PHIL 241 Lecture Summary 1/21 and 1/26
PHIL 241 Lecture Summary 1/21 and 1/26 PHIL 241
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Russell on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 241 at University of Arizona taught by William Leonard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Consciousness and Cognition in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Lecture Summary 1/21 Mind-Body Problem -mind and brain SEEM to have different properties Physical Phenomena Extension (takes up space) Location, color texture, property Mental Phenomena No extension No measurable property per se Why does this matter? We know very little We know more about space and deep sea than the inner workings of a conscious experience Materialism then there is no afterlife (Materialism wins) case survival of mind is in sync with survival of the physical brain Destruction of the brain would be destruction of the person Problems Why do the physical and mental appear to be so different? What kinds of matter constitutes minds? Dualism Problems At odds with science How do the mental and physical causally interact Perks of Dualism Accounts for the apparent differences that we believe to observe between physical and mental Possibility for after death scenario... doesn’t entail that there IS life after death but ALLOWS for it Idealism (this is not a popular “ism” anymore) Science is horribly mistaken, something completely unexpected may happen Large claims require large amount of evidence “if someone claims that you are in the matrix right now, they would need a large amount of evidence to back that statement up” Answers to the 2 nd question of Dualism (How do the mental and physical causally interact? Interactionism Physical events causally impact mental events and mental events causally impact physical events Epiphenomenalism Physical events causally impact mental events but mental events don’t causally impact physical events Parallelism Physical events don’t causally impact mental events and mental events don’t either Problems for dualistic metaphysical interactions 1.How is causal interaction even possible? (poses problem to Interactionism and Epiphenomenalism, but not for parallelism) 2. Causal closure of the domain in which a physical event has entirely physical clauses (violated by interactionism, but not a problem for epiphenomenalism or parallelism) Lecture Summary 1/26 Mind-Body Problem continued Materialism subsets: Behaviorism Mental states are identical to dispositions to behave in various ways Identity Theory Mental states equal brain states Functionalism Mental states translate directly to functional states of the brain Not behavior states or mental states but functional states Relies on brains functional structure to explain the mind- body problem Problems for Materialism subsets Does not leave room for a life after death Problems correlating mental with the physical Perks for Materialism Agrees with science No problems that are typically associated with mind-body interactions Descartes Meditations House is the metaphor for human knowledge Arguments for dualism (interactionist dualism) Central avenue is “substance dualism” Attempted to solve Cartesian skepticism Descartes mediations was a response to “you do not know that you are dreaming” that said “God exists, and God wouldn’t deceive us” this didn’t work Could not prove that God exists, therefore argument was not sound Descartes view of substance dualism: Thinking substance (special feature of the mind is that it thinks) Extended substance (special extension of physical objects) Majority of people are substance dualists** Phenomena that Paul Bloom, a psychologist, was trying to explain Descartes strengthens Substance Dualism with Indubitability Concievability (See Substance Dualism 1/19 Lecture summary)
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