BIO 120 Section 70 Chapter 1 Notes
BIO 120 Section 70 Chapter 1 Notes BIO 120 70
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gentry Notetaker on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 120 70 at Grand Valley State University taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity in Science at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Chapter 1: Evolution, Themes of Biology: 1. Study of life reveals common themes: a. 5 unifying themes: organization, information, energy and matter, interactions, and evolution. b. the biosphere = all life on earth, regions of land, bodies of water, the atmosphere (to an altitude of several kilometers), and the ocean floor. c. ecosystems = examples of ecosystems are deciduous forests, grasslands, deserts, and coral reefs. Consists of all living things in that area, and nonliving components (soil, water, atmosphere, and light) d. communities = organisms inhabiting an ecosystem, each form of life is called a species. e. populations = all individuals of a species living within bounds of a specified area. Therefore, a community is a set of populations in one area. f. organisms = individual living things g. organs and organ systems = body part that carries out a specific task in the body (maple leaf), organs are organized into organ systems who cooperate in a larger function. h. tissues = group of cells that work together performing a specialized function i. cell = life’s fundamental unit of structure and function, some organisms are unicellular, and some are multicellular. j. organelles = various functional components present in cells k. molecules = chemical structure consisting of two or more units called atoms. l. properties of lif = order, energy processing, evolutionary adaptation, growth and development, regulation, response to the environment, and reproduction. 2. Emergent properties: a. due to the arrangement and interaction of parts as complexity increases i. example: photosynthesis occurs in an intact chloroplast, but not in a disorganized test tube mixture of chlorophyll and other chloroplast mixtures. b. systems biology = exploration of a biological system by analyzing the interactions between its parts. Used to study life at all levels. c. structure and function = knowing the function of something provides insight into its structure and organization. i. example: hummingbirds wings rotate at the shoulder, so they have the ability to hover, and fly backwards. 3. The cell: Basic unit of structure and function: a. cells are the smallest unit of organization that can perform all activities required for life. b. every cell is enclosed in a membrane that regulates the passage of materials between the cell and its surroundings. c. prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; bacteria and archaea are prokaryotic. d. eukaryotic cells = contains membrane enclosed organelles. contain a nucleus, while a prokaryotic cell lacks a nucleus. 4. DNA The genetic material: a. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. Each time a cell divides, the DNA is first replicated, and each ‘offspring’ inherits a complete set of chromosomes. b. each chromosome contains one very long DNA molecule with hundreds of genes. c. genes are the sections of DNA within the chromosomes. Are the units of inheritance, they encode information necessary to build other cells. d. DNA double helix = made up of two long chains (strands) of building blocks called nucleotides e. single strand DNA = letters (A, T, C, G) are symbols for the nucleotide f. many genes provide blueprints for making proteins. They control protein production indirectly using RNA, which is then translated into amino acids. This process is called gene expression. 5. Genomics: Analysis of DNA sequences: a. genome = genetic instructions that an organism inherits b. genomics = studying whole sets of genes, rather than one at a time c. bioinformatics = use of computational tools to store, organize, and analyze genomic data. 6. Life requires the transfer of energy and matter: a. plants absorb sunlight, then molecules within leaves convert sunlight energy to chemical energy of food (sugars). Then the sugars are passed along to other photosynthetic organisms (producers), then eventually return to the environment by decomposers (bacteria and fungi). 7. Ecosystems organisms interactions: a. organism interacts with other organisms b. organisms interact continuously with physical factors in the environment. c. environment is also affected by organisms living there, on a global scale: plants and other photosynthetic organisms have generated all the oxygen in the atmosphere. 8. Molecules: interactions within organisms: a. most chemical activity within the cell (decomposition or storing sugar) are accelerated at a molecular level (catalyzed) by proteins called enzymes. b. feedback regulation = output, or the product of a process regulates that very process. The most common form of regulation is negative feedback. c. negative feedback = a loop in which the response reduces the initial stimulus. i. example: the stimulus is high blood glucose level, resulting in insulin producing cell in the pancreas. This cell produces insulin, which circulated throughout the body via blood, and ends up in the liver and muscle cells, response is the bringing down of the high glucose level. d. positive feedback = is when the end product speeds up its own production. i. example: the clotting of blood as a result of an injury. 9. Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life: a. evolution is the core theme of biology 10. Classifying the diversity of life: a. estimate total species range from ten million to over one hundred million b. species > genus > family > order > class > phylum > kingdom > domain 11. Grouping species: the basic idea: a. taxonomy = brand of biology that names and classifies species, based on the degree of shared characteristics. 12. 3 domains of life: a. prokaryotic (bacteria and archaea), and eukaryotic (kingdoms plantae, fungi, and animalia) b. although protists were once placed in a single kingdom, recent evidence shows that some protists are more closely related to plants, animals, or fungi, than they are to other protists. Recent taxonomic trend is to splits the protists into several kingdoms.
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