New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Bio 151, Week 2

by: Aimee Dennis

Bio 151, Week 2 Bio 151

Aimee Dennis
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.16

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the second week of notes including diagrams for a better understanding of material.
Cellular and Molecular Biology
Alison Miyamoto
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Cellular and Molecular Biology

Popular in Biology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aimee Dennis on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 151 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Alison Miyamoto in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Cellular and Molecular Biology in Biology at California State University - Fullerton.

Similar to Bio 151 at Cal State Fullerton


Reviews for Bio 151, Week 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/08/16
Week 2 Chemical Foundations: Water & Carbon a. Diagram of atoms Nucleolus Hydrogen Carbon - Proton # = Electron # - Protons + Neutrons = Atomic mass Isotopes: more forms of the same element with the same amount of protons but different amount of neutrons - Elements can have different number of neutrons and become radioactive - Elements are characterized by their proton number - Electrons determine the number of bonds that atoms form - Move in orbitals that hold up to 2 electrons/orbital - Orbitals are grouped into shells that have a characteristic numbers of orbitals Ex: 1 shell holds 2 electrons and all outer shells Orbitals Electrons - The number of unpaired electrons in the outermost shell determines the number of bond that an element can form - Inner shells are filled entirely before outer shells Valence Shell: outer most shell - Unpaired electrons make the atom less stable - Further away the skill is from the nucleus the more reactive the atom - A filled valence shell is the most stable (thermodynamically) - Chemical bond can fill valence shell So how many chemical bonds can be formed for H,C,N,O atoms?  1, 4, 3, 2 Ionic Bonds Loss of an electron ???????? + Na Cation formation Gain of an electron F ???? − Anion formation Ionic bonds: the complete transfer of valence electrons between atoms who share a chemical bond Covalent Bonds H H H H Hydrogen atoms each have Hydrogen molecules have an unpaired electrons two shared electrons (H-H) Three types of covalent bonds: 1) Single bond Ex. H-H 2) Double bond Ex. O=C=O 3) Triple bond Ex. N≡N Covalent bond types: a) Non polar covalent bond in Hydrogen molecule H H  Share electrons equally, balanced electronegativity b) Polar covalent bonds in water molecule O H H - Electrons not shared equally, so partial charges exist on the O and H atoms - Electron Continuum: O > N > C ≅ H Where would ???? f2t on the continuum?  Nonpolar covalent, same electronegativity as O - Water is a very important molecule for life on Earth - Denser as a liquid than a solid - High specific heat - Solvent for other polar molecules Hydrogen bonds: form between hydrogen atoms with a positive charge and another atom with a negative charge (not in non-polar bonds) - Individual Hydrogen bonds are very weak - Anything that is polar can be solubilized in water Hydrophilic: love of water Hydrophobic: fear of water Which molecule would more easily dissolve in water?  Carbohydrate, since water is polar you would need another polar item Valence electrons: the number of electrons in the outermost shell Valence: how many bonds can you form - Water can neutralize strong acids and bases due to its chemical properties Theoretical: ???? ???? ↔ ???? + ???????? − 2 + + − Actual: 3 ???? (ℎ???????????????????????????? ???????????? → ???? ???? +2???? ???? ↔ 2 ???? + ????3 Acid: donates a protein, less than 7 on pH scale Base: accepts a protein, more than 7 on pH scale pH scale: serves as a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions (proteins) in a solution - The more acidic a solution, the more ???? ions are present -Water is an excellent butter against pH changes Chemical Reactions and their nomenclature Reactant 1 + Reactant 2 -> Product OR Reactant -> Product 1 + Product 2 -The equilibrium state of a reaction depends upon the number of collisions What are the major regulators of chemical reaction?  Temperature and concentration o Higher temperature -> more collision -> more product o Higher concentration -> more collision -> more product Chemical evolution: the first step in the development of life on this planet through the oceans of the early history of Earth Importance of Carbon -Most versatile atom on Earth -Carbon can form many covalent bonds -Molecules containing carbon can form almost limitless arrays of shapes Functional Groups - Amino accepts proton (base) - Carboxyl donates a proton (acid) Process: Chemical evolution Hypothesis 1) Simple molecules were present in atmosphere of ancient Earth (temp & conc.) 2) The energy in sunlight drove reactions among the simple molecules 3) Complex molecules formed - Simple -> Complex What happened/ the pattern (Carbon containing molecules) - Energy -> Sunlight and Heat -> chemical process Thermodynamics: the study of energy conversion into work, heat and power -Law of Thermodynamics requires a closed system (e.g universe) Types of energy 1) Potential energy 2) Kinetics energy 3) Other forms of energy st Thermodynamics 1 law - Conservation of energy - Cannot create energy - Cannot destroy energy Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy: amount of disorder in a group of molecules - Entropy always increases -Chemical reactions result in products with less order -Results in lower potential energy and increased disorder (chemical and physical process) -More order= less entropy Chemical energy: potential energy stored in chemical bond -Covalent bonds store energy -More potential energy in non-polar bonds than polar bonds


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.