 l lquot tIITIlII use S PlllI ES To Wall WT Puvmg 6l S Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Strongylocentrotus franciscanus Red Sea Urchin left Purple Sea Urchin right Kevin Lee 20D6 10613 BIOTIC FACTORS interactions with other spp Competition 1 or more species exploiting the same resource that is in short supply intraspeci c competition same sp interspeci c competion diff sp Predation Consumption of one organism by another 81oT DOPPE Snail dog welk Thais lapillus Barnacle Balanus balanoides PREDATION AND INTERTIDAL ZONATION IN BARNCLES PIER settlers adults mean high tide O O O O cage nocage RESULT SURVIVE IN CAGES NO SURVIVAL OUTSIDE CAGES CONCLUSION predation by the snail Thais limits barnacle distribution 7172 Z39TKTT 1 I M mm I n 4 IIu are Chmamlus Nloh dd lowl ue Icvnl 39 1 I u I I Y i Law In Invuln Adan unknown Cc locum Mm Dvvcullnn trauma uhuiumon MI amnion by noon Bclnul RIMM octof Ilnuun Inn at Ifu Inc us mu baton Figure 38 IntertidalIone ranges of the blI mIt 39s Chrhurmlu39 srellamx and Balauus halarmides on rocky coastlines in Scotland and the main factors that limit those ranges For each factor the width of the sluuled area intlirates the importance of that factor in the corresponding part of the intertidal zone Modi ed from Connell 1961 1961 10613 BPFHICLES cprreu B su1 10613 Rxsltmc 5450 wear SETS upper um DESS iC1 rTIbiJ 31 wii f SETS UMER uurr 13uLoeiCnL e4rr HUS CLES wwwwaawaaeduPisasteriochraceushtm Distribution limited by introduced predator T as mull 2 Lu lumupl I L mm umnm1 m IIIr hlml unlin nml Ilklnph Irr Ieim mm In rrltilIlrrAllltr it In u Iuullllnlld lmllllrd Hull lIIl0lI I39VE Burrowing bettong or Boodie 10613 Distributions of Species Large scae patterns Climate temperature rainfall and bi Barriers to dispersal edation competition Why are factors limiting species c imCHquotk To ifkiow w39HquotPI F cTOES distributions relevant to Envir Studies 7 UH r HST Conservation biology rare species preservation or restoration S llwi Morro ma nza nita I Why are factors limiting species distributions relevant to Envir Studies Conservation biology rare species preservation or restoration Resource management impacts dispersal of uses P a oI introduced pests Ecology and Diagnosis of lrtroducod Avian Malaria in Hawaiian Forest Birds Can you De ne abiotic edaphic biotic factors Describe Conne s experiments to determine what sets the upper and lower limit to barnacle species distributions in the rocky intertidal Describe another example of a biotic factor limiting distribution of a species F E l FE eeetypes 10613 10 Community ecology trophic structure and food webs 39 Plants 9 Herbivores 9 Carnivores 9 111913 Trophic level de ned by what they eat groupings of populations that get their energy ampnutrients from same source 39 Plants 9 Herbivores 9 Carnivores 9 Top Carnivores CMp mW SPEC fC TROPHIC LEVELS IN TERRESTRIAL AND FRESHWATER ENVIRONMENTS TROPHIC LEVEL LAND LAKES nutrient rich Secondary Usually Fish eating sh Carnivores absent Pike Bass Primary Wolves hawks Pankton eating sh Perch Carnivores ladybugs Sun sh Bluegill Herbivores Rabbits deer Zooplankton caterpillars Daphnia Producers Trees grass Phytoplankton microscopic algae Plants 9 Herbivores 9 39L pir quot39 W S 4 Ca rnivores Primary Ca rnivores Herbivores Producers TROPHIC CASCADE MODEL 1 Secondary size of circle re ects abundance of each group Carpenter SR and JF Kitchell editors 1993 The trophic cascade in lakes Cambridge University Press Cambridge England 111913 sec CANNLWES HUSELH JEPEY t 2BiI02Es Lake Mendota Wisconsin TROPHIC LEVEL Secondary W H Carnivores 3 eye Pike Primarll White bass Carnivores Perch Cisco Daphnia Herbivores algae Producers L p Richard C et al quotStocking pis 39 ores to i M ota projectquot TROPHIC CASCADE MODEL Primary Carnivores J Herbivores Producers size of circle reflects abundance of each group 111913 rm nzcv i2EH3PEigt 99 um 18 wt real rm 5 WIND W49 PPL uwe THESE 16612 SFORT Hs mc 39Fg39l39ES susrvm mwmvsg memo LEWELS lgtT nu HOPE wLUa9lE so go Hid quotD Ll U2i L 7L P39sD TD LE FLNFS Moose population lI Numbot or pLn mcru cd urru Finn 55131an I 1500 N Hugh 3 Wolves Wolves 3 animated mslomd 3 5 I926 1995 S 3 2 l 1 L0 I njc L 81 E2 Q g 15 wwpopumm suspended quot0 39 5 I96eo o I 0 on 1 D 0 0 l t 0 0 39 B I 0 0 5 Elk 0 2 I900 1920 I940 1960 930 7000 Year 1350 19001 1950 A 1920 1999 Esuolxsrmenz data agt seMrm 7 MDgtSJE 7 111913 111913 J A Estes M T Tinker T M Williams D F Doak 1998 Killer Whale Predation on Sea Otters Linking Oceanic and Nearshore Ecosystems Science Vol pp 473476 Secondary Carnivores Primary Carnivores Herbivores Producers Food web a complex of interrelated food chains in an ecological community network of feeding relationships A nun i LmK3 ll iin l 71 ll l quot 739 T7quot 8 mm uf v9 7vf 7L quot 39 i 39 39x ili l 1nzomu A 39j 7 l 0G mpi quot V V 391 13 I quot Hum 4 r B5 v 39 I xk j 4 I i A 39 quot 39 x V 1 Y J I I 4 A quot4 7 1 VPFAAKV IAA39 A I K tr39 1 Ram Gnou 1 t H 1F quot39 I lt SQUI 21 l um 39 gt r J l H I V 4 L V I y4 pr i r V K L L 1 A 1 4 quot y rzf r E iig lg il IQH IFmnIig rdUj LL31 fan lnguvr lit lt 2 l wm quotrr l 39 l 3 i p 0 1 lt7 m on QT RED l N Ti s7o SQUIRREL quot Hms l 3NHw sPRucE ccseuseas V 1 4l 39139 39 I irMl quoti ii i ef 39 l M39 i 39 w 39nlw P9 I I V quot1 w l mm l 1 Can you describe the trophic cascade model what is the prediction about how number of trophic levels impacts abundance of producers describe an example of a trophic cascade in a marineaquatic habitat and one in a terrestrial habitat predict the impact on producersplants of adding or removing top predators in a system de ne food web and describe challenges of constructing one 111913 Sara is from Philadelphia Questions why should we study cities as ecosystems supports the vast majority of world39s population impact natural ecosystems How do we study cities through an ecological lens apply methods infield ecology tostudy interactions btwn biological and physical elements within an urban landscape 2 main approaches ecology in cities v ecology of cities Are cities ecologically resilient How do you envision urban env requires innovation and creativity 05 of the Earth39s land is urbanized 52 for the world39s population lives in urban areas 36 billion ppl IV one of the most densely populated places in California Ecological footprint of cities impacts waste pollution species lost land transformation lost of permeable surfaces generate waste water source of emission of green house gases etc Can a city also be considered an ecosystem ecosystem biological comm interacting with the abiotic env urban ecology a matter of perspective combination of the biological social and physical factors ecologist perspective studies the dist and ebundance of orgs in and around cities and the biogeochemical budgets of urban areas urban planners perspective designing the env amenities of cities for ppl and on reducing env impacts of urban regions Ecology in cities v Ecology of cities Ecology IN cities examines ecological structure function of habitats or organisms within cities ex baltimorc birdscape study bird species abundance and composition differ btwn distinct land cover types overallmore birds where more trees and vegtation in yard ex are urban parks refuges for bumble bees surveyed parks bee populations in SF sort of nesting sites lrodent holes support more bees but not necessarily high bee diversity competition with dominant bee species may negatively affect bumblebee species richness Ecology OF cities examines entire cities from an ecological perspective lsystems oriented l lmpact of urbanization on water availability and hydrologic processes 34 billion gallons of water used per year in the US 4l for agriculture 24 billion ppl live in vvaterstressed areas lst get a better understanding of how water cycles within cities 2nd make informed decisions about how to change 2 Ex Urban forests Transpiration of urban forests in the LA area measured water mvmt in trees street trees use a signi cant amount of irrigation water in semiarid cities magnitude of wateruse is highly species specific Global expansion of urban areas problem resource limitation Food water energy space bring ecological lens to planning design function of cities to make cities ecologically resilient Urban planning landscape artecture design ex in NYC old railway sitting above the street decided to renovate and plan native species studies being done on the species that live there and how it has increased biodiversity ex plant bioswales to clean water before it goes to the ocean UCSB
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