Tues. Feb 2
Popular in American History 1
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Popular in History
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kassidy Garcia on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AMH 2010 at University of South Florida taught by Edward Vickers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see American History 1 in History at University of South Florida.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
English Settlement of the Chesapeake Region – Virginia and Maryland West country men → promoters (Sir Walter Raleigh and Sir Francis Drake) ● These men want to become power players in England ● come from the West country to England ● In the late 1500’s, they all participated in the Conquest of Ireland ○ were not properly Christian, making it totally legitimate to conquer ○ can take this blueprint for conquest in the new world ○ can bring permanent settlement At this time, England is experiencing an urban population boom... ● enclosure acts → close off public estates; homeless/common people (80% of people agricultural) lives are ruined ○ no longer hunt or fish on public land ○ goals: increase profits for the crown; exporting more efficient; more out of the land ■ if poor people have unlimited access, it makes things much more efficient ● therefore, people move to urban centers with opportunity (ex. London) ○ 1550: 200,000 → 1600: 280,000 → 1630: 325,000 ○ all these people make fires and violence common ■ public entertainment is hanging ○ as the population goes up, the big property people in London begin to worry about their properties; the West Country men propose a solution ○ SOLUTION: let these people be the settlers in the new world (Virginia Company) ■ if they do this, will depend on the mother country and help bail out England Virginia Company ● fear native resistance will wipe out population, so investors are fearful ○ West Country response: focus on propaganda from the Spanish... welcome us as liberators from the evil catholics, more gentle colonization Attempt 1 at settl (Roanoke in 1555) ● failure, lost country ● only find the word Croatoan carved into a tree (which is a small island in shallow waters) Attempt 2 (Jamestown in 1607) ● only 100 English men...all these men settling are cabin poor/homeless ○ initially were just getting a hot meal → got drunk → ended up on a boat in the middle of the atlantic ○ most have never done labor in their life; not fit to make a colony, so they turn to the Indians ● encounter the Powhatan Confederacy ○ 30 algonquin tribes; 34,000 indians ○ Powhatan is the Chief ● At the times, Jamestown was just a fort (Triangular Shape) that is set up next to a marsh on the North bank of the James river ○ Cannons not only face the water, but also the interior ○ set up where salt water meets fresh water ● sickness is the biggest threat ○ hot and in the marshes….mosquitoes and malaria ○ blaugsh or salt poisoning from water ■ also made people lose their minds ● people continue to come to colony ○ 1609: 220 ■ 16071622 thousands sent, 60% survive ○ one person if convicted for eating his wife ● all commercial purposes for settling, has nothing to do with converting Indians ○ initial search is for gold, but eventually find tobacco ○ want to make a profit ○ will exchange tools and weapons with Indians for corn Indians view on Jamestown...doesn't want war with the english, but considers adopting them as a tribe/ally to protect against enemies ● any violence that breaks out has to do with food ● Indians have no concept of market, they grow for subsistence and the English don’t care ● 16051610 ○ 17 English men are trying to demand corn from the Indians ○ Indian kill them and stuff their mouths with corn ○ message probably is that they are sick of giving you corn ○ English take this as war ● 1610 ○ Capt. George Percy leads a group of british into a village and kills about 60 indians ○ takes chief's wives and kids as hostages ■ kids are killed for fun on the way back ○ governor is upset by this bc the wife was still alive...wanted more retaliation ● 1609 ○ smith is trying to get Powhatan out of his house to ambush ○ Smith ends up being taken captive and is going to be executed ○ Pocahontas steps in right before his death and begs Powhatan not to kill him… ■ Smith thinks he has barely escaped with his life, does not think he is subordinate to Indians ■ Powhatan thinks that this is all staged..like a religious ceremony; Smith now owes loyalty ● 1613 ○ Pocahontas is captured and English try to convert her (becomes Rebecca?) ■ ends up marrying a man named John Rolfe ○ peace is not achieved until 1614 ○ 1615 her and John Rolfe go back to England ○ 1617 Pocahontas died due to sickness and English lose propaganda ○ 1618 Powhatan dies and his brother takes over ● Under Opechancanough’s rule… ○ encourages the English to expand ○ eludes that he will convert to Christianity ○ 1622 he attacks these small settlements ■ kills over 400 colonists (⅓ of population) ■ this attack gives them an excuse to exterminate Indians ○ 1623 poison Indians at a meal and kill them off ○ 1644 kills 400 colonists, but now there are 10,000 people settled ○ 1646 Opech is captured ■ at this time he is blind, 100 years old ■ one day a soldier just walks up and shoots him ■ formal end to this confederacy ● now that this reign is over, laws are passed than Indians are allowed to be shot if they are caught trespassing ● by 1650, almost entire indian population is wiped out Tobacco “Boom” (16201630) ● introduced in 1616 by John Rolfe, but doesn't take off until 1620’s ● 1624: 200,000lbs produced → 1638: 3,000,000lbs ● it is selling 510 times more ● Headright system ○ initially, indentured servants worked in these fields ○ people want to come over and work, work is now voluntarily ○ if these servants survive 57 years, they will be granted 50 acres of land ○ wealthy men would pay for these servants to come over ● 1650: 17,000 → 1700: 41,000 ○ it is this economic chances that drive people to come over ○ willing to risk the chance of death for this profit cultural chauvinis superiority complex that the English have
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