CH. 5 Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Morles on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012 at University of Florida taught by Professor Kimberly Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
General Psychology Chapter 5 Notes Consciousness Is our subjective experience of the world, our bodies and our mental perspectives. Circadian Rhythm Brains biological clock (part of the hypothalamus that is responsible for our levels of alertness) 24 hour cycle of biological changes Regulated by hypothalamus Hormones release, body temperature changes Increased melatonin = tired – time for bed Slept debt Linked to: Depression Weight gain Cardiovascular problems Decreased immune system Sleep needed Most people? 7-10 hours Newborns? 16hours College students? 9 hours o Many college students (1/3-1/2) have at least one episode of sleep paralysis. Sleep Paralysis- is the state of being unable to move just after falling asleep or right before waking up. We spend about 1/3 of our lives in a specific state of consciousness, meaning sleep. There is no specific reason as to why we sleep. Sleep Stages: Stage 1 Transition from wake to sleep (dozing off) Usually lasts from 5-10 min Theta waves (light sleep) Myoclonic jerks - sleep starts (sudden jerks) Hypnagogic imagery - hallucination type images Stage 2 Up to 65% of our total sleep Sleep spindles and k complexes Our heart rate slows and our brain activity decelerates Stage 3 and 4 Deep sleep (after about 30 min) Crucial to feel rested Non-REM sleep Delta waves Stages 5 (REM Sleep) When most dreaming happens Brain activity similar to awake ESSENTIAL! (seriously what I should be doing now… sleeping) Cycles from longer as night goes on (usually 5-6 times) REM= rapid eye movement (when you dart your eyes underneath closed lids as you sleep) Function of eye movements unknown REM sleep called paradoxical sleep. Our brain is most active at this stage and most vivid dreams occur here. Why? Body is paralyzed while your brain is active Why do we dream? Unsure exactly why Associated with: Processing emotional memories Memory reorganization, consolidation New memory integration Dream protection theory (Freud): Dreams are about repressed desires Transforming sexual and aggressive instincts into symbols Represent wish fulfillment (how we wish things could be) o Belief that our most frequent dreams are: beings chased or pursued, being lost, late or trapped, falling, flying, losing valuable possessions, sexual dreams, experiencing great natural beauty, being naked or dressed oddly and injury or illness. However this isn’t true, for example sexual dreams are less than 10% of dreams we remember. Dreams are actually no disguised, many are straight forward. o Interpretation needed to reveal true meaning Manifest content = actual dream details Latent content = what dream means o Rejected - lack of evidence Most dream content is negative Less than 10% sexual dreams Straightforward dream content Post trauma nightmares When dream interpretation used= Series of dream events Common themes, ect Activation-Synthesis Theory (AST): Dreams are not about everyday life issues o REM dreams = just brain trying to sort random internally generated neural signs. o Such signals originate in pons AST alternative theories: o More emphasis on role of forebrain o Damage to forebrain can eliminate dreams completely Neurocognitive Theory: Dreams are about everyday life issues o Product of cognitive capacities o Cognition shapes what we dream about o Explains why adults’ dreams are more complex than children’s Dreaming Non-REM Dreams (stages 1-4 of the sleep cycle, rapid eye movements do not occur, dreaming is less frequent and vivid) Shorter More thought like/ logical Daily task related Learning new skill Repetitive REM dreams Longer More frequent Illogical Emotional Prone to plot shifts Biologically crucial o REM rebound - - occurs when we don't rest well for several nights =more intense dreams/nightmares when you finally sleep (mythical creatures, ect) Maybe trying to make up for lost REM? Lucid dreaming -when you know you're in a dream o Asleep but self-aware o Some report able to control dreams o may help with nightmares some people can change the dream or take over and get over a fear Sleep disorders o Widespread and costly ($35 billion/year) o 30-50% of population experience it at some point Insomnia - difficulty going or staying sleep or early waking o Most common sleep disorder Narcolepsy - rapid and unexpected onset of sleep o Some also experience cataplexy (sudden muscle weakness) Sleep apnea - wake briefly hundreds of times per night because they can't Breath (people have to use machines to facilitate sleep) o Results in fatigue (and related health problems) o Caused by blockage of airway during sleep Night terrors - sudden waking episode o Wake up screaming, perspiring, confused o Followed by return to deep sleep o Most common in children Sleep walking - performing complex behaviors while asleep (walking fully while asleep) o Associated with deep non REM sleep (stages 3 & 4) o Not acting out dreams o Seldom remember doing it Altered states Hallucinations - realistic perceptual experiences in absence of eternal stimuli o Brain activity is same as when real sensory experience Hypnosis- techniques used to try and alter perceptions, thoughts, feelings and/or behaviors through suggestion. Hypnosis theories: Sociocognitive theory - response to hypnosis based on attitudes, beliefs and experiences. Dissociation theory- hypnosis = separation between personality functions that are normally well integrated. Past life regression therapy- therapeutic approach that hypnotizes and supposedly age-regresses patients to a previous life to identify the source of a present day problem. Important Statements: Hypnosis produces a trance state in which people become highly susceptible to suggestion. FALSE Hypnosis is it a sleeplike state. FALSE Most people are aware of their surroundings and what is happening during hypnosis. TRUE People don’t remember what happened during hypnosis. FALSE Out of body experience (OBE) - sense that consciousness has left the body Near-death experience: OBEs reported by those who have nearly died or thought they were going to die o differ across cultures: response to afterlife expectations Dèjà vu: feeling of relieving an experience that is actually new Mystical experiences- sense of oneness with world o Often religious in nature Drugs Psychoactive drugs - chemicals similar to those naturally in brain Physical and psychological effects depend on drug type and dose. Can cause huge changes in state of consciousness Depressants Reduce CNS activity Hypnotic- drug that exerts a sleep inducing effect Sedative- drug that exerts a calming effect Alcohol Most widely used and abused drug in society Females experiences effects more heavily Barbiturates and Benzodiazepines Prescribed to assist with anxiety or insomnia Can be highly addictive Stimulates Rev UP the CNS (increase heart rate, respiration, BP) Nicotine Tobacco is most used Highly addictive; activates ACH receptors Amphetamines Stay awake drugs Methamphetamine ("crystal meth") Cocaine Most popular natural stimulant Increase dopamine and serotonin activity euphoria enhanced mental and physical capacity decreased hunger Narcotics Relieve pain and induce sleep Opiates: heroin, morphine, codeine Often used medically - but can lead to abuse Heroin is the most abused (90% of opiate users) Psychedelics Hallucinogenic; produce dramatic alterations in perception, mood, thought Marijuana Most illegal drug in U.S. Chronicle use can impair cognitive function (reversible) Altered subjective/perception effects due to THC Physiological effects - heart rate increase, red eyes, dry mouth. LSD (d-lysergic acid diethylamide-25) Effects highly unpredictable From mystic experiences to paranoia Pupils dilate = colors brighter Laugh uncontrollably See walls melt Ecstasy (MDMA) Release of huge amounts of serotonin Self-confident Empathetic – love everyone Substance Abuse Substance abuse disorder – significant impairment or distress occurs with drug use. Tolerance – more of the drug is needed to achieve effect Withdrawal- physical symptoms when use stopped or reduced Physical dependence- drug is used to avoid withdrawal symptoms Psychological dependence- drug use motivated by cravings Some explanations for substance abuse include sociocultural influences, genetic influences, learning and expectancies and whether or not people have an addictive personality.
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