Linguistics 1010 Lecture 3 Notes
Linguistics 1010 Lecture 3 Notes LING 1010
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Skinger on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 1010 at University of Connecticut taught by Hendrikus Van Der Hulst in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Languages and Linguistics in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Lecture 3: Cognitive Science: A Joint Effort MindBody Dualism: This was highlighted by Rene Descartes, who said that we are a combination of mind and body The JohnJane “experiment” showed that gender is determined by the mind, not the body (genitals), and comes from nature: we are born with it, it is not dependant on our experiences. This helped prove mindbody dualism Monism: Opposed MindBody Dualism Idealism The belief that only the mind exists, and that everything around us is a figment of our imagination (extreme view). Materialism Only our body exists, our mind does not. o Physicalism The brain is an electrical and chemical factory, and our brain activities are our mind. The mind is what our brain does. o Behaviorism The only thing we can study and observe is the behavior of humans and other animals. The mind can’t be seen or measured so we have to study behavior. Believed in by: J.B. Watson and B.F. Skinner (trained pigeons to respond to a certain stimulus) Noam Chomsky disagreed Cognitive Science: The Functional Level Begins a formal inquiry, asks a basic question. Ex: What is the function of a particular module? The Algorithmic Level Describes what makes up the answer to the first question the components of it. Ex: The rules for that module and how it works. The Implementational Level Understanding how the module works in the brain, and being able to design a computer program to mimic how it works (because it’s easier than looking at people’s brains, and the model can be tested) Two Approaches to Cognitive Science: Serialism Models are stepwise. You go through different steps in order to form a sentence. believed in by Chomsky Parallelism Processing in the brain isn’t a one way street, but is parallel multiple things go on at once. Modularity Phrenology Early modularity. Believed that there were different spots on the brain that corresponded to different things, such as being good with money or having a strong connection with your parents. They believed that people’s modules were at different levels, and If you had a very developed module, that it would enlarge into a bump on your head. Wasn’t real! Criteria for Modules according to Fodor: o DomainSpecificity: It is one specific area, and it does one specific task o Automatic: You can’t stop it or turn it off, it occurs whether you want it to or not. o Informational Encapsulation: Modules work in their own “bubble”, they don’t interact or exchange information between one another. o Shallow: WE don’t know and aren’t aware of what is going on inside the module, and are only aware of what it produces. o Speed: They process information quickly o Subconscious: We are unaware of them and don’t know how they work o Innate: We are born with them and they have evolved through evolution, they are genetic. o Dissociation: They are separate from one another. This is important because if one module fails, it won’t inhibit any other modules and it won’t cause the system (you) to fail. o Localization: Neutral architecture. The modules are in the same placed of the brain for everyone they have a fixed location because the modules are genetic, like your nose. You wouldn’t expect to have a nose on the side of your chest, it’s in the same spot for everyone. o Adaptive: It evolved and became a common feature for everyone, because it gave humans an advantage. Visual Illusions trick us, which demonstrates that our visual system “has a mind of it’s own”, and doesn’t show us what is entirely correct. Evolutionary Psychology Tries to explain the modules of the mind from an evolutionary perspective. Focuses on “universal” traits Argues that the mind is modular, like a swiss army knife. The mind is a collection of many different modules, each which can solve a particular problem (ex: turning sounds we hear into meaningful words). This is similar to a swiss army knife, which has a number of different tools attached to it, each which helps the user perform a given task. William’s Syndrome Genetic disorder that damages the spatial reasoning module, but other modules still work fine. So, someone might be able to describe what an elephant does, looks like, etc, but won’t be able to draw it. This supports the fact that modules are separate and don’t interact, because even though this module doesn’t work, others do.
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