Week Four Notes
Week Four Notes BSC 114
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Sharp on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Stevan Marcus in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Principles Of Biology I in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Cell Theory All living things consist of at least one cell Cells are the smallest collections of matter capable of performing all activities of life o Meaning not viruses, because they need to invade another cell to reproduce All cells come from the division of early cells The Endomembrane System Nuclear Envelope o Also known as the nuclear membrane. Not all cells have cell walls, but all cells have at least a nuclear envelope. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum o Rough ER has ribosomes and does protein synthesis Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum o Smooth ER stores calcium and does lipid synthesis Golgi Apparatus o Has flattened membrane sacks called cisternae. Each side has its own name, the receiving side is called the cis side (always near the ER) and the side that sends away the completed proteins is called the trans side. The Golgi Apparatus folds proteins. Lysosomes o Sac of hydrolytic enzymes, they break down other stuff. Think of these as the piranhas of the cell. Lysosome Lumen (space inside the lysosome) has a higher acidity level than the rest of the cell. The lysosomes eat primarily old and malfunctioning organelles. Autophagy: when the cell eats little bits of itself (like lysosomes) Phagocytosis: when the cell eats other cells (like white blood cells) Vesicles o Formed when the cell wraps itself around something, or when the cell needs to kick some substance out of the cell. They’re the taxi service of the cell. Other organelles Mitochondria o The Power House of the Cell. If you know nothing else, know this. Produces Adenosine TriPhosphate (ATP), the energy used by a cell. Creates lots of free oxygen radicals which are very very bad Peroxisomes o Clean up mitochondria’s mess and break free oxygen radicals down to hydrogen peroxide which is still bad but less so, as it can be broken down into water and hydrogen Chloroplasts o Site of photosynthesis in plant cells, where plant cells fuse carbohydrates with the power of sunshine. Exclusively specific to plant cells. Vacuoles (a cell may have more than one type of vacuole) Contractile Vacuoles pump out excess water from the cell to prevent it from bursting from the Great Forces of Osmosis. Food Vacuoles are formed by phagocytosis, they hold onto emergency food for the cell, think of them as the cell’s Doomsday Preppers. Central Vacuoles are like the cell’s attic, it’s where the cell stores things that are largely irrelevant to the cell. Fungal Vacuoles break down and store macromolecules, for most intents and purposes, consider it the lovechild of the lysosome and the central vacuole. Cytoskeleton Organization First off, what the cytoskeleton does is organize cell structure and activities, it can move the organelles anywhere they need to go, it keeps the cell supported, and enables cellular motion. It can be fused together very quickly as well as torn apart. It’s made of 3 types of fibers; Microtubules; 13 columns of hollow tubes made of alpha and beta tubulins. These are 25 nanometers across with a hole in the middle (lumen) 15 nanometers across. They’re responsible for chromosome movements in cell division, and most organelle movement Microfilaments (Actin filaments); made of two intertwined actin filaments. They’re 7 nanometers in diameter. They’re responsible for cell movement also, they hold cellular tension, and help form the break off points in cell division, and helps direct the flow of cytoplasmic fluid (called cytoplasmic streaming) Intermediate filaments; made of strings of various proteins, including keratin, that are wrapped together into thick cables. 8-12 nanometers across, also responsible for maintaining cell shape, for anchoring the nucleus and the ER within the cell, and for the formation of nuclear lamina o Nuclear lamina; structure that regulates the most important processes of the cell. It’s the president, congress, and supreme court all at once. It deals with DNA replication, RNA transcription, chromatin organization, and cell replication The Microtubule Organizing Center grows out of the centrosome. Experimentation has found that cell replication can happen without it. The MTOC has a pericentriolar matrix (cloud of amorphous material) Motor Proteins; powered by ATP, they transport other proteins and organelles along the vesicles. This is possible because they contain the protein myosin, which is able to lock up (interdigitate) with the actin proteins, allowing the motor proteins to “walk” down vesicles Extra Cellular Structures The cell wall (varies from plants, prokaryotes, and fungi) protects the cell and helps maintain shape Extra cellular matrix is found only in animal cells, it segregates tissues and helps regulate inter cellular communication. o Made of glycoproteins, mostly collagen. Makes up 25% of whole body protein count. They’re the thick fibers outside of the cell. Fibronectins bind to transmembrane proteins, they connect cells to EXM Extra Cellular Junctions allow for passage into and out of the cell o Plasmodentia; thin channels between adjacent plant cells o Tight Junctions; where two cells are pressed up against each other, prevents fluid leakage o Desmosomes; in one little spot, anchor cells together into sheets of cells o Gap junctions; for communication between cells through cytoplasmic channels
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