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Understanding how and why

by: Elizabeth Gregory

Understanding how and why Pysch 280

Elizabeth Gregory


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These notes cover chapter 1 of lecture from week 1.
Childhood adolescence
Taylor Wadian
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Gregory on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Pysch 280 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Taylor Wadian in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Childhood adolescence in Psychlogy at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 02/09/16
January 22, 2015 1. What is Psychology 1. Study the ABC’s 1. A – Affect – emotions/feelings 2. B – Behavior – Observable actions 3. C – Cognition – Thoughts/thought process  Definition: Psychology – the science of behavior and mental processes  Definition Science – answering questions objectively based on observed facts, data, and  established methods  Define Mental Processes – thoughts, feelings, etc., subjective experiences 2. What is Developmental Psychology 1. Definition: Study of human development throughout the lifespan 2. Goals: 1. Describe – behaviors at different ages 2. Explain – individual differences (average behaviors) 3. Predict – later behaviors 4. Intervene – use the knowledge to improve well being  3. Scope of the Course 1. Dynamic Systems Approach 1. Development is an ongoing process 2. Biopsychosocial Approach 1. Biological Influences 1. Natural selection 2. Genetic predisposition 3. Brain mechanisms/ hormonal influences 2. Psychological Influences 1. Learned fears and expectations 2. Emotional responses 3. How you think and perceive things 3. Social – Cultural Influences 1. Peers, groups, presence of others, and media 2. Cultural, societal, and family expectations 4. Early Studies of Development 1. Baby Biographies 1. Academics observed their own children’s development and recorded it 2. Limitations  1. Difficult to compare/contrast 2. Observations made at irregular intervals 3. Different people focused on different areas of behavior 4. Each biography focused on one child 1. No observations of general behavior 5. Biased 1. Report the good not the bad 5. Studying development  January 22, 2015 1. Cross­sectional studies 1. Different age groups are compared  2. Data is collected at one time 2. Longitudinal studies 1. Measured at different points in time 2. Data is collected over a long period of time  Definition: Cohort – a group of people born about the same time who share historical  experiences at the same ages  Definition: Cohort effect – idea that changes in development may be due to historical  experiences of each age group  Cross Sectional and longitudinal studies cannot detect cohort effects 3. Cross­sequential studies 1. Combination of previous two studies 2. Groups of different ages and measured at different points in time 3. Can detect cohort effect 4. Problems?? Expensive!! 6. Debates about human development 1. Innately pure VS innately bad 1. Are people inherently bad or good? 1. Bad – theory of original sin (Thomas Hobbes 1700’s) 1. Children are selfish 2. Need to be controlled by society 2. Good – theory of innate purity ( Jean Jacques 1800’s) 1. Children are born with a sense of right and wrong 2. Sense is misdirected by society 3. Tabula Rosa (John Locke 1700’s) 1. “Blank slate” 2. Your experiences shape who you are 3. No innate inclination (not good or bad) 2. Nature VS Nurture 1. Biggest debate in psychology 1. Ongoing  2. Can be fairly heated 1. Strong opinions 2. Extreme opinions 2. What makes us who we are? 1. Genetics (nature) or experiences (nurture) 2. Are you who you are because of your inherent characteristics or because of  how you were raised and what you do? 3. Important things 1. Most psychologists accept both as influential January 22, 2015 1. Continuum debate 2. You might be at a different place on the continuum based on the topic 3. Still a major topic 3. Continuity VS discontinuity 1. Is development gradual or abrupt stages  Definition: Developmental stages – period of development with distinct abilities (applies  to discontinuity) 4. Activity VS Passivity 1. Is personality actively constructed or passively received? 5. Stability VS Change 1. Do traits persist through life? 2. How do we change as we go? 6. Universality VS Particularistic 1. Does everyone develop similarly or is it particular to each individual?  Definition: Maturation – developmental changes in body or behavior due to aging rather  than an experience  Definition: Socialization – process in which beliefs, values, and behaviors that are  appropriate by their culture are acquired  Definition: Plasticity – development that has the potential to be shaped by experiences o Definition: Critical period – presence of certain kinds of environment stimuli that  is necessary for development to proceed normally o Definition: Sensitive period – organisms are susceptible to certain kinds of  stimuli, but absence of stimuli does not produce irreversible consequences  Definition: Socioeconomic Status (SES) – position in society as determined by income,  wealth, occupation, education, etc.  Definition: Quantitative developmental changes – differences in HOW MUCH  physical/mental/emotional abilities exist   Definition Qualitative developmental changes – differences in WHAT  physical/mental/emotional abilities exist  7. Influence of genes on environment 1. Passive 1. Experiences that suit your genes 1. Parents who are athletic create an athletic child 2. Evocative  1. Your genetics influence other’s behavior towards you 1. Smiley babies receive more attention January 22, 2015 3. Active 1. You seek out different experiences that are compatible with your genes 1. Extroverted people are likely to invite friends over and/or go out places


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