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Comm 304 Fill-in Notes Chapters 1-5

by: Carly Notetaker

Comm 304 Fill-in Notes Chapters 1-5 Communication 304

Marketplace > University of Louisville > Communication Studies > Communication 304 > Comm 304 Fill in Notes Chapters 1 5
Carly Notetaker
U of L
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Comm 304 Fill-in Notes Chapters 1-5
Argument-Everyday Life
Dr. Steineck
Class Notes
Comm 304, Fill-in Notes, Chapters 1-5
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Notetaker on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Communication 304 at University of Louisville taught by Dr. Steineck in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Argument-Everyday Life in Communication Studies at University of Louisville.

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Date Created: 02/08/16
Comm 304 Study Guide, Exam 1 Christine Steineck, Instructor Chapter 1 – Perspective on Argumentation  Argumentation o Defined­  The study of the principles by which beliefs and actions  are evaluated and related to one another  Language based social phenomenon that enables us to  discover what beliefs and actions are reasonable in any  social context and that is concerned with selections and  organization of ideas to justify particular positions  A form of communication in which a person explicitly or implicitly puts forth a claim and provides support for that claim with evidence and reasoning  A conclusion supported by evidence and reasoning  Argumentation and Rhetoric – essentially the same thing, concerned with appeals used in persuasion  Logos­ “logic: the use of evidence and reasoning  to influence others  Ethos­ “credibility”/ “ethics”: looking at the  personal character of the person making the  argument  Pathos­ “sympathy”/”empathy”: using emotions to  convince an audience o Dimensions (both of which are INTERDEPENDENT)  Inquiry (epistemic and the stage of truth­seeking)  Involves discovering appropriate beliefs and  actions  How we evaluate and relate ideas o Critically examine ideas of others o Organize concepts into arguments of our  own  Focuses on discovering and applying the general  standards for determining what is true or  reasonable to believe in a particular social context  Advocacy (Persuasion and the stage of free ecpression)  Using language strategies to justify our beliefs and  actions to others o Helping others understand the basis of our  beliefs or actions o Persuading others to accept our beliefs or act the way we want them to  Confrontation and Coercion (ethically unacceptable) o Does not test information/position o Suppresses the opposition, denies their freedom and integrity o Not intended to force change, only raise awareness  (examples: marches or demonstrations)  Critical thinking o Discovering information, rigorously testing it, exploring widest  range of creative solutions to complex problems o Provides a rigorous methodology to discover information, test  ideas, explore alternatives o 5 step process  Identify an assertion or action  Ask about evidence for or against the action or assertion  Ask what the evidence points to  Ask about other explanations or conclusions  Keep an open mind for new evidence and evaluations  Certainty of Argumentation o Tests of arguments provide standards to gauge the probable  correctness of our positions o Limitations on Our Ability to Know  Unlike the physical sciences, our ability to be certain of  answers is limited  We can never be absolutely certain of correctness  of our positions  Knowledge is limited   Limited by our Perceptions   Limited by Time  o Implications of Probability and Perceptions  We cannot avoid making decisions just because we  cannot be absolutely certain of our conclusions  Certainty lies on a continuum  Dogmatic adherence is unacceptable – assumes certainty  of answers  Harder to label opponents as liars – they are operating  with same limitations as we are Chapter 2 – Basic Concepts  Propositions  o Defined  A carefully phrased statement expressing the basis of the  controversy  Must be phrased carefully and clearly to provide  meaningful basis of argument and to avoid  misunderstanding and superficial analysis  A declarative statement that an advocated intends to  support in the argument (claim/conclusion)  Many forms  Motions (business meetings)  Bills (legislative assemblies)  Answering specific questions (board of inquiry)  Resolution (academic debate)  Often requires some investigation before final  proposition statement can be made o Fact/Value or Policy  Descriptive, predictive, or evaluative statements that  assert the existence (fact) or worth (value) of something  Descriptive (fact):  Tries to determine existence of past or present  events or relationships  Used by courts of law, boards of inquiry, and study commissions  Predictive (fact):  Asserts claims about future events or relationships  Used by economic analysts and sports  commentators  Evaluative (value):  Declares worth of something  Used by critics, philosophers, and comparative  shoppers  Propositions of fact are concerned with the truth or  believability of a statement  Propositions of value are concerned with evaluation or  worth  Propositions of policy  Asserts that a course of action should be taken  Requires consideration of subordinate fact/value  question  Propositions of policy are concerned with  changing the status quo – something must be done  that isn’t currently being done o Phrasing   Nature and direction of change  Proposition should indicate both the nature and the direction of change desired  The more specific a proposition is about the nature and direction of the change, the less likely you are  to have confusion  One central idea  Proposition should contain one central idea  Inquiry and advocacy are easier when one topic is  considered at a time  Parliamentary procedure allows for discussion of  only one topic at a time: it recognizes that we can  profitably debate only one idea at a time  Neutral terminology  Proposition should be phrased in neutral  terminology  Phrasing should not be biased, should not favor or  give advantage to one side of argument over the  other  Presumption o Describes the inherent advantage in opposing change o Is the perspective that nay proposition should not be accepted  until sufficient evidence and reasoning have been provided to  justify its acceptance o Institutionalized concept  Courts of law – “presumed innocent”  Policymaking – majority vote  Scientific community – theory must be tested to be  accepted  Standards for overcoming presumption car according to  situation  Sunset Laws:  Set termination dates to keep agencies from  continuing indefinitely o Purpose of Presumption  Recognizes that the failure to make a positive decision is  a decision nonetheless  Burden of Proof o The inherent obligation of those advocating change to provide  sufficient evidence and arguments to overcome the presumption of existing beliefs  or policies o Burden of rebuttal  Obligation to respond to arguments once they are  advanced and supported  Issues o Inherent questions vital to the advocate’s cause o Sets up two opposing claims stated as a question using words  should, does can, or is 1.  Inherent in the proposition a. Exist within the statement and historic context of the  resolution 2. Vital to the advocate’s cause a. Essential to the proof of the propositions b. Advocate must win every issue in order to establish the  truth of the proposition c. Arguments are use to support issues: you can lose  arguments and still win the issue 3. Expressed in form of a question a. Worded so the advocate answers yes to the question,  opponent answers no o Proposition/Claim: more federal land should be designated as  wilderness o Issue (fact)­ does a wilderness designation of federal land help the local economy? o Potential Issues: all the issues that exist within a given  proposition o Inquiry /analysis deal with potential issues o Real Issues: vital inherent points that actually become a basis of clash o Persuasive and strategic considerations determine which  potential issue become real issues  Prima Facie o A case that is initially adequate to overcome the presumption of the present system and to force its defenders to respond o Because of presumption of existing beliefs or polices, advocate  assumes burden of proving prima facie case o Most provide positive answers to each issue o A series of arguments that, if taken at “face value” and left  unrefuted, would be sufficient to justify a change in behavior or belief o An indictment in a court of law presents a prima facie case  sufficient to suspend to the presumption of innocence Comm 304 Study Guide, Exam 1 Christine Steineck, Instructor Chapter 1 – Perspective on Argumentation  Argumentation o Defined o Dimensions  Inquiry  Advocacy   Coercion  Critical thinking  Certainty of Argumentation o Limitations on Our Ability to Know o Implications of Probability and Perceptions Chapter 2 – Basic Concepts  Propositions  o Defined o Fact/Value or Policy o Phrasing   Nature and direction of change  One central idea  Neutral terminology  Presumption  Burden of Proof o Burden of rebuttal  Issues o Issues v. arguments   Prima Facie


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