Psychology 110 Chapter 13
Psychology 110 Chapter 13 PSYC 110 - 008
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PSYC 110 - 008
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Mayes on Saturday April 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 110 - 008 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Malik Khaddouma in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 04/09/16
4/6/16 Psych Notes 4/6/16 Chapter 13: Social Psychology Social Psychology - The Study of how people influence each others’ behavior, beliefs, and attitudes. - Average number in human social groups = 150 (Dunbar, 1993) - Average number of Facebook friends = 130 Evidence of Need for Social Relationships: - Increased size and activity level of frontal cortex in humans compared to other animals - Negative effects of isolation o Social rejection registered in brain as pain in experiments - Positive effects of interaction o Increased physiological health o Social facilitation Enhanced performance on tasks in presence of others 1 4/6/16 Attribution - Process of assigning causes to behavior - Fundamental Attribution Error o Tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences on other people’s behavior Enduring characteristics such as personality and intelligence level o Rather than situational influences External factors such as running late, feeling stressed, or following instructions Conformity - Tendency of people to alter their behavior as a result of group pressure - Asch conformity study (Asch, 1955) o People tend to conform about 40% of the time Example: Agree with group answer even when incorrect o Less likely to conform if at least one other person gives different answer than majority o Associated with activity in amygdala, indicating anxiety might increase conformity - Psychology of groups - Stanford prison study (Zimbardo, 1973) o “Mock” prison setup o Male participants assigned to role of prisoner or guard o Procedures to deindividualize prisoners and guards o Movie Trailer: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3XN2X72jrFk 2 4/6/16 o Documentary on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=L_LKzEqlPto Group Psychology - Deindividuation o Tendency of people to engage in uncharacteristic behavior when they are part of a larger group - Groupthink o Emphasis on group member agreement at the expense of critical thinking o Happens because groups tend to rely on “common knowledge” to preserve relationships o Results in no net gain of new information - Preventing Groupthink o Can be prevented by assigning a “devil’s advocate” before discussion takes place - Group Polarization o Group discussion often strengthens dominant positions held by group members - Preventing Group Polarization o Inoculation Effect Method to increase likelihood of a person changing their mind about a belief or opinion First introduce ideas to support belief Allows person chance to come up with own counterarguments Then align with counterarguments they generated 3 4/8/16 Psych Notes 4/6/16 Chapter 13: Social Psychology Aggression and prosocial behavior - Obedience - Social influences on aggression and prosocial Obedience - Adherence to instructions or commands from others - Often studies using Milgram Paradigm - Milgram Studies o Participants asked deliver “shocks” in increasing intensity to another person based on performance on a memory task o Experimenters manipulated style of authority figure o 62% of participants delivered all the way up to maximum shock o Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eTX42lVDwA4 1 4/8/16 Social Influence - Bystander effect o Individuals are less likely to intervene in a situation when more people are present around them o Due to: Relying on the reactions of others to determine our own reaction (pluralistic ignorance) Presence of others makes each individual feel less responsible for intervening (diffusion of responsibility) - Preventing the Bystander Effect o Clearly state current situation Example: “I am in pain” ‘There is a fire in aisle 2!” o Ask individuals for help, point, or make eye contact - Social Loafing o Phenomenon whereby individuals become less productive in groups o Only applicable when group has shared goal Prosocial Behavior 2 4/8/16 - Enlightenment Effect o Learning about human behavior can increase the likelihood of prosocial behavior Example: Helping Intervening Altruism - Is helping ever entirely unselfish? o Increased activity in brain’s “stress regions” when witnessing others in pain Example: Amygdala o Oxytocin and dopamine reward system activated during “helping” or prosocial behavior Example: Shared grooming habits among romantic partners 3
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