Chapter 3 Continued (2-9-16)
Chapter 3 Continued (2-9-16) PSYCH 3240
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lucy Stevens on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3240 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 3240 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Chapter 3 (Continued) 2-9-16 Reflex Arc: Neural pathway that controls the reflex act Reflex Act: simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus (muscle contraction or grand secretion) *Know the relationship between these tw o words* Ganglion: contains the cell bodies Spinal chord: the neural part Meninges: these membranes wrap spinal chord and brain tightly. Provide structural support and protection. There is some cerebral spinal fluid between the layers of the memb rane which acts as a shock absorber and provides some protection. *Spinal chord and backbone are different. (On test) ****Vertebrae form the spinal column, which is part of the skeletal system ****Spinal chord is NOT the spinal column. It is part of the nervous system. Inflammation of the sensory fibers (neurons) right at the spinal chord can cause pain in parts of the body. Ex: your whole leg hurts, but nothing is actually wrong with the leg *Worst case scenario: the disk breaks and the inside jelly s tarts seeping out and causing pain on the neuron. Blood-Brain Barrier (part of the vascular parts of the body) -Prevents potentially harmful toxins and substances form reaching the CNS. -Capillary Membrane cells so tightly packed together that they form a barrier to most molecules. (Most toxins are fairly large molecules, so th ey cant go across the membrane ) -Fat-soluble substances freely pass through the barrier (Ex: psychiatric medications and other drugs) -Other substances use special transporter mech anisms inside the membrane itself in order to go across. (Ex: amino acids and glucose) *Not all toxins are stopped by the blood -brain barrier. If it is a fat -soluble toxin, the barrier is useless. *Some regions of the brain are actually not covered by the blood-brain membrane. -The Area Postrema (of the Medulla): induces vomiting when some toxins are in the bloodstream. *CNS-Brain and spinal chord *The PNS connects the CNS to the rest of the body. 12 pairs of cranial nerves (come out of the brain stem) 1 pairs of spinal nerves (come out of the spinal chord) Nerve: a bundle of axons Exam: you will not see a question where you have to say what nerve and function comes from what part of the brain. You do need to know the number of each of the nerves. (Cranial Nerves) PNS Somatic-made of axons (both motor and sensory). Motor neurons: involved in carrying signals from CNS to the muscles. Sensory neurons: bring signals from muscles to the CNS Autonomic- involved in basic regulating body functions, which hap pens at the level of reflexes. Controls smooth muscles, heart, glands, etc. a) Sympathetic a. Speeds up general body activities (heart beat, respiration, blood pressure and sweat glands) b. Originate from the middle of the spinal chord c. Passes through the sympathetic ganglion chain i. Simultaneous activation of organs that works as a unit b) Parasympathetic: a. Slows body processes down b. Originate from the ends of the spinal chord *Both are active all the time to some degree. * Body’s activity represents a balance of the two Development of Nervous System 1) Proliferation a. Neurons divide and multiply at extreme rate 2) Migration a. Neurons move to their final destinations by climbing radial glial cells 3) Circuit Formation Migration a. Neurons send developing axons to make synapses with their tar get cells b. Growth cone develops at tips of developing axons and move towards final targets using chemical/ molecular signals 4) Circuit Pruning a. Extra neurons that have developed die b. Eliminates large numbers of extra synapses that refines the organization 5) Plasticity a. Ability of synapses to be modified by experiences like learning b. Decreases with age-cortical areas are more likely to retain their plasticity. c. The brain never stops developing For the Test: There will be diagrams (that he has used in class) Study the slides Between 40 and 50 multiple-choice questions. A few true/false Average is typically a B
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