History 105: Week 5 Notes
History 105: Week 5 Notes HIST 105
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christian Benson on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 105 at University of Oregon taught by Prof. Furtado in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Lecture – 2/1/16 Christianity was the only accepted religion in Europe 1000-1500 o The papacy Peninsula of Iberia was only place you could find Christians and Jews Together Why didn’t the European state system lead states to self- destruct, and what rule did religion play In the story? Battle of Lepanto (1571) o Holy league over Ottomans o (Spain, Venice, Genoa, Papal States) o Unity over Ottomans o Papacy: Church directed by Pope By this time, Catholics and Protestants had come about. Not pure Christianity in Europe anymore o The Protestant reformation o 95 Theses o Martin Luther (1517) Luther challenged the church doctrine on many issues by posting 95 theses on the church wall Important concepts from the 95 theses o Indulgences: can’t just get indulgence from pope and have sins absolved o Salvation: God has to give you salvation, can’t just do works or pay for salvation o Priests and Remissions (forgiveness of sins): can only come from God, can be forgiven from priests Because of printing press, 95 theses went viral Calvinism: John Calvin (1509-64) o Got ahold of Luther’s book o Luther didn’t mean for people to rebel against state, average people can’t just interpret the book they have to study the word of God Iconoclasm (In Netherlands) o Calvin took Luther’s words too far and thought pictures and statues were bad, defaced art Act of Supremacy 1534 o Henry VIII the king England o Made it so he can decide things about religion, not the pope o This was so he could divorce Catherine of Aragon because pope said no, that way Henry could have an heir o Creates Anglican church Church now belongs to king, not independent Confessionalism: Separate Christians and Protestants to different areas o Further division of religion in Europe The Habsburg empire (1555) o Charles V the king of Spain o Holy Roman Emperor (1500-58) o Very Catholic The Spanish Inquisition (1483-1834) o Lutheranism o Cryptojudaism = hidden Jews During Spanish conquest, had some Christians and Jews, thought Jews would be still practicing Judaism, this was heresy to be pretending to be Christian but actually a Jew. Inquisition first actually used in France o Spanish had office of church inquisition come to Spain, appointed Spanish inquisitors. Hunt down Jews and Protestants. o People weren’t usually executed o State power to combat Protestantism. The Netherlands Revolt (1546-1648) o Economics o Calvinism Massacre of French Hugenots (1572) Defeat of Spanish Armada 1588 o English beat Spanish o Phillip II Kind of Spain had romantic longing for queen Elizabeth of England o Phillip had to invade England and convert them to save Elizabeth Thirty Year War (1618-1648) o 2 million people die o Peace of Augsburg treaty - 1555 Lecture – 2/3/16 Thirty Years war o Treaty of Westphalia: 1648 o Europe fragmented politically and religiously o Sovereignty of states States would be recognized on independent level Recognition of religions Right to Practice your religion (public and private) within an opposite state English Civil war 1642-51 o Execution of Charles I the king of England (Catholic) (1600- 49) o Sparked revolt because didn’t want Charles to force Catholicism Absolutism: Louis XIV king of France (1638-1715) o Very smelly because they thought bathing brought disease o No bathrooms, went in little alcoves in hallways and wiped with drapes Religious tensions between English and France o Wars are more about politics and money, but religion was motive European State systems o Competitive sovereign states o Formed of, but outlasts religious differences o Economics is a critical factor It’s all really about money o Religion does not serve as unifying force The Chinese Imperial System The Middle Kingdom o Thought they were at the center of the world and also center of all human creation, most important Dynasties: o Song (960-1279) o Yuan (Mongol)(1279-1368) o Ming (1368-1644) o Qing (Manchu)(1644-1911) Qin Shi Huangdi (259-210 BCE) first emperor of China 1600 china had 120 million (100 million in Europe) 1800 boom to 300 million because of new world crops All religions serve to serve the emperor o Relevant to Gods if emperor was relevant to Gods Confucianism Buddhism Taoism Islam Judaism and Christianity No Competitive surrounding states like Europe All religions accepted unless it went against social order and peace (this was based around Confucianism) The Ming (1368-1644) o Forbidden city (1420), Beijing o Great Wall mostly built later in Ming or Qing, started long before Only eunuchs could go into forbidden city where the emperor and his family lived The Manchu rebellion and Qing dynasty o Weakness of imperial court and failure to attend to peasants o Manchu rebelled, come from North (Manchuria) o Came in and took over o Wall was meant to keep them out Declared themselves a dynasty (Qing) 1644 o Banner system, military war different colored clothes to show order (The Queue) o Mongols aligned with them o Don’t need to worry about the north, makes them more powerful o Wanted to assert cultural and racial dominance over natives Tonsure: shave half of head, made humility, culture value of Manchus, executed if they didn’t do it loyalty Knew that this went against native Chinese ideals because it disrespected ancestors o Later, long hair represented rebellion Revolt of the 3 Feudatories (1673-1681) o 3 warlords that govern these areas do not respect Qing, say they have no right to be there Emperors: Kangxi (1654-1722), Yong Zhen (1722-35), Qianlong (1735-96) o Didn’t actually use their real names Kangxi knew scholarship was very important Qianlong added most territory to the state Mandate of heaven o Everything revolves around middle kingdom o So why meddle with foreigners? o Mandate gives right to rule, son of heaven o Emperor in celestial world is the same as the emperor in physical world o Divine right as king is different, with mandate you still have to be just Only one ruler Right to rule is based on virtue, good steward of kingdom. If china is not prospering you are failing Inheritable, son can get mandate from dad Address emperor as “son of heaven” If you lived outside of china then you need to pay tribute, middle kingdom ideal o Korea, Vietnam, Siam, Laos, Burma, Dutch, Portuguese Kowtow: position of submission as respect to emperor, lay flat on ground 1689: treaty with Russians, recognized them as a state, breaks middle kingdom ideal o Chinese were forced Lecture – (2/5/16) The McCartney embassy (1792) o British went to China o Refused to bow down to emperor, very rude o One thing Chinese liked that English brought was the clock, the rest were just toys Britain’s requests o Permanent embassy in Beijing o Not worthy of this because of Middle Kingdom ideal o Possession of small island o Reduced tariffs on traders in Guangzhou Imperial Response o All Europeans are barbarians o All nations of earth are tributaries of China o Tremblingly obey and show no negligence Opium War (1842) o British traders pouring opium into china o Addicted 10 percent of population, opium was legal o Chinese ships intercepted and took opium and put it in the sewers o Naval war British won because they had better ships o Opium pumps silver back into Europe Started growing own tea, didn’t have to get it from China anymore Keys to Chinese Imperial system o Sino centrism: China at center “middle kingdom” o Middle kingdom as civilization vs. barbarity o Emperor is son of heaven o Tribute and trade rights o If not paying tribute, no trading Chinese official religion: o Manchu religion was originally shamanistic once in China turned to old age Buddhism and Chinese traditions (political tool) How did religion and Chinese Imperial system work together? How can compare with religion and state in Europe? Bodhisattva: received enlightenment, purposefully stayed in physical plain to help others get to enlightenment Thangka (a painting) had Qianlong emperor as the Bodhisattva of wisdom o Physical manifestation of balance o Center of Tibetan Buddhist thinking o Gives him a lot of power o Alliance with Mongols and Tibettenism Confucian Government o Necessary for Han Chinese loyalty o Kongzi (Confucius) 551 BCE Book of change (Yin Yang)(Taoism) Book of Documents (Politics) Book of Songs (poetry) Book of rites (Society, rituals) o Have to do ritual exactly right every time, not as important to actually believe it, creates order, no war Spring and Autumn Annals (history) Confucian social order o Scholar o Farmer (food) o Artisan o Merchant (lowest because purpose was money) No room for radical change, reason Zheng He couldn’t continue Relationship order o Ruler – subject o Father – son o Husband – wife o Elder – younger brother o Friend – Friend Filial piety, must respect elders and rulers o If you don’t it dishonors ancestors in celestial realm The 4 Virtues o Xiao (Filial Piety) o Ren (Humanity): no right to be cruel or inhumane to others o Shu (Reciprocity): Do to others as you want done to you o Li (Ritual): ritual important even if you don’t believe in it, contrast Europe Taoist Ying Yang – eternal balance universally, light cant exist without dark, etc Religious Diversity o Buddhism and Taoism o Anything that threatened balance rejected but these were okay th Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) (6 century BCE) o Not a threat to state, politically important Buddhism: o Life is suffering, reincarnation, renunciation of self, nirvana, bodhisattva Taoism o Qi and harmony, energy force through all things o Link with nature o Metaphysics, the Tao.
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