BA 352 Week 5 Notes
BA 352 Week 5 Notes BA 352
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Tucker on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BA 352 at Oregon State University taught by Dr. Chad in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Managing Individual and Team Performance in Business at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
BA 352 Week 5 Chapter 6: Motivation Foundations Definitions: Motivation o A set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work-related effort, and determines its direction (i.e., what you do), intensity (i.e., how hard), and persistence (i.e., how long). o External and internal factors that initiate these energetic forces? Engagement o High levels of intensity and persistence o 13% of workers feel engaged by (passionate about and connected to) their jobs o 70% are “emotionally disconnected” o 24% actively hate their jobs (Gallup, 2013) Expectancy Theory (Vroom, 1964) Expectancy beliefs (E P; 0 to 1): If I exert a lot of effort, will I perform well? o Self-efficacy: Refers to a task specific self-esteem; that I can do something well Past Accomplishments: What have I done in the past? Vicarious Experience: learn from the experiences of others Verbal Persuasion: A friend might verbally persuade you Emotional Cues: How you feel about the situation Instrumentality Beliefs (P O; 0 to 1) o If I perform well, will I receive outcomes? Valence beliefs (-1, 0, +1) o Will the outcomes be satisfying? o What determines the degree of positive valence? Needs Cognitive groupings or clusters of outcomes that are viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences Examples: o Love, belongingness o Meaning (a sense of purpose) o Autonomy o Competence o Food, shelter, safety (physiological) Which outcomes fulfill human needs? o Extrinsic outcomes: Pay, bonuses, promotions, benefits and perks, spot awards, praise, job security, support, free time, (Lack of) disciplinary actions, (Lack of) demotions, (Lack of) terminations o Intrinsic outcomes: enjoyment, interestingness, accomplishment, knowledge gain, skill development, personal expression, (Lack of) boredom, (lack of) anxiety, (lack of) frustration. Money may be motivating, but does it always lead to task performance? o Job type/characteristics = a boundary condition o Money does lead to better performance when it’s a mechanical task o Monetary rewards leads to worse performance on open ended, creative tasks. Expectancy theory: motivational direction o Motivational direction (i.e., what you decide to put effort into) = Expectancy * Instrumentality * Valence Goal-setting theory Goals: the objective or aim of an action (often a specific standard of proficiency within a given time limit) Specificity, difficulty: these provide a yardstick against which to determined intensity (how hard?) and duration (how long?) of effort Task performance peaks when goals are difficult and falls off when goals become impossible or unattainable o Intensity and Persistence are maximized when a goal is difficult Moderators: Feedback, Task Complexity, and Goal commitment Equity theory (Adams, 1965) Motivation doesn’t just depend on what is happening to you—it also depends on what happens to other people at work. We keep a “mental ledger” of our own inputs and outcomes, as well as of the perceived inputs and outcomes of “comparison others” o Inputs: effort, hours worked, performance, education, experience o Outcomes: pay, benefits, status perks. As H.L Mencken said, “A wealthy man is one who earns $100 a year more than his wife’s sister’s husband” Equity: You = comparison other; no actions needed Underreward inequity: comparison other “gets” more than you for inputs o Grow you outcomes by talking to your boss or by stealing from the company o Shrink your inputs by lowering the intensity or persistence of effort Overreward inequity: comparison other “gets” less than you for inputs o Shrink your outcomes (yeah right… let’s see what we can do about those inputs) o Grow your inputs through more high quality work or through some “cognitive distortion” Equity comparisons are subjective! o Most people believe they are underpaid o What are congress’ inputs? (Statement about feeling underpaid) o CEO pay Psychological empowerment Recall Daniel Pink’s RSA animate video Psychological empowerment o Energy rooted in the belief that your work contributes to a larger purpose and it satisfying in itself o An intrinsic energetic force What shapes psychological empowerment? o Meaningfulness: articulate a vivid, inspiring vision o Self-determination: don’t micromanage o Competence: give personalized, sincere feedback that highlights personal growth o Impact: celebrate “small wins” At the group level, there were differences in beliefs about the most applicable theory. Why? Assumption ground o What you hold to be true based on prior experience (remember the “method of experience”) What makes a theory applicable and/or interesting? o Perfect fit with assumption ground—too obvious, though applicable o Supports while slightly contradicting your assumption ground—interesting, still applicable o Contradicts your assumption ground—flawed, not interesting o Disconnected form you assumption ground—irrelevant The False-Consensus Bias (Marks & Miller, 1987) o We overgeneralize based on our assumption ground o We overestimate how many other people share our beliefs There is no “best” theory: they’re all “middle range” theories Take physics as an example—two dominant theories o General relativity (macro) o Quantum field theory (micro) o Still in search of a unified theory, a theory that “explains it all” String theory might be it Work motivation theories are similar to GR and QFT in that they are “middle-range theories” o Each focus on different aspects of the phenomenon at hand o Their applicability is limited to those aspects “Applicable” motivation theories are only applicable under certain circumstances Law of requisite variety (Ashby, 1956) In order for you to even recognize the complexity of something in your environment, you must have a “conceptual toolbox” of a least equal complexity and variety. Such a toolbox makes you adaptable and innovative as an employee and manager Without it, you may overgeneralize and oversimplify, and you’ll miss what’s really going on— you won’t even notice it In summary: “Different men [and women] are moved by different incentives or combinations of incentives, and by different incentives or combinations at different times. Men [and women] are unstable in their desires, a fact partly reflecting the instability of their environments.” (Barnard, 1938) Just because one motivation theory may be the “best” under certain circumstances doesn’t mean that the others aren’t valid.
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