Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
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11812 Culture is integrated and Dynamic Cultures are internally integrated diff aspects of a culture economy politics family religion etc serve complementary functions diff social groups gender age occupation class etc serve complementary func ons changes to one aspect of culture or one social group will have impacts on the others But the fact that cultures are integrated does not mean they are harmonious Conflict amp tension exist btwn diff aspects of culture amp diff social groups in every culture Culture is dynamic amp all cultures are constantly changing Cultures change bc of internal integration Conflict btwn social groups and aspects of a culture lnternal Integration gt Conflict gt Culture change Cultures change bc of external integration contact w other cultures ex thru conflict or exchange of ideas no pure culture main drivers of culture change relationships w the natural environment External integration gt contact amp interactions gt culture change Holism the perspective that attempts to study a culture by looking at all parts of the system amp how those parts are interrelated Hoism amp internal integration to understand an aspect of culture economy politics religion etc you have to understand how it is integrated w other aspects to understand a social group women teenagers factory workers etc you have to understand how it is integrated w other social groups Hoism amp External Integration to understand a culture you must understand how it is integrated w other cultures amp the natural environment Culture is Symbolic amp Shared Culture is a shared system of meanings Symbol something that stands for means something else in culture things amp behaviors mean something beyond what they objectively are members of a culture share these meanings amp use them to interpret the world amp communicate w each other Cultural anthro is the science that works to build knowledge about these shared systems of meanings If a tree falls in the forest amp nobody is there to hear it does it make a sound Existence amp Knowledge Ontology the study of what actually exists Ontology Existence Descartes Cogito Ergo Sum I think therefore I am can be objective or subjective Ontological assumptions we all exist the outside worlds exists the Tree exists objectively If a tree that actually objectively exists falls in the forest amp nobody is there to hear it does it make a sound trees existence does not mean we have to be there to observe it ridde is about a sound not the tree sound is the subjective interpretation of a wave sound exists subjectively If a tree falls in the forest amp nobody is three to hear it does it make s a sound NO the tree makes a wave objectively if somebody hears the wave they will interpret it as a sound subjectively existence of the wave is objective existence of the sound is subjective Epistemology study of the nature amp scope of knowledge Epistemology Knowledge knowledge is always subjective to some degree Hard Science the objects of study exist objectively Scientists try to build objective knowledge Validity the degree to which out understanding of something is objectively true Reliability the ability of others to independently construct the same knowledge Social Science the object of study is often subjective interested in more than objective existence interested in subjective meanings ex like the sound from the tree or the meaning of a diff kind of wave like symbols ex waves hand interested in what it meant to person waving hand amp people receiving the message subjective stuff Bc our object of study is subjective our knowledge of it will also be subjective Credibility worthy of belief or confidence lntersubjectivity there is no objective perspective on culture no One Truth cultural Anthro tries to build credible knowledge by combining diff subjective perspectives lntersubjective build an emic perspective grasp native point of view think like a native thinks include etic perspectives Culture is Symbolic amp Shared Symbol something that stands for means something else can be things or behaviors ex Am flag iphone military march convey power amp authority Symbolic thinking a way of thinking in which symbols or internal images are used to represent objects persons amp events that are not present ex CAT go from letters to images shared meanings we have diff experiences w cats depends on cultural categories amp cultural meanings 12012 Culture is Symbolic amp Shared cont it is not just THAT we think symbolically but HOW we use arbitrary categories ex animals that have culturally significant meanings Naive Realism the almost universal belief that all people define the real world of objects events and living creatures in pretty much the same way must get over naive realism to study other cultures the analogy of glasses see the world through the lends of culture we interpret everything in culturally patterned ways to think amp do things Ethnocentrism the tendency to view one s own culture as superior amp to apply one s own cultural values in judging the behavior amp beliefs of people from other cultures sources of ethnocentrism we erroneously believe that the way we do things is natural amp correct rather than cultural amp arbitrary we have a tendency to be arrogant amp paternalistic Cultural Relativism the idea that cultures are best understood when viewed within the cultural context of which they are a part does not mean that you have to accept another groups definition of right amp wrong we have to set aside our own cultural categories amp meanings to understand other cultures Mora Relativism Cultural Relativism and Ethnocentrism can be both etic and emic or neither usuay anthro use cultural relativism etic and emic Early Anthropologist Ethnocentric and etic Morgan and Tylor Edward Tylor the first Anthropologist 1871 wrote book called primitive culture Armchair Anthropology used data from travelers missionaries amp colonial administrators Notes and Queries on Anthro for the use of Travelers amp Residents in Uncivilized Lands Lewis Henry Morgan out of the Armchair amp onto the Verandah 1877 book called Ancient Society Unilineal Social Evolution all societies pass through the same stages of evolution as they progress Savagery 1st stage all societies with no civilization Barbarism 2nd stage cultures that have agriculture but no writing Civilization 3rd stage Problems ethnocentrism Morgan put his own society on 3rd stage Unilinear typologies amp trajectories everyone is on the same road but some are further than others Franz Boas Historica Particularism Each society is a collective representation of its unique historical past first anthropologist to practice Cultural Relativism fieldwork with the Kwakiutl around the turn of the 20th century ParticipantObservation still on the verandah Bronislaw Malinowski fieldwork on the Trobriand islands from 19151918 ParticipantObservation long term living with the natives emic perspective Functionalism the theory that all cultural practices amp institutions serve as a func on etic perspective analyze from outside but in a cultural relative way ex what function does religion play in this society Off the Verandah video pay attention to Bronislaw Malinowski theory of functionalism research method of Participants observation Trobriand Island Culture their beliefs amp uses of Magic amp the Kula exchange 12012 Off the Verandah son standing over father while he makes the Kula canoe Emic perspective son is protecting the father from being poisoned Etic perspective the son will learn how to build Kula canoes Fieldwork Fieldwork a style of research based on first hand systematic data collection cultural anthropologists use many research methods interviews surveys census taking mapping document analysis main research method in cultural anthro is Participantobservation anthropoogists study people very diff than themselves amp people from their own culture need to separate the way we think with our culture and see how we interpret the world ParticipantObservation this method involves immersion learning the language living w amp like the cultural natives participating in the native life ex eating native foods native meal times attending native events amp ceremonies participating in civic social amp religious life working with the natives farming During all of these activities you need to constantly ask questions talk listen observe take pictures record videos 1 gain access amp build rapport Access permission from local officials and relevant governments to conduct your research Rapport a friendship like relationship that fieldworkers try to cultivate w their informants so that they are accepted into the community 2 to behave like a child cant be shy have to be willing to make mistakes amp hopefully learn from them just like children anthro often learn cultural rules by breaking them 12512 ParticipationObservation cont 3 to take fieldnotes takes several hours amp usually has many pages the difference btwn field work amp field experience is field notes H Russell Bernard steps to keeping good notes in the field or in the classroom 1 Jotting key words amp quotes at the moment 2 Writing Full Notes use jottings to job memory amp write complete descriptions later in the day 3 To do list update the list of questions to ask amp things to do 4 To be reflexive role you had in your research 2 main issues Heisenberg Effect Our presence impacts the culture we study how do I minimize the impact of my presence Rashomon Effect Our interpretation of culture is subjective subject to our biases ethnocentrism expectations etc who you are makes a diff in what you write down try to be conscious of impact is amp account for it by writing it down Reflexive Ethnography the inclusion in the ethnography of a careful reflection on 1 How you did your fieldwork 2 How you may have influenced the culture you observed 3 How you may be biased in your interpretation 5 To survive Ethical Obligations Primum non nocerez first do no harm we recognize that as anthropologists we can do harm ex gather data that can be used against them harm relationships we collectively agree that doing harm is wrong ex come home write books amp make money we have responsibilities to a lot of different groups priority to the researched group informed consent no giving gifts to thank them amp confidentiality what they want known or kept private publish anonymously or not Responsibilities to the Discipline Protect anthro s reputation eg Project Camelot ex people of San Pablo thought prof Whittle was part of the CIA Responsibilities to the Public share the truth Responsibility to the Sponsors amp Gov we need to be honest amp cautious Ethics of Getting Involved should we stand up for human rights book says should get involved Are Human Rights Universal 46 of class said Yes Where do we draw the line Do we have the right to get involved 46 of class said Yes no right or wrong answer but you have to make your case Should we become advocates or activists on behalf of less powerful groups with whom we work most people said yes depends on anthropologists best moral judgement Should we try to change the practices of other cultures which we feel harm the environment or animals ex whaling in japan vs in alaska how do we deal with these rights in diff cultures Should Anthropologists work with the military anthropoogists did help colonists with controlling groups in the past Human Terrain Systems Anthropology and the military starting in 2004 the Military has made a deliberate effort to include an anthropological perspective including anthro in the curriculum including anthro in the war Human Terrain Systems 300 million military program Embedded anthro with combat units in Iraq amp Afghanistan it is obvious that military could benefit form an anthropological perspective BUTwe are concerned about the military s goals amp the anthropologists roles better understanding people so we can kill or control them Suspended due to controversy in 2010 most anthropologists are against the program Kinship Systems Kinship Systems a system for organizing relationships that is rooted in biology but defined by culture Kinship systems are cultural amp arbitrary Kinship Relationships are exceptionally important in most societies kinship determines social position the rights responsibilities amp obligations of individuals who you can marry where you should live what children you will be responsible for economic production amp the control of assets Kinship Terminologv Svstems Kinship systems group certain people together amp call them by the same term ex mother cousins siblings the terms reflect amp affect the social relationships with kin ex same relationship with everyone we call cousins or sister most Americans use the Eskimo System use by European descendants Seven factors used to classify Kin 1 Generation 2 relative age older sister younger sister 3gender 4 gender of linking relative diff btwn cross not considered part of family amp can be married to them cousins from parallel treated like siblings cousin determined by gender of linking relative 5 lineal or collateral vertical or horizontal direct connectionex parents children 6 bifurcation other s sideFather s side 7 consanguine or affine By Blood or by Law ex step or inlaws 12712 exan aunF generation 1 generation Gender female Lineal or Collateral collateral ex mother generation 1 generation gender female lineal or collateral lineal ex Mother s Brother s Son is my Cross Cousin because my mother is not the same gender as her brother notes on Kinship diagram Descent Benefits of Unilinear descent systems Kinship status is clear Lineage status does not get diluted You are closely related to more people some of us don t know 3rd cousin but they consider them brothers the lineage has a permanent existence as long as sons for patrilineal and daughters for matrilineal Corporate Descent Groups Permanent social units that have an existence beyond the individuals who are members for a given period of time ex descent group that owns property determines acceptable marriage partners more important than the people who make up the group Household a group of people who live together amp share some resources Nuclear Family Household consists of a married couple amp their children Composite Family Household consists of several nuclear families linked by a common spouse polygamy Extended Family Household consists of 2 or more lineally related kinfolk of the same sex their spouses amp children Residence Patterns Neolocal Married couples set up new independent household ideal but not always realities Family of Orientation family into which one is born or adopted amp raised Family of Procreation family that one forms by becoming a parent amp raising Patrilocal wives move in w their husband s extended family Martrilocal husbands move in with their wife s extended fam 23 Avunculocal married couples move in with the husbands mother s brother 13 13012 No lineage no social identity Martha Macintyre on Tubetube Island Tubetube Island is a matrilineal society Martha was adopted into a matrilineal family What is Marriage video on sesame street kid amp Grover Marriage Ideals in the US your ideals versus your parents reality every culture has marriage ideals but marriage reality is often very diff changing ideals amp realities of marriages in the US making money amp doing housework unmarried parents divorce infidelity sexual monogamy trophy wives amp trophy husbands is this what people want in marriage samesex marriages biggest marriage controversy in US currently marriage means a lot of diff things to diff people An Etic View of Marriage Functions procreation sex amp kids obligation raising kids labor combining sexually divided labor alliances relationships btwn kinship groups 1 Procreation sex amp kids procreation functions of marriage 1 to pair sexual partners 2 to control the spouses sexual access w others only women are 100 sure the kids are hers in patrilineal societies there is a social need to control female sexuality find out who father is bc patrilineal society in matrilineal societies there is much less preoccupation w regulating sex doesn t matter who father is 3 to confer certain sexual rights btwn marriage partners defend cultural rights or rights of the woman 2 Obligation raising kids marriage functions to determine who has obligations for raising the child 3 Labor combining sexually divided labor physically there are very few tasks that cannot be done by both sexes ex pregnancy and nursing E all cultures divide labor by sex the function of marriage can be seen as a partnership to satisfy all of the work requirements to run a household Grover help each other 4 Alliances relationships between kinship groups the function of marriage extends beyond the married couple to bond larger groups together bonds the whole family not just the couple leads to traditions of arranged marriage may explain the origin of the incest taboo promoteextend alliances to gain more powerful or rich families may want to avoid alliances which would divide their wealth or dilute their power the Levirate a man must marry the widow of his dead brother maintain alliance with the widows family and form a partnership with her the Sororate if a wife dies her kin group supplies a new wife usually her sister social meanings are more important then the biological relationships Marriage Rules Rule 1 Eligibility who is an eligible spouse Exogamy a rule specifying that a person must marry outside a particular group ex family members in the US incest incest taboos rules found in every society that prohibit sexual relations amp marriage between certain relatives incest taboos are universal only for nuclear families usually exogamy rules serve to promote broader alliances Endogamy a rule prescribing that a person must marry within a particular group ex age groupgenerations raceskin color religious groups ethnicity political views socioeconomic class endogamy rules can preserve culture religion property or power ex royal families marry within royal families Rule 2 Choice marriage by choice individuals choose their spouse often chosen based on more criteria than love alone ex class reproduction marriage by arrangement lineage elders choose the spouse using their own criteria eligibility characteristics of the prospect s lineage ex bride wealth characteristics of the prospect ex earning potential reproductive potential 2112 Marriage Rules cont Rule 3 Number of Spouses Monogamy a rule that permits a person to be married to only one person at a time ideal is still monogamy only 16 of societies allow for multiple spouses Serial Monogamy several spouses but only one at a time ex divorce amp remarriage Polygamy a rule allowing more than one spouse Polygyny a rule allowing men to have more than one wife sex ratio problem fewer women than men older men marrying younger wives or some men have fewer wives men may take male wives more wives higher status co wives wives compete in the composite family household Sororal polygyny two or more sisters marry one man Polyandry a rule allowing women to have more than one husband occurs only in India Tibet amp Napal lack of women polyandry undervalued not higher status having multiple husbands does not increase women s fertility Fraternal polyandry 2 or more brothers marry one woman Marriage Exchanges Bridge Wealth husband s kin present formally agreed amounts of goods amp money to the wife s family Bride service husband works for the wife s family for a specified period of time happens in societies wo lots of material wealth Dowry Bride s kin present goods amp money to the husband s family or to the new couple outlawed because women were being abused tortured and murdered if any of these payments are not satisfied the marriage can be considered nullified The role amp value of women in these exchanges in Bride Wealth amp Bride Service Systems women are recognized to be economically valuable women get higher status after marriage if a woman is educated then her family will receive higher bride wealth payments in Dowry Systems suggests women are an economic burden dowry may be controlled by the bride as early inheritance or dowry may be payment to the husband s family to compensate for the economic burden a woman presents bc the women won t work Dowry Violence Video many husbands run away bc they could go to jail dowry is driven by ideology material and structural explanations Sex and Gender Sex the biological differences btwn male amp female we have a sex male female intersexed Sexuality the way someone is sexually attracted to another person of the opposite sex the same sex both sexes or no sexes rooted in biology but expressed by culture we have a sexuality hetero homo bi asexual Gender culturally defined role behaviors activities ant attributes that are considered appropriate for women men amp other recognized groups But we DO a gender Gender Ideology the totality of ideas about sex gender the nature of men amp women including their sexuality and the relations btwn the genders ex household tasks how to dress sex and physical attraction beautiful body shapes some cultures go to the extremes to be beautiful Gender Ideology defines ideal types of gender in many cultures there are more than 2 ideal types ex hijas are neither gender ideals vary btwn cultures ex males considered strong amp brave Gender Ideologies in American culture have been changing Gender Policing the act of judging individuals amp trying to push them to conform to an ideal gender type we all police or act like we are policed Stratification the unequal division of status wealth or power in a society in most cultures women and men are not treated equally Gender Stratification the cultural ways that status role amp power are divided among the genders within a society high gender stratification large differences btwn the genders is uniformly associated with low status of women Ideological explanations ideologies amp religions religion is primarily responsible for gender stratification almost all societies say women are inferior amp men are better Structural explanations social amp political structures the privatepublic dichotomy theory women are primarily responsible for domestic work amp men have political power kinship amp residence rules determine gender stratification Materialist explanations biology environment and economy gender stratification is a result of biological differences if based off of biological differences gender strat should be similar economic production systems determine gender stratification most anthropologists believe all of the above bc they take a holistic approach to understand cultural phenomena we need to understand how material structural amp ideological variables interact 231 2 Components of Society infrastructure bottom materia base of society environment biology economy technology structure socia amp political relationships family kinship class caste political organization different ways humans interact with each other superstructure top ideologies knowledge science religion art stuff we know the way we explain things from 2112 Gender Stratification idealist structuralist and materialist explanations Understanding Gender Stratification a closer look at the PrivatePublic Dichotomy structural explanation 1 women are primarily responsible for raising children amp domestic work 2 men hold more of the public political power Materia Variable economic production system is there a separation btwn domestic and public life deological Variable what values does the culture give to domestic versus public work Efforts to Reduce Gender Stratification Oportunidades a materialist approach to reducing gender stratification in Mexico empowers women by giving them direct economic aid teach women not to give money to husband use to help family go to monthly sessions to teach women about how to use money improves education amp health statistics PROBLEMS women were battered from not giving husband the money then stopped going to sessions does not sufficiently address the structural relationships btwn men amp women didn t address ideology of the men only women result it is placing women in danger Power and Politics Politics Systems Typology amp Ethnography approaches the Typology approach attempts to classify all societies into discreet categories based on certain variables social differentiation EgalitarianRankStratified political organization bandtribechiefdomstate the Ethonography approach attempts to use certain key concepts to understand power and politics within and btwn specific societies Political Typologies social differentiation the relative access individuals amp groups have to basic material resources wealth power amp prestige categorize societies into discreet ideal types based on degree of social differentiation egalitarian equal social status opportunities amp economic status rank unequal social status but equal economic status Chiefdoms stratified unequal social status amp unequal economic status PROBLEMS reinforces the notion of Romantic Primitivism false idea that all simple foraging societies live at harmony with themselves amp with nature while all civilized societies live in conflict with themselves amp nature ex avatar treat savages as noble political organization typology categorize societies based on size degree of authority level of wealth and economic production systems band small groups 2050 foragers egalitarian tribe larger groups culturally distinct mostly egalitarian charismatic leaders chiefdom several communities autonomous formal authority rank state large scae centralized gov citizenship not kinship stratified PEOBLEMS no society perfectly fits into this reinforces the false notion of unilineal cultural evolution societies go through the steps NO there s lost of movement back and forth btwn steps lumping societies into ideal types obscures differences that are particular to each society however the variables that the typologies use are really important size amp complexity of society degree of social differentiation degree of authority economic production wealth amp distribution system political anthropologists use the Ethnographic approach to understand these variables Political Ethnography Power the ability to compel other individuals to do things that they would not choose to do of their own accord money grades pointing a gun Authority the ability to cause others to act based on characteristics such as honor status knowledge ability respect or the holding of formal office type of power Hegemony the dominance achieved amp maintained by elites by getting the larger society to internalize the values amp interests of the elites tell stories amp use narratives slogans to convince people that what the elite want is what everyone wants reinforces political ideology 261 2 Political Ethnography cont Political Ideology the shared beliefs amp values that legitimize the distribution amp use of power amp authority in a particular society at the edges there are disagreements ex right and left wings Political Process the ways in which individuals amp groups use power to achieve public goals all societies have sanctioned protected under the law amp non sanctioned political ex rebellions amp revolutions processes Rebellion an attempt by one group to reallocate power amp resources within an existing political structure at the edge of sanctioned and non sanctioned Revolution an attempt to overthrow an existing political organization amp put another type of political structure in its place nonsanctioned ex revolution in San Pablo amp The Cargo System The Biology of Race there is only one biologically distinct race of humans Race a culturally constructed category based on perceived physical differences the idea of different races is a story it is a hegemony Video Race the Power of an lllusion Part I The Difference Between Us look for different reasons that in biology race is meaningless no genetics markers that define race people in same race dont have the same genetics compared to people of diff races we are among the most similar of most specifies of the small variation btwn us what is mapped along what we think of as racial lines attribution performance to it bioogy becomes in excuse for social differences know skin colors then determine intelligence and athletic performance not right any two people within our race may have the just as many or more differences than with someone from a diff race geography can be accumulations of genes in one place vs another moving mating and mixing causes these variations in genes racial biology doesn t work but it is a social and historical idea justifies greatest social agony of american life 2812 Review of some points of the video the ideology of race that ethnicity of superficial differences like skin color or facial features are somehow biologically linked to internal differences in intelligence athletic ability character work ethic etc ideology of race is a fiction although we think we have evidence to support it there is no ethnicity of simple genetic traits skin color genetic complex traits that are genetic and cultural intelligence athletic ability concordance cultura traits work ethic character But our perception is that there is correlation Today many people think AfricanAmericans are more athletically gifted than Caucasians the Extinction Hypothesis 100 years ago the accepted idea was that the African race was physically inferior today it is the opposite Correlation btwn races and success or the lack thereof is a result of cultural and social factors there is inequality bc of discrimination oppression privilege amp opportunitynot bc of biology Social Stratification stratified societies rank people into social strata high middle low etc based on diff criteria the factors that determine social position may be ascribed or achieved ascribed status a social position on was born into race sex caste inherited wealth Achieved Status a social position that a person achieves on his or her own there are 2 types of social stratification social mobility movement from one social strata to another open stratification system social mobility is possible closed stratification system social mobility is not possible Closed Stratification Systems do not allow for social mobility you are born into your social position and locked into it for life socia strata is based exclusively on ascribed status a social position that one is bon into most non capitaist stratification systems are closed the caste system in India in rural india the caste system is still prominent in urban india changes in the economy are leading to more social mobility Open Stratification Systems allow for social mobility socia strata is determined by Achieved status a social position that a person chooses or achieves on his or her own Ascribed statuses inherited wealth race sex etc usually still play an important role Meritocracy A social stratification system in which the only relevant attributes are ability and achievement if you work hard you will succeed Open and Closed Stratification systems both open and closed stratification systems are reinforced with hegemony despite hegemony social stratification leads to conflict Conflict Theory focuses on inequality as a source of conflict amp change the Civil Rights Movement Feminist Movement Labor Unions amp the Occupy Movement the revolutions of 2011 amp 2012 Tunisia Egypt Libya Yemen Bahrain Algeria Jordan Iraq Sudan amp Syria Confirmation Bias What is the Fallacy of the Am Dream 21012 At Home Midterm on GauchoSpace Answer both promps 250350 Words each Blind Forum Due by Monday Night at 1155 pm Stories We Tell About Ourselves America is the land of opportunity The American Dream Race ethnicity sex and Wealth can be signi cant factors that limit or enhance individuals opportunities Ethnicity a culturally constructed category based on perceive cultural differences Race a culturally constructed category based on perceived physical differences Racism discrimination of racial or ethnic groups 1 active discrimination amp prejudice 2 racial thinking just believing that there is racism not thinking but talking 3 Embedded systems of privilege amp oppression caused Whites to be more Wealthy cannot move ast racism by ignoring it Video The House We Live In FHA federal Housing administration created enabled average Americans to buy a house low rates span over 30 years Levit Townaka surburbia town that sprang up used to be a potatoe field blacks were not allowed to live here integrated neighborhood was considered socially and economically bad President Johnson signed the fair housing act integrated neighborhood good but the value of the neighborhood Went down bc Whites moved when black people moved into a neighborhood owners paid whites to move A Post Racial America does the election of obama mean that we have become a postracial society No becoming president was signi cant and suggest a lot of progress since the past but race is still White Privilege the Unearned Assets There is no profit in denying it being White is a privilege but What is the privilege freedom from prejudice a World that caters to your color an economic inheritance from racial systems and subsidies white privilege is an invisible package of unearned assets which I can count on cashin in each day We have to be uncomfortable w the present racial arrangement race is a fiction and used to oppress other people Before We can go colorblind we have to address the racial stratification in our system 21512 after midterm 1 New X Games Daredevils Have Superstitions read for Wednesday optional case studies in applying anthropology Midterm Questions The Hijras of India are a prime ex of how sex and gender are cultural constructions All of the following are true about the Hijras amp the role in Indian culture EXCEPT Hijras are born male but are considered female In the US most people follow which type of descent system patrilineal matrilineal bilateral hawaiian eskimo Applied Anthro Applied Anthro use of anthropological data perspectives theory and methods to identify assess and solve contemporary problems confronted w a variety of serious social and environmental problems economic inequalities poor social injustices discrimination abuse unsustainabe social or environmental processes Solvable health nutrition and eduction issues little or no access to clean water Your Paper Part A Ethnographic description of the problem Write about the problem ethnographicallyl Use Holism Explore ow your topic is integrated with the diff aspects of culture ex Family politics systems of social stratification religion economics Use intersubjectivitv Consider the problem from diff emic amp etic perspectives Summary of what your paper is going to be not what the problem is or the issue your addresssing Part B Proposal to apply anthro like a formal proposal to get funding to do research Three Parts w headings Statement of Purpose I propose to goals of research the special features of anthro that will help you to realize those goals the ethics of your research and your goals Methods and Data participationobservation Significance The Ethics of Working to Change Cultures history of promoting political agendas anthro was the handmaiden of colonialism used to justify colonialism help them get to civilization White man s burden Europeans had a burden to teach civilization to all the diff cultures thought they were doing good but civilization caused more harm than good disaster for local people do not want this to happen when we do applied anthro Anthro was applied during wars to help defeat the enemy During the Cold War development programs were a means to promote political agendas Ethics of Applied Anthro Standard Research Ethics lnformed Consent Confidentiality Applied Research Ethics Whose interests are we promoting How will the knowledge that we generate be used against the people trying to help Are we being ethnocentric or biased Often we think of problems that aren t problems for other groups Anthro s Contribution anthro are not the only ones who recognize amp try to address social economic amp environmental problems ex gov lnterdisciplinarv applied anthro often work as part of multidisciplinary team w experts from other fields anthro provide cultural knowledge local perspectives amp politics Colaborative outside experts work in collaboration w local people amp include them when setting goals making decisions executing plans amp evaluating success am i going to work w other experts am i going to involve local people ParticipantObservation develop empathy develop deep understanding amp establish rappon The Emic Perspective Can see from their perspective and act as a cultural broker see how the problem looks to them Appied Ex Ethnography of Homeless Youth got involved then got the emic perspective rejected boundaries had solid networks of social support from friends shelters were using free food to lure kids into shelters much more interested in sanitation services laundry and showers wouldn t use services if there was applications and paper to fill out therefore created drop in services and didn t ask lots of questions Holistic Perspective Understand how aspects of culture fit together Cultural Relativism Avoid naive realism amp recognize the particularities of each culture to be effective programs amp policies must be culturally compatible this solution works somewhere else can adapt and see if it works in this here ex Improving Child Nutrition in Malawi problem 60 of children in Malawi are malnourished interdisciplinary team developed a solution provide milk producing goats to mothers w young children would the project be culturally compatible ethnographic research with a holistic perspective predicted that men might object to women being given goats bcuz of traditional gender roles took the role of a cultural broker explained the goals of the project to the men in advance use milk for children project was then successfully implemented 21712 The Goals of Applied Anthro The 1st Step Ethnographic Research you are the anthropologists The 2nd Step The Proximate Goals Advocacy Raise Awareness amp give voice for people Policy Create or improve policies or laws Activism Create adapt or implement a Program which path will help towards solution Ultimate Goal Solve contemporary problems Advocacy sometimes the best path to solve a problem is simply raise awareness of it ex present a point of view that people don t regularly see give voice to the people who are affected in one way or another by the problem and share what it means to them ex whose story are you telling if you plan to take this path you should consider who your audience is Policy gov corp or nongov organizations may already playa role in the issue work w these orgs or indep to produce ethnographic info to inform policy makers goal to help create or improve policies that better meet the needs of the org and the group the policy affects ex propose to make laws conservation or development policies improve an org s policies Ethnography or Homeless Youth Activism applied anthropologists get directly involved in a lot of programs in your paper i do not expect you to know the solution BUT even if you think you know the solution Part B still must be a proposal to do ethnographic research propose a cultural compatibility studyike the Goats in Mawlawi Keys to successful programs be culturally compatible ex lineage system and gender roles were important to Goats respond to locally perceived needs ex what do the locals think is the problem emic perspective on the problem harness traditionallocal orgs ex what are they and how can we work with them Methods and Data Styles of Research Pure Ethnography Focus on the culture Studies of Social Issues Focus on the problem Policy Studies Focus on the Policy or the Solution Methods Participant Observation Fieldwork Rapid Ethnographic Assessment Procedures fast participant observation Other supplemental methods interviews surveys etc Data Qualitative ethnographic into what kind of info are you going to look for Religion makes a critical topic for anthro to explore also makes it a sensitive topic for many students religion is one of the hardest topics to understand from both the emic and etic perspectives if you are not religious you will probably never understand the emic perspective and means of religion if you are religious the etic perspective of your own religion may seem almost blasphemous Religion a cultural universal shared system of myths beliefs symbols and rituals dealing w cosmology and the supernatural which binds communities of people together All societies have rituals that appease supernatural forces sets of beliefs concerning what we would call the soul notions about life after death But what exactly is religion Ethnocentrism and Religion 1 a problem of categorization we want to impose our categories on their religion ex a kikuyu elder sacrifices a goat at the grave of an ancestor god is this a religion is it economic We need to understand religion ethnographically cultural relativism What is religion is diff in diff cultures Holism Religion is integrated with diff aspects of culture 2 a problem of judgement From the outside religion may not make sense Supernatural the extraordinary realm outside the observable world which is non empirical amp inexplicable in ordinary terms ex Nyoro sorcery the Nyoro have a word that means to injure another person by the secret use of harmful medicines putting a person s body substances in an animal horn amp places it on the roof of the person s house putting poison in a person s food or drink a believer may not find anything out of the ordinary it may be completely explicable to a normal person and it may very well be based on observable evidence it is not the observable evidence that makes something natural or supernatural it is the cultural way that evidence is interpreted Cosmology the study of the universe and humanity s place in it myths sacred narratives about the universe Defining Religion CrossCulturally 22212 Religion Ritual amp Magic The Origin of Religion To Insiders Religion comes from God To outsiders Religion is a human invention Universal Beliefs Animism belief that people amp other beings have souls or spirits in addiction to physical bodies Animatism belief in a generalized impersonal power over which peple have some measure of control Anthropologists argue that no religion is more or less logical or evolved than any other AnimatismgtAnimismgtPoytheismgtMonotheism Problems not historically accurate Tyler science is replacing religion The Functions of Religion cognitive functions to explain the unexplainable emotional functions to give comfort and meaning social functions to promote social control community functions to build solidarity Cognitive functions to explain the unexplainable religion provides a cosmology cosmoogy the study of the universe amp humanity s place in it all religions have a cration myth myth sacred narratives about the universe the natural amp supernatural worlds and a person s place within them can answer what and how questions ex what is the origin of humans science can also address what and how questions Emotional functions purpose meaning and comfort religion can answer the question of why science can t always say why but what and how why questions address purposes amp meanings ex science cant say purpose amp meaning of death but why Religion provides comfort amp optimism in times of uncertainty Meaning amp solace in difficult times ex death there is a meaning to why they died is science replacing religion we must draw a distinction btwn How and Why how the process ex death smoking caused death why the purpose or the meaning ex death blc it was their time religious people think there is always a why ex the azande and the collapsing granary why did the granary collapse richard said termites but the Azande people said witchcraft Termites How the granary collapsed Witchcraft Why that granary collapsed at that time and injured those people you can believe in both answers How and Why are not contradictory to each other in terms of cognitive functions many religions have ceded some What and How questions to science in terms of emotional functions science cannot answer why it cannot provide purpose or meaning but can science amp technology Science and Religion our society faces serveral major challenges climate change energy crisis depletion or natural recources overpopulation food scarcity Social Functions to promote social control religion provides ethics rules of right amp wrong behavior myths andor texts to educate children positive amp negative reinforcements to ensure compliance rewards and punishments a harmonious social life for all or a means of oppression some argue that religion is a form of hegemony which allows the elite to dominate the masses Community functions to build solidarity Ritual Ceremonies rites social ritual events or ceremonies Ritual Ceremonies The stages separation liminality reincorporation separation a participant is removed from their normal life liminality participant has an ambiguus social position where normal rules of behavior are suspended modified or reversed dangerous reincorporation upon successful completion of the ritual the participant is reincorporated into society often with a new or modified status The types Passage intensification Role Reversal passage serve to transform an indidividual s social identity ex graduation weddings hs prom fratsorority initiations liminal stage is marked by the participant s ambiguous identity during this stage participants tolerate ordeals wedding vows or perform liturgy bride walks down the aisle intensification serve to increase group solidarity liminal stage is marked by an intense emotional experience Effervescence the bubbling up of collective emotional intensity generated by worship Communitas a state of perceived solidarity equality amp unity among people sharing ritual Ex religious services sporting events corporate retreats Role reversal serve to decrease social tension liminal stage is maked by a reversal or normal rules of behavior Antistructure the socially sanctioned use of behavior that radically violates social norms ex in American culture Halloween separate from normal lives 2241 2 Magic diff btwn magic and religion magic concerned w specific things ex why you stubbed your toe bringing rain religion has to do with cosmologic stuff Americans tend to believe in magic on a tacitsubconscious level Magical beliefs ex in the baseball or X games article ex of Mana in Am society LUCK has the same definition as Mana we believe in luck subconsciously but we actually DO behave that way Magic On Yourself if the outcome is not important or if it is entirely under a person s control no use of magic ex fishing no magic in lagoon fishing only small fish Ocean may or may not catch big fish so magic ex baseball only do magic in hitting no control and pitching no control but not fielding 95 outfielders will catch the ball other ex exam magic gambling sports Joe Saunders sacrific a chicken to improve pitching results did better after saying this quote Ritual Behavior do the same thing to get the same results ex ER hospital use tools in same way but has a function so not magic ex routines that give you confidence or center yourself Taboo things your not allowed to do ex baseball dont sit in someone s seat don t say NO HITTER Fe shes ex lucky coins lucky jewelry Magic On Others Witchcraft unconscious act by the witch ex the evil eye Sorcery conscious use of magic on on yourself or on other people imitative magic ex wearing a superman underwear get same results contagious magic lucky bc someone wore it ex wearing actual superman underwear get same results ex touching a famous person s uniform before every game Magic On the Natural amp Supernatural Worlds Natural ex rain dances sacrifices so volcano won t explode Rain Rain Go Away Supernatural oracles ex in Am society palm readers horoscopes fortunetellers Ongka s Big Moka video how all aspects of culture are integrated in economic exchange religion magic and ritural kinship marriage and gender politics authority and social organization leader of small 1000 people tribe is Ongka wanted present lots of pigs to neiboring tribe very important to him Ongka earns fame and status for tribe if give a BIG gift can only persuade but not order people around has 4 wives and 9 children thinks you need pigs for what ever you want to do house of assembly periwa person receiving gift from Ongka Moka most important to highland people they are horticulturist because they grow sweet potatoes pigs eat sweet potatoes too 22912 Economic Anthro Economy Subsistence Strategies strategies not typologies Foraging Why Adopt a Ctivation strategy Horticulture Agricuture Pastoralism lndustrialism Foraging hunting and gathering or gathering get more calories from gathering amp hunting no pure foragers today adopted another strategy or are in contact w cultivators Cultivation horticuture amp agriculture rely on the cultivation of plants Why did humans adopt a cultivation strategy Foraging vs Agriculture 1 less work amp more leisure time foraging 2 high quality food foraging foragers high quality protein rich diets amp agriculture low quality carbohydrates 3 healthier populations less malnutrition amp fewer epidemic diseases foraging 4 greater food security foragers 5 ability to feed more people agriculture Agrilculture Progressivist view farmers are better than foragers more food for less work quality of diet increases food security rises people are healthier Revisionist view foragers did not switch to agriculture until they were forced to Revisionist Theory Evidence recent foragers only have to work about 15 hours a week to meet needs 40 hours a week for farmersagriculturalist foragers needs are satisfied with relatively little work most of all infectious diseases come from close proximity to domesticated animals foragers came in contact w diseases from agriculturalist and died bc no immunity from it only wealthy have food security in agricultural socieites wheat rice and corn we depend on this Why did people switch from foraging to cultivation agriculture produces more food per unit of land than foraging Who Benefits some people benefit but the majority suffer being at a university we are at the top of global stratification system Horticulture Swidden or slash and burn techniques how long it takes for a field to regenerate depends on the steepness agriculture never allows regeneration of the land swidden is very sustainable Agriculture domesticated animals used to pull plow and carry irrigation worth the efffort is the same land will be used for years flood irrigation making canals from a river terracing carve land out of topography requires lots of labor to build and maintain Industrial Agriculture planes planting water tractors and machines picking plants Pastoralism animals eat NATURALLY growing plants humans must migrate to feed animas nomadism and transhumance close contact and mutally beneficially relationship with animals will very rarely slaughter animals for food no animals you are nothing Subsistence Strategies do ethnography and realize what strategy is used with a culture in the US we 3212 update abstract use headings and subheadings Means and Modes of Production Means in order to any kind of economic production you need land labor and capital helps us understand if answer what kinds of land labor and capital does a society have Mode cultura rules ex government owns land communal land no one owns land but diff ppl can use it relations of production ex wage labor communal everybody works and everybody shares proceeds The Capitalist Mode of Production capitalist most efficient modes of production bc lower cost and increase revenues externality ex pollution everyone pays for it only system where most people do not have access to the means of production they can only sell labor to other people more knowledge sell labor for a higher price The Mode of Production in San Pablo identity this is what we do solidarity show strength with people on their side without cooperative labor production would not happen social capital most important factor that individuals control in san pablo not land or knowledge get work comes from relationships you have with people not what you know but WHO you know ex Ongka depended on people to do Moka Economic Rationality economic decisions what kind of crops should I grow how much money should i demand for labor assiumtions by economists Self Interest self interest is constrained by culture ProfitMotive anthropoogists only make decisions when benefits outway the costs people aren t always profit maximizers peope weight and value things in diff ways many of which are cultural Corn in NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement Cornelio s Beans money is only a means of exchange not interesting in hoarding money 351 2 Economic Exchange Principles kind of exchange depends on who is involved Redistribution person collects goods and services gaining political power increasing social status 2ex taxes and insurance Moka from Ongka collect pigs amp give it out amp person gives it out to their friends and family takes wealth from rich and redistributes it to the poor eases social tension amp inequality Market Exchange dominates in our economy Dictator Game how much would you leave in the envelope Ultamatum Game How much would you leave in the envelope if reject then nothing as a proposer and responder economists say leave 10 bc assume person is rational and will take 10 strike offer that will be fair so we will seem fair Market Principle dont bargain too hard taking advantage or pushing them down too much ex car salesman they try to get people to pay too much money when people do not have an option its unethical to sell students parscore for 4x original profiteerig being a jerk store return policies give money back b c they want to establish a relationship with them Reciprocity General take place btwn people who are very close small socieites parents 38 children social relationship is more important than exchange Balanced return is equal or step up from what you gave amoung people who ave a trust relationship or is initiated to build trust relationship ex gifts Negative no concern btwn exhange partners car bargaining get as much as possible for car be agressive bc wont see salesman ever again Giving and Receiving Gifts Gifts should be offered freely without strings attached Yes if a friend gives you a holiday or bday gift do you feel obligated to give one back YES exchange of gifts changes social relationship good or bad social tools that can be used for social purposes Social Functions of Gifts better to give than receive Ongka s Moka is kind of like a competition that will tum into a war fight with property goal was giving Moka to elevate status now i have given you all these things I have knocked you down with the size of my gift Rules 3712 Two Worlds lst world good health care and education systems worked hard intelligence industriousness exploited 2rd world resources develop up by pushing other worlds down 3rd world poor and underdeveloped not the same natural resources mental endowments not stuck but pushed down from colonialism Colonialism Early European Expansion Islamic ascendantexpanding power china largest centralized control over teriitorial region Navigation can sail upwind go around the world Agriculture monoculture large scale farming required trade nancial standardization rise of merchant class build ships lead to Joint Stock Company wo this co hard to pull together enough wealth to build a ship Joint Stock Companies to raise money corporation issued stocks shares 2 benefits over individuals accumulate capital assume pro t w o moral restraint ethical concem is to make money for company monopoly ex Massachusettes Bay Com left poverty and chaos for other cultures Colonialism in the Americas 19th amp 20th Century Colonialism colonizers thought it was a moral obligation to colonize Strategies to Make Colonialism Pro table kno matter what way Europeans colonized the main goal was extraction of wealth europeans though they were the highest form of civilization thought colonies were their property Colonialism taxes was the preferred method bc threating caused wars cultural knowledge about how to produce food was lost Haiti French imported slaves from Africa only successful slave revolution in America sugar plantation system this is why 3912 Monday women in the global factory Wednesday The human costs of the ipad Contemporary Global Issues World Population Growth global population is growing but some small socities are not Even negative most population growth happens in developed countries too many people malnutrition and stress on the planet Malnutrition not enough 1 health risk more than AIDS problem in every country people think its bc of overpopulation therefore decrease population demand other people think we need to increse production better farming increase pesticides supply we have enough food to feed everyone overpopulation is not the problem anthro think its food security poor no access to land malnutrition put people back in charge of their own food supply Stress on the Planet taking too much Carrying Capacity limit to how much humans the Earth can feed without fossil fuels we cannot easily and quickly grow fertilizer to feed billion of people what contributes to human impact lPAT comsumption drives economic growth if we decrease comsumption how will it effect the economy World Population for population to atten out we must decrease births or increase deaths natural catastrophe disease if we do not address the problem it will fix itself but really badly demographic transition medical tech will save people from dying China is the only place to sucessfully have a population control problem Concems Sex ratio patrilineal society want to have a son sex based abortion Kinship only one child no aunts uncles or cousins more men then women Marriage human trafficing women in from other places Urbanization urban slums needs to be xed Poverty purchasing power parity amount that we could purchase is what half of the planet lives on inequality btwn rich and poor countries is shocking look at map 31212 Developmet Strategies Modernization approach Human Needs Approach instead of modemizing we need to focus on poverty and eliminate it Neoliberal Approaches Structural Adjustment state in control of system highway water required to sell it to private industry cut spending for health care education sanitation program The Free Trade Model gov shud get out of the way and let capitalism happen Multinational Corp allows them to pursue selfinterest and get development and jobs or exploit workers who have less freedom Maquilapolis City of Factories roles and decisions of the diff actors workers MNCs and the gov who is responsible for what promote economic development or exploitation pros and cons who recieves the benefit Carmen Duran single mother worked at a 9 assembly plants came to Tijuana at the age of 13 workers work with materials that are imported amp put together by madquiladoras then sold to US harassed amp pressured exposed to chemicals not allowed to drink water or used the bathroom stayed because she was there amp hardheaded suppose to pay a serverance before leaving these women know their rights Groupo Factor X promote the law amp defend whatever law is being violated color of j acket shows your rank in the factory most people come to Tijuana wanting to work work wor we are just objects objects of labor give them a lawyer that likes the company Panasonic amp sonyo factories breathe in lead don t tell you about the chemicals in the factory 31412 the prompts for the at home portion of the final will be posted tonight Maquilapolis City of Factories cont Labor Arbitration Board 2 400 1800 860 not helping them but screwing them got 25000 helped fix house too and put a oor in MOST UNIONS ARE GOHST UNIONS UNION PROTECTS EMPLOER BECAUSE THEY GET THE MONEY FROM THE EMPLOYER start a union fired Labor Union did nothing to help 20 ppl who were fired no electricity hang wires when they touch each other or water they sparke and can electricute peopl sewege is bad Asia took over Tijuana jobs same idea want women to work with a low cost corporations are taking advantage of the system but within the rules that the society has established or will ee a lot of corporations do follow the laws but corp are expected to make mone Mexico has good worker protection laws just as good has US ex Carmen won against Sanya policies aren t being enforced if Mexico raises its standards clean work environments dont pollute corp are going to somewhere else System of Free Trade restricts gov ability to protect workers amp environment Structure and Agency Structure rules of the game individuals have the freedom to choose Structure priviledges corp and restricts individuals Free Trade is a social constructuralism Structure of the Free Trade Model profits for corp ex apple made billions of in pro ts innovative we have cool gadgets created very cheaply so we can buy them at a good price jobs taking jobs bc ther are no other options poverty workers migrate to FTZones and get jobs and then corp leave FT is not benefiting everyone It does not lead to economic development people need poor and must stay poor but does create jobs therefore only increases efficiency SLC countries lower standards to bring corps everything can move freely EXCEPT workers give corp cheap labor on both sides of the boarder 31612 Structure of Free Trade consumers vote w your dollar leam about corp and share with friends gov gov should not bc corp will leave Culturally Constructed World political racial stratification everything Lessons from Maquilapolis 1 culture can be maladapted 2women achieved victories Lessons Learned intervention philosophy based on ethnocentricism avatar native primitivism white guy rescues native white guy is a better native then the natives leads natives to victory Collaboration pholosophy other cultures are diff but not worse Comelio s beans may seem irrational but it makes sense to them Sustainable Development con ict btwn helping environment but growing economy Article Agroforestors socially just locals grow trees collaborative diff diciplines economic locals can grow and cut trees sustainable successful this idea has been adopted by large intemational organizations they do listen to anthropologists with the increase need for sustainable development there is an increase need for anthropologists to study amp implement programs Final Exam pink parscore form 4050 Multiple Choice Questions Lectures Videos Text Articles Emic Etic Cultural Relativity Ethnocentrism Hegemony Holism Functionalism Components of Society lmfrastructure structure Superstrucutre apply concepts to these readings important concepts are bolded on ppt At Home due Wed at 1155pm Understand Mode of Production use to understand facts of colonialism your reaction apply concept of structure and agency to free trade use examples think critically and show ideas apply concepts
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