PHIL 241 Lecture Summary 1/28-2/8 Idealism
PHIL 241 Lecture Summary 1/28-2/8 Idealism PHIL 241
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Russell on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 241 at University of Arizona taught by William Leonard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Consciousness and Cognition in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Lecture Summary 1/28 Substance Dualism continued, Idealism Indubitability vs Dubitability “doubtability” If you can prove “not” P, and “not” P is logically possible then the argument is dubitable (doubtable) this argument fails Can strengthen this argument with fine-tuning of properties Properties “occurring within the scope of an intentional character” aka psychological properties Pseudo properties (fear, emotions, beliefs) Measurable properties (physical elements) Conceivability Clear and distinct What is conceivable is logically possible, if it is logically possible then it is conceivable, doesn’t have to be PHYSICALLY possible If x can exist separate from Y, then X does not equal Y Similarly, if X can exist in the absence of Y, then X cannot = Y this argument is up in the air Dualism vs Vitalism No organic materials are synthesized from inorganic material THIS IS WRONG! No explanation of the body’s homeostasis, metabolism, reproduction THIS IS OBVIOUSLY WRONG! Idealism Berkeley introduced World consists of ideas which are experiences within the mind “To be is to be perceived” is the motto Central ideas Directly non-inferentially Ideas are conscious experiences Appearance vs reality argument Main arguments Deductive: objects are whatever is it that we perceive, what we perceive are ideas, therefore objects are ideas Abductive: what we perceive directly are ideas, and objects we no longer perceived directly continue to exist because they are “perceived by the mind of god” Summary No ideas without sensations Inferences from sensations to mind-independent entities Features are mind-dependent Sensible qualities are neither unchanging nor knowable by us Qualities cannot be real properties of min-independent objects Lecture 2/2 and 2/8 Idealism First: Establishing substantive truths about the world through imagination and deductive reasoning, would it need experimentation? Not necessarily (Galileo and the speed of falling bodies example) Central Ideas revisited What we DIRECTLY perceive are IDEAS Directly or non inferentially (incorrigibly) Ideas are conscious experiences (essentially experienced) Physical objects Outside of/ existing independently of ideas are an abstraction, justified “inferentially” Appearance/Reality distinction How world appears vs actuality Two Arguments Revisited Deductive First: Objects are whatever it is that we are perceiving Second: What we are perceiving are ideas “Warm one hand, cool other hand” an object can’t be both warm and cold, therefore we are not perceiving an object, we are perceiving ideas Matter is just conscious experience Abductive What we perceive directly are ideas Physical objects independent of perception are posited abductively Occam’s razor, we must get rid of this “unnecessary” posit So…All that exists are ideas