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Biology 11100

by: Shayla Pedigo

Biology 11100 Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II

Shayla Pedigo
Athena Anderson

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About this Document

These notes will help with the exam
Athena Anderson
Class Notes
Biology, Bio, Biology 111
25 ?




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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Shayla Pedigo on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II at Purdue University taught by Athena Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 02/09/16
Bio Notes Gregor Mendel 18221884 MENDELIAN GENETICS Before Mendel ideas about inheritance were not quantitative Blending inheritance was the idea before Mendel s work offspring had intermediate characteristics compared to parents gt Example Child grows to height that is in between not equal to the heights of his parents gt Problem is that each generation would be more alike than the previous one eventually leading to a clonelike population this isn t how it works Mendel showed the importance of quantifying experiments to discover how genetics works He coined several terms that are still used today gt Genotype alleles carried by individual gt Phenotype appearance of individual gt Hybrid offspring of truebreeding parents w different traits for same character gt Cross sexual reproduction between different individuals He coined several terms that are still used today gt Character a feature like hair color or plant height gt Trait the genotype or phenotype of an individual for a given character red hair or dwarf plants To understand genetics you must understand meiosis Always consider gt What kind of gametes can parents make gt Sex combining gametes from parents gt As chromosomes go so go genes Eventually will allow us to map genes gure out where they are located on chromosomes Truebreeding individuals always produce offspring that resemble themselves when selffertilized Only applies to plants Mendel crossed pea plants that were truebreeding for round seeds with pea plants that were truebreeding for wrinkled seeds Pois the parental generation F1 is the rst offspring generation rst lial F2 is the offspring of a cross between two F1 individuals Po F1 F2 F1 Wrinkled trait disappeamd ih hist generation Cross F1 individuals to create seceh gieheietieh ramming P e x Fe F1 F1 F1 F2 What dues F2 leek like Wrinkled reappears ih SECGUM geheiethh Mendel counted lots at seeds and feiihd Proportienis 34 muhci 114 Wtihkiedi Phenatypic Ratie 3 mh hd Wirihicieci What happened i mm masked by damiheht trait in this case phenotype denoted by iowercese iettelr in this case i 39 t t e I d noted by capital ietteir hi this case B masks recessive traits ih this case the wife g MEIDSIS I Remember Heterozygous Yy diploid ceil from a plani with yelinw seeds IPmpl39iase l Metaphase I Anaphaee Ii Teluphaee I iMetaphase II Anaphase Ill Telunpiha 59 Ill Possible haplloid gametes 31557 Edutalicn Inn gt Example a round pea phenotype could be homozygous RR or heterozygous Rr Punnet Squares used to show possible genotypes amp phenotypes of offspring Gametic types are equally likely Combine randomly Outcome in each square is equally probable To construct Punnet square think about what types of gametes the parents can produce Rr X Rr cross looks like this R r R Rr r rR rr Monohvbrid cross only looking at one trait in a cross gt Example pea size OR pea color but not both gt Example eye color OR hair color but not both Dihybrid cross look at two traits in a cross at once gt Example pea size AND pea color gt Example eye color AND hair color he pea c ancters offext re and color und r winked gt Co 0 yellow y green Use same crossing scheme as before gt P0 gt F1 gt F2 Cross homozygous dominant for both with homozygous recessive for both RRYY X rryy RR YY make only R Y gametes rr yy make only r y gametes RRYY X rryy dominant for both traits RRyy Rryy rrYY rrYy Rryy rrYy rryy Law of Independent Assortment During meiosis if tetirads can dine up Wm different ways before the humologs separate Brown Bye5 Blue eyes amwn eyes Ema Eyes Black hair Red hair hair Black hair Consider hypothetical cross Aa Bb Cc X Aa Bb Cc Can ask about probability of genotypes or phenotypes gt To solve consider each locus individually gt Overall probability is product of individual probabilities events must be independenU gt Product Rule Aa Bb Cc x Aa Bb Cc Proball dominant phenotype ProbA B C 343434 2764 Proball recessive phenotype Probaa bb cc 141414 164 ProbA amp B dominant C recessive ProbA B cc 343434 964 ProbAA Bb cc ProbAA Bb CC 141214 132 Mendelian Genetics Progeny Testing How can you tell the genotype of an F2 individual gt Recessive phenotype homozygous gt Dominant phenotype could be homozygous or heterozygous Solution do a test cross and observe progeny gt Cross to homozygous recessive gt See if recessive phenotype appears 39K m ll39m n i lJiJLlr J 2 BEER Sire ew Codominance two alleles have equal contribution to offspring phenotype heterozygotes have traits of BOTH homozygous parents offspring is red AND blue incomplete dominance in this example would make offspring purple Codominance SickleCell Disease Sickleshaped RBCs can t carry oxygen as well as normal RBCs SS genotype all RBCs are sicklecells severe health problems AA genotype no sicklecells AS genotype normal AND sicklecells Codominance SickleCell Disease 110 AfricanAmericans have AS genotype Why hasn t detrimental allele been eliminated via natural selection lt confers adaptive advantage on heterozygotes in areas with high malaria risk Heterozygotes have enough normal RBCs to be relatively healthy but not enough for malarial parasite to pose serious health risk K Distrilhluti n of 391 mallalriia caused falcipamm a pmtmaaln WILD TYPE Irsnwn IfLJIIr39 Firequencias m the siicklleacelll al elle E 045 m 2i55i0 E i 15110033 min 1 1 Gen mpe Pihemtype HIIMALAYAN White fur with bilale paws HUSE ears1tail CHIIINICJHIIILLA Blacktipped White Mr Frizzled chickens one gene causes curled defective feathers higher metabolism amp blood flow rates higher digestive capacity Other examples cystic brosis Marfan syndrome Epistasis phenotypic expression of one gene affects that of another gene at different locus Example coat color in horses 0 Extension gene codes for production of coat pigmentation E or e o Agouti gene controls location of eumelanin deposition on body A or a Coat color in horses F henntypes Number nf diamakin a lelles Mendelian Genetics Review Be able to distinguish these and know examples 1 Dominance dominant allele prevents expression of recessive allele in offspring Codominance both alleles expressed equally in offspring Incomplete dominance offspring have intermediate traits Multiple alleles one gene has more than 2 alleles Pleiotropy one gene has many phenotypic effects Epistasis one gene masks the expression of another 991999 Polygenic inheritance more than one gene affects phenotype of one character NON MENDELIAN GENETICS Sexlinked genes Linkage Abnormal chromosome numbers Sexlinked genes those located on either sex chromosome Ylinked genes are usually harmless because Y chromosome is so small that there aren t many Midis3 FEETIIEIE z gt a metaphase anaphase Chromas39me a Game 1 Gene Linked Not Linked Not Linked Polyploidy ExalmpllEE Elf P iypi id Wants Name Number EIIIHETIITT39IEH39I 39Irheat EH 3 42 Tubacm 4 473 P tat 4H 43 anana 3H ETquot Ei gv EiEir391l39JiEr r y39 TH 4E 11 Etrrawb erry EN 55 Man 39939 ha mn 5 ea pnly pl Enid In tl IzhrEurTIEISIJmE nu FI39II39JE39 39 up tn 4I39JL39IH


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