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Linguistics 1010 Lecture 3 Notes

by: Sarah Skinger

Linguistics 1010 Lecture 3 Notes LING 1010

Sarah Skinger
GPA 3.915

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These notes cover what was discussed in lecture 3: Cognitive Science: A Joint Effort.
Introduction to Languages and Linguistics
Hendrikus Van Der Hulst
Class Notes
Linguistics, Lecture 3
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Skinger on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 1010 at University of Connecticut taught by Hendrikus Van Der Hulst in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Languages and Linguistics in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Connecticut.

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Date Created: 02/09/16
Lecture 3: Cognitive Science: A Joint Effort Mind­Body Dualism:  This was highlighted by Rene Descartes, who said that we are a combination of  mind and body  The John­Jane “experiment” showed that gender is determined by the mind, not  the body (genitals), and comes from nature: we are born with it, it is not  dependant on our experiences. This helped prove mind­body dualism Monism:  Opposed Mind­Body Dualism  Idealism ­ The belief that only the mind exists, and that everything around us is a  figment of our imagination (extreme view).   Materialism ­ Only our body exists, our mind does not. o Physicalism ­ The brain is an electrical and chemical factory, and our brain activities are our mind. The mind is what our brain does. o Behaviorism ­ The only thing we can study and observe is the behavior of  humans and other animals. The mind can’t be seen or measured so we  have to study behavior.  Believed in by: J.B. Watson and B.F. Skinner (trained pigeons to  respond to a certain stimulus)  Noam Chomsky disagreed Cognitive Science:  The Functional Level ­ Begins a formal inquiry, asks a basic question. Ex: What  is the function of a particular module?  The Algorithmic Level ­ Describes what makes up the answer to the first question ­ the components of it. Ex: The rules for that module and how it works.  The Implementational Level ­ Understanding how the module works in the brain,  and being able to design a computer program to mimic how it works (because it’s easier than looking at people’s brains, and the model can be tested) Two Approaches to Cognitive Science:  Serialism ­ Models are stepwise. You go through different steps in order to form a sentence. believed in by Chomsky  Parallelism ­ Processing in the brain isn’t a one way street, but is parallel ­  multiple things go on at once. Modularity  Phrenology ­ Early modularity. Believed that there were different spots on the  brain that corresponded to different things, such as being good with money or  having a strong connection with your parents. They believed that people’s  modules were at different levels, and If you had a very developed module, that it  would enlarge into a bump on your head. ­ Wasn’t real!  Criteria for Modules according to Fodor: o Domain­Specificity: It is one specific area, and it does one specific task o Automatic: You can’t stop it or turn it off, it occurs whether you want it to or not. o Informational Encapsulation: Modules work in their own “bubble”, they  don’t interact or exchange information between one another. o Shallow: WE don’t know and aren’t aware of what is going on inside the  module, and are only aware of what it produces.  o Speed: They process information quickly o Subconscious: We are unaware of them and don’t know how they work o Innate: We are born with them and they have evolved through evolution,  they are genetic. o Dissociation: They are separate from one another. This is important  because if one module fails, it won’t inhibit any other modules and it won’t  cause the system (you) to fail. o Localization: Neutral architecture. The modules are in the same placed of  the brain for everyone ­ they have a fixed location because the modules  are genetic, like your nose. You wouldn’t expect to have a nose on the  side of your chest, it’s in the same spot for everyone. o Adaptive: It evolved and became a common feature for everyone,  because it gave humans an advantage.  Visual Illusions trick us, which demonstrates that our visual system “has a mind  of it’s own”, and doesn’t show us what is entirely correct. Evolutionary Psychology  Tries to explain the modules of the mind from an evolutionary perspective.   Focuses on “universal” traits  Argues that the mind is modular, like a swiss army knife. The mind is a collection  of many different modules, each which can solve a particular problem (ex: turning sounds we hear into meaningful words). This is similar to a swiss army knife,  which has a number of different tools attached to it, each which helps the user  perform a given task. William’s Syndrome  Genetic disorder that damages the spatial reasoning module, but other modules  still work fine.  So, someone might be able to describe what an elephant does, looks like, etc,  but won’t be able to draw it.  This supports the fact that modules are separate and don’t interact, because  even though this module doesn’t work, others do.


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