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Political Science Chapter 4 Notes

by: Sierra Crumbaugh

Political Science Chapter 4 Notes POLI 201 001

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Political Science > POLI 201 001 > Political Science Chapter 4 Notes
Sierra Crumbaugh

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These notes cover all the lecture slides from Chapter 4 as well as additional material covered by the professor during lecture.
American National Government
Class Notes
political science, american, National, Government, chapter 4
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Crumbaugh on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 201 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Darmofal in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Political Science at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 02/09/16
Chapter  4 Thursday,  February  4,  201610:09  AM Civil  Liberties  and  Civil   Rights  are  Not  the  Same Thursday,  February  4,  2016 10:06  AM → Civil  liberties  are  protections  of  citizens   from  improper  governmental  action   -­‐ what  government  must  not  do → Civil  rights  are  the  legal  or  moral  claims   that  citizens  are  entitles  to  make  on   the  government  -­‐ how  government   must  treat  you Basic  Civil  Liberties:  The   Bill  of  Rights Thursday,  February  4,  2016 10:08  AM → Remember  that  to  get  the  Constitution   ratified,  Federalists  had  pledged  to   amend  the  Constitution  by  adding  a  Bill   of  Rights → Adopted  by  late  1791,  the  ten   amendments  that  now  make  up  the  Bill   of  Rights  include  both  substantive  and   procedural  restraints  on  governmental   power Ninth  Amendment:  Bill  of   Rights  Not  Exhaustive Ninth  Amendment:  Bill  of   Rights  Not  Exhaustive Thursday,  February  4,  2016 10:14  AM → "The  enumeration  in  the  Constitution  of   certain  rights  shall  not  be  construed  to   deny  or  disparage  others  retained  by  the   people."   → This  addressed  the  Federalist  concern  that   a  list  of  rights  would  suggest  that  the  list   was  exhaustive  and  that  there  were  no   other  liberties  people  enjoyed. Dual  Citizenship Thursday,  February  4,  2016 10:19  AM → The  First  Amendment  says,   "Congress  shall  make  no  law   respecting  an  establishment  of   religion…" → This  is  the  only  amendment  that   addresses  itself  to  Congress  only → For  instance,  the  Fifth  Amendment   says  simply  that  "no  person"  shall  be   denied  the  due  process  of  law Barron  v.  Baltimo(1833) → The  city  of  Baltimore  had  been  disposing   of  sand  and  gravel  near  a  wharf  owned  by   John  Barron,  rendering  his  wharf   commercially  useless. → Barron  sued  the  city  of  Baltimore  on  the   Fifth  Amendment  grounds  that  he  had   been  deprived  of  property  without   compensation → The  Supreme  Court  rules  against  Barron,   stating  that  "the  Fifth  Amendment  must   be  understood  as  restraining  the  power  of   been  deprived  of  property  without   compensation → The  Supreme  Court  rules  against  Barron,   stating  that  "the  Fifth  Amendment  must   be  understood  as  restraining  the  power  of   the  General  Government,  not  as  applicable   to  the  States. → The  Court  confirmed  the  idea  of  "dual   citizenship"-­   that  each  American  is  a   citizen  of  the  federal  government  and,   separately,  a  citizen  of  one  of  the  states → Dual  citizenship  means  that  citizens  have   liberties  that  protect  them  against  action   by  the  federal  government  and  a  separate   set  of  liberties  that  protect  them  against   action  by  state  governments.   Fourteenth  Amendment Thursday,  February  4,  2016 10:33  AM The  Fourteenth  Amendment  seems  to   apply  the  Bill  of  Rights  to  the  states: → All  persons  born  or  naturalized  in  the   United  States…  are  citizens  of  the   United  States  and  of  the  State   wherein  they  reside. → No  state  shall  make  or  enforce  any   law  which  shall  abridge  the  privileges   or  immunities  of  citizens  of  the   United  States;  nor  shall  any  State   deprive  any  person  of  life,  liberty,  or   property,  without  due  process  of  law. Selective  Incorporation Thursday,  February  4,  2016 10:37  AM → As  early  as  1873,  the  Court  ruled  that   the  14th  Amendment  did  NOT  apply  the   Bill  of  Rights  to  the  states → In  1897,  the  Court  held  that  the  just   compensation  clause  of  the  5th   10:37  AM → As  early  as  1873,  the  Court  ruled  that   the  14th  Amendment  did  NOT  apply  the   Bill  of  Rights  to  the  states → In  1897,  the  Court  held  that  the  just   compensation  clause  of  the  5th   Amendment  would  apply  to  the  states → This  began  a  long,  slow  process  of   "selective  incorporation"  -­‐ the   application  of  the  liberties  in  the  Bill  of   Rights,  one  by  one,  to  the  states Still  Selective:   → Some  parts  of  the  Bill  of  Rights  are  still   not  incorporated  into  the  14th   Amendment → The  most  recent  incorporated  right  is   the  2nd  Amendment's  right  to  bear  arms → In  McDonald  v.  Chicago  (2010),  the   Court  ruled  that  the  right  to  defend   oneself  is  "fundamental  to  the  Nation's   scheme  of  ordered  liberty." The  Bill  of  Rights  Today:   Freedom  of  Religion Thursday,  February  4,  2016 10:43  AM → "Congress  shall  make  no  law   respecting  an  establishment  of   religion,  or  prohibiting  the  free   exercise  thereof." → The  first  clause  is  the  Establishment   clause.  This  is  sometimes  referred  to   as  the  separation  of  church  and  state. → The  second  clause  is  the  Free  Exercise   clause.  This  protects  a  citizen's  right  to   believe  and  practice  whatever  religion   he  or  she  chooses. → The  Lemon  test  and  the  Establishment   Clause:  Government  can  be  involved   with  religion  if… ○ It  has  a  secular  purpose believe  and  practice  whatever  religion   he  or  she  chooses. → The  Lemon  test  and  the  Establishment   Clause:  Government  can  be  involved   with  religion  if… ○ It  has  a  secular  purpose ○ Its  effect  is  neither  to  advance   nor  inhibit  religion ○ It  does  not  create  excessive   entanglement → Discussion:  Does  prayer  time  in  a   public  school  violate  the  Lemon  test? The  Bill  of  Rights  Today:   Freedom  of  Speech Thursday,  February  4,  2016 10:55  AM → "Congress  shall  make  no  law…  abridging   the  freedom  of  speech" → The  Westboro  Baptist  Church  (Topeka,   Kansas)  pickets  the  funerals  of  American   soldiers  killed  in  action  with  signs   reading  "Thank  God  for  Dead  Soldiers"   because  they  believed  these  deaths  are   punishment  from  God  for  America's   tolerance  of  sin. → Does  the  Constitution  protect  this   speech? → Freedom  of  Speech  is  not  absolute ○ Clear  and  present  danger  test  -­‐ does  the  speech  present  a  "clear   and  present  danger"  to  society? ○ Libel  and  slander  are  not   protected → Morse  v.  Frederick  (2007)  -­‐a  student   holds  up  a  "Bong  Hits  4  Jesus"  sign  as   the  Olympic  torch  goes  by → The  Court  rules  that  this  is  not  protected   speech → In  general,  one's  speech  rights  go  only  as   far  as  not  to  infringe  on  someone  else's   rights the  Olympic  torch  goes  by → The  Court  rules  that  this  is  not  protected   speech → In  general,  one's  speech  rights  go  only  as   far  as  not  to  infringe  on  someone  else's   rights ○ Speech  that  directly  incites   damaging  conduct  is  labeled   "fighting  words"  and  may  be   regulated ○ But  what  constitutes  "fighting   words"  is  not  fully  settled → Political  speech  is  the  most  protected   kind  of  speech Speech  Plus Thursday,  February  4,  2016 → Speech  plus  is  speech  accompanied   by  activities  such  as  sit-­‐ins,   picketing,  and  demonstrations → Protection  of  this  speech  is   conditional  and  is  acceptable  only  is   balanced  by  considerations  of   political  order The  Bill  of  Rights   Today:  Freedom  of  the   Press Thursday,  February  4,  2016 → The  First  Amendment  also  provides   for  freedom  of  the  press. → The  Court  has  ruled  that  this  means,   among  other  things,  no  prior   restraint  -­‐ an  effort  by  a  government   agency  to  block  the  publication  of   material  it  deems  harmful  or   libelous The  Bill  of  Rights  Today:   material  it  deems  harmful  or   libelous The  Bill  of  Rights  Today:   Search  and  Seizure Tuesday,  February  9,  2016 10:17  AM → The  4th  Amendment  offers  protection   against  unreasonable  searches  and   seizures → Exclusionary  Rule:  Developed  in  the   1961  case  Mapp  v.  Ohio,  it  is  the  ability   of  the  courts  to  exclude  evidence   obtained  in  violation  of  the  4th   Amendment The  Bill  of  Rights   Today:  Rights  of  the   Accused Tuesday,  February  9,  2016 10:22  AM → Carious  amendments  and  rulings   guarantee  the  rights  of  the   criminally  accused → The  5th  Amendment  provides   protection  against  self-­‐incrimination   and  double  jeopardy → Miranda  Rights → The  6th  Amendment  provides  for: ○ A  speedy  and  public  trial ○ An  impartial  jury ○ The  right  to  confront  one's   accusers ○ The  right  to  counsel → Gideon  v.  Wainwrigh( t  961)   incorporates  the  right  to  counsel   into  the  14th  Amendment → The  8th  Amendment  prohibits   "excessive  bail,"  "excessive  fines,"   ○ The  right  to  counsel → Gideon  v.  Wainwrigh( t  961)   incorporates  the  right  to  counsel   into  the  14th  Amendment → The  8th  Amendment  prohibits   "excessive  bail,"  "excessive  fines,"   and  "cruel  and  unusual   punishment." → The  ban  on  cruel  and  unusual   punishment  has  served  as  a   lightning  rod  for  debate  over  the   death  penalty  and,  more  recently,   over  torture The  Bill  of  Rights  Today:   Right  to  Privacy Tuesday,  February  9,  2016 10:36  AM → The  right  to  privacy  is  not  expressly   states  in  the  Bill  of  Rights ○ Connecticut  has  a  statutes   forbidding  the  use  of   contraceptives ○ In  Griswold  v.  Connecticut   (1965),  the  Court  invalidates   the  law  based  on  a  "zone  of   privacy"  in  the  3rd,  4th,  and   5th  Amendments → Roe  v.  Wade  (1973)  cemented  the   right  to  privacy ○ Trimester  ruling § In  the  1st    trimester   there  is  a  right  to  an   abortion Civil  Liberties,  History,   and  Collective  Action Tuesday,  February  9,  2016 → As  we  have  seen,  the  application  of   the  Bill  of  Rights  to  specific  cases   yields  rulings  from  the  Court  that   and  Collective  Action Tuesday,  February  9,  2016 → As  we  have  seen,  the  application  of   the  Bill  of  Rights  to  specific  cases   yields  rulings  from  the  Court  that   become  fixed  rules,  at  least  for  long   periods  of  time. → This  is  a  good  example  of  the  History   Principle  at  work -­‐how  we  got  here   matters → It  is  also  a  good  example  of  the   Collective  Action  Principle  at  work,  as   civil  liberties  are  limitations  on   collective  action The  Right  to  Die Tuesday,  February  9,  2016 10:45  AM → The  right  to  die  is  a  relatively  unexplored   area  for  the  Court → In  2006,  in  Gonzalez  v.  Or,   e  Court   upheld  an  Oregon  law  that  allowed   doctors  to  assist  terminally  ill  patients   seeking  to  end  their  lives → On  what  constitutional  grounds  can  the   Court's  decision  be  supported?


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