Gen Psych Notes
Gen Psych Notes PSY 1013
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessi Hines on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1013 at Mississippi State University taught by Mary Pollard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Lecture in Psychlogy at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
General Psych Bio Psych Genes: basic units of heredity -found in the nucleus of a cell -can affect your behaviors Chromosomes: structure in nucleus that is lined with inherited genes DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): molecule formed in double helix shape -contains four amino acids [A]denine, [C]ytosine, [G]uanine, [T]hymine *know the first letters* Genotype: genetic makeup of an organism; non-observable -what is inherited Phenotype: observable characteristics, including physical structures and behaviors Behavioral genetics: study of how genes and the environment affect behavior -twin and adoption studies -heritability: 0 to 1 Behavioral genomics: study of DNA and the ways in which specific genes are related to behavior -a single gene is not limited to one trait -inheritance does not guarantee development Parts of a Neuron -Soma: cell body; contains nucleus and genes -Dendrites: branches from cell body; receive messages and transmit to cell body -Axon: connect to the other neurons at the axon terminal. -Neurotransmitters: messenger chemicals; gap between axon terminals Lock and key pairing: triggered to produce or stop an action potential -Excitatory or Inhibitory Reuptake: recycled back to the neuron Motor neurons Sensory neurons Extra Credit: Major Neurotransmitters and their Functions -Acetylcholine: Movement and attention -Dopamine: Control of movement; reward seeking behavior; cognition and attention -Norepinephrine: memory; attention to new or important stimuli; regulation of sleep and mood -Serotonin: regulation of sleep, appetite, and mood -Glutamate: Excites nervous system, memory, and autonomic nervous system reactions -GABA (Gamma-amino butyric acid): inhibits brain activity, lowers arousal, anxiety and excitation; facilitates sleep **from table 3.1** Substance P: neurotransmitters involved in the experience of pain; perceived -capsaicin: pain inducing compound in hot peppers -naked mole rats do not react—possibly due to their adaptations to higher levels of carbon dioxide; studies being conducted for solutions for things like chronic pain. Hormones: chemicals secreted by glands of the endocrine system Pituitary gland: master gland of the endocrine system; produces hormones and sends commands Homeostasis: balance; Hypothalamus: brain structure that regulates biological needs and motivation Endorphin: hormone that reduces pain and induces pleasure -injury, sex, physical activity -Morphine is kind of the medical version for pain reduction Testosterone: hormone responsible for sexual development and response to threats -facilitates behaviors, but does not cause Nervous system Central: brain and spinal cord Peripheral: network that expands to the whole body Anomonic: natural things (heartbeat and [usually] breathing) -sympathetic: fight or flight response -parasympathetic: regulates heartbeat and such Somatic: what we consciously tell ourselves to do General Psychology Bio Psych continued Three Regions of the Brain -hindbrain: basic life sustaining processes -brain stem: medulla (heartbeat/breathing) -pons (wakefulness/dreaming) -cerebellum (coordination/timing/balance) -midbrain: relay information and reactions -forebrain: multiple inner connected structure -emotion/thought/memory -basal ganglia: learning new skills -limbic system: emotions and memory -amygdala: almond shaped; emotional interpreter; forms memories based on emotions; recognizes how other people are feeling -hippocampus: forms new memories that are not necessarily related to memories; basic or mundane memories -Cerebral Cortex: wrinkled outer layer involved in higher cognitive process -thought/language/personality -grows, but cannot change in size in relation to skull, therefore, wrinkles are created to create more surface area -made of white and gray matter: -gray: cell bodies and dendrites -white: axons -Ventricles: holds cerebra-spinal fluid -cerebra-spinal fluid: eliminates waste and provides nutritional hormones -also protects brain during concussions Divisions of the cerebral cortex: -frontal lobe: reasoning, morals, planning, inhibitions, impulses -right side: creative, visual, special skills, musical processing -left side: language and math EEG (electro encephalogram): moment to moment feed, measures patterns of brain activity; does not indicate where in the brain it is occurring Brain imaging PET scan: not moment to moment; uses radioactive glucose is injected; blood will flow to the part of the brain in use and the machine can develop an image of were where the radiation is concentrated. MRI: not moment to moment; uses magnets to spin atoms in the same direction, then sends a disruptive radio wave and records a 3D image Functional MRI: moment to moment feed; measures oxygen levels and shows the location in the brain, similar to PET scan -Lesioning: intentionally damaging part of the brain and studying the results. -TSM (transcranial magnetic stimulation): sending an electromagnetic pulse to a certain area of the brain to disrupt or speed up that area -used on patients with depression or who have suffered a stroke
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