Bio 103 Human Anatomy Tissue Notes
Bio 103 Human Anatomy Tissue Notes Biology 103
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erika Chalker on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 103 at California State University Chico taught by Gary Arnet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Anatomy in Biology at California State University Chico.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Tissue Notes Group of similar cells which perform a specific function Four different types of tissues o Epithelial= Layers of closely spaced cells which cover surfaces and form glands o Connective tissue= Specialized to support, bind, and protect organs o Muscular= Cells used for contraction o Nervous= Contains cells that transmit information Each tissue differs from one another by their cell types and functions, characteristics of the matrix, and the amount of cells. Matrix= Extracellular material that makes the cell hard or soft Epithelial Tissue A sheet of tissue consisting of one or more layers of tightly packed cells. Locations= Line external surfaces (skin), lines tubes and cavities, and form glands Is avascular (without blood vessels) Basal lamina (basement membrane)= Protein produced by cells that separates epithelial tissue from connective tissue. It basically keeps things out Two types of epithelial tissue 1. Simple= One layer that rests on the basement membrane 2. Stratified= Two or more layers with an apical surface. Basal layer rests on basement membrane Simple Epithelial= Resembles a fried egg o Simple squamous o Simple cuboidal o Simple columnar o Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Stratified Epithelia= Named derives from apical layer of cells. Used for protection o Squamous o Cuboidal o Columnar o Transitional Cuboidal Epithelium= Lines ducts (tubes) coming from glands. Is both simple and stratified and has no more than two layers Columnar Epithelium= Absorbs nutrients or produces a fluid. One layer is simple. Two or more layers is considered stratified. Found in male and female reproductive systems. The basal part is cuboidal, while the apical part is columnar Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium= Appears to be stratified, but the basal edge of all cells or on the basement membrane, therefore making it simple. Commonly located in the respiratory mucosa. They tend to be ciliated Transitional Epithelium= Is stratified, but stretches o Found in urinary tract only o Urine is acidic and hypertonic. Surface cells have protective features unlike other cells 2 o Stretches, causing the layers to get thinner o Stratified Cuboidal cells Connective Tissue Binds the organs, is there for support and protection Physical protection, immune protection, and heat protection Movement, storage, and transport Main categories of connective tissue 1. Fibrous= Long and stringy 2. Adipose= Fat cells 3. Supportive Connective Tissue= Bone and cartilage 4. Fluid Connective Tissue= Blood Characteristics of Connective Tissue o Consists of cells and matrix (fibers and ground substance) o More matrix than cells o Collagen fibers anchor it down (skin) o Fibers are elastic 1. Fibrous Connective Tissue o Fibroblasts= Produce fibers and ground substance 3 types of Fibrous connective tissue o Collagen= Tough and flexible (white fibers), similar to steel o Reticular= Thin collagen fibers, resembles a hair net o Elastic= Stretch and recoil (yellow fibers) 3 Loose Connective Tissue (Loose Areolar Connective Tissue) o Found all over the body o Binds epithelial tissue to deeper tissue o Reticular connective tissue supports lymphatic organs and supports adipose cells Dense Regular Connective Tissue o Highly organized fibers o Resists stress in mostly one direction o Found in tendons and ligaments Dense Irregular Connective Tissue o Random arrangement of fibers o Resists stress in all directions o Found in most of the dermis and protective capsules 2. Adipose Tissue Stores energy and is used for protection Has one huge vesicle that stores triglycerides. Uses it to make energy when there is no glucose. Stores leftover energy as fat 3. Supportive Connective Tissue Bone= Compact and spongy Cartilage= Hyaline, fiber, and elastic are three types of cartilage o Firm, flexible tissue o Made up two types of cells: Chondroblasts and chondrocytes. o Matrix is avascular, has no nerves, and is 80% water Hyaline Cartilage= Imperceptible collagen fibers located on articular surfaces (nose, trachea, ribs, and larynx). Most common cartilage in the body 4 Elastic Cartilage= Similar to hyaline. More elastic fibers in the matrix. o Maintains the shape of the structure o Allows flexibility o Located in the external ear and epiglottis Fibrocartilage= Thick collagen fibers o Tensile strength and ability to absorb compressive shock o Location- Invertebral discs, pubic symphysis, discs of the knee joint Exocrine= Duct to the surface Endocrine= No duct, product secretion, usually hormones and goes into the blood through a capillary Glands are either multicellular or unicellular o Acinus- Secretory portion (sweat produced) o Duct- Tube that goes to the surface Unicellular= 1 cell is the entire gland. Common in intestines and respiratory system. 5
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