World History week 3/4 notes
World History week 3/4 notes HIST 1020 -012
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Silseth on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 -012 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
World History II Industrialization, I: changes in manufacturing - agricultural revolution 18 century o They had been farming barely enough to meet the bare minimum & used old methods. o England is where the agricultural revolution starts but it is happening in the Netherlands at the same time o Starts when Enlightment ideas are applied to farming, people start experimenting on their own land. Increase in yields with new methods o Jethro Tull invents a modern plow which is a break through. This plow cuts straighter lines, turns the ground, & plants seeds. This causes more seeds to germinate which increases yields. o They learned to fertilize scientifically by adding clay & lime to adjust the Ph of the soil as well as planting nitrogen sorting crops which help the land produce more. (alfalfa, turnips, and clover). These were used to feed the livestock as well. o Improvement in livestock: They exert control over breeding (start breeding large cows with large bulls) This creates bigger & stronger livestock They feed them turnips o Turnip Townsend An English aristocrat who grew turnips on his land to fertilize the ground. Convertible husbandry: increased productivity of a pasture. You would rotate what soil you were growing on and what soil your livestock was on so that the livestock were fertilizing the soil that was not being used. Industrial Revolution - Industrialization o Machinery replaces things that were done by hand. o Mass production (cities grow because the job availability) o Factories (people used to work in their home or at a shop) - Power sources o Old: livestock, wagons, plows, windmills o New: Steam power & technology (watts steam engine) - Iron Industry o England produces textiles and iron. o Iron-ore is smelted using charcoal, but as the iron demand increases they end up deforesting England (charcoal comes from wood). You can smelt it with coal but that makes the iron brittle. o Henry Cort: puddling & rolling process When you combine it with smelting iron with coal this removes the impurities. 1 you stir (puddle) the iron so the carbon rises to the top and 2ndyou roll it which takes the impurities out. This allowed mass production of steam engines o Textile industry Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny which is a very large loom powered by humans. Arkwright used water to power the spinning machine but it is the steam engine that revolutionizes spinning thread. o Ceramic industry China/ceramics: the steam engine could increase production of these goods. Josiah Cox Wedgewood produced a high end of china and mass produced it with a steam engine which allowed ordinary people to afford it. This increased the population because people had clean plates to eat off of. o Steam engine Caused a lot of pollution - Why was England first to industrialize? o Resources: iron-ore, coal o Banking: could finance investors so loaning money was easier. Late 17 century they had the first national bank established to loan money. o Constitutional factors: limited monarchy helped the economy grow. Legislation came from parliament to business interests. Government was pro-business. th o Transportation: 18 century England transportation revolution. Productivity increased, materials/goods increased. Canals connected rivers and made materials ship quickly. Horses can pull 50X more when the supplies is in water. Industrialization II, changes in society - Urbanization: happened rapidly/unprepared o ½ of englands population moved to cities o environmental consequences air pollution from factory smoke stacks unregulated factories means unregulated amount of smoke filth in cities (painting example : Gin Lane) causes people to drink more. water pollution: dropped all kinds of sewage in rivers. Caused limited drinking water. Smelt so bad that the house of commons soaked their drapes in lime juice to block the smell. Housing problems: too many people not enough houses People live in attics and cellars. Entrepreneurs start squeezing in poorly built/ leaky houses with “earth closests” basically out houses that were only cleaned once a week. Sewage is everywhere & children play in it. o Diseases: regular & major epidemics Typhus- water w/feces Typhoid fever- lice & mice Influenza- cold/damp housing Life expectancy was 30 but most infants were dying. Horrible Diets: Bread/potatoes/beer/tea/butter/spoiling meat Minimal access to veggies & good meat - Conditions of labor o 16 hour days, no labor unions, no child age limits o no relationship between employer and employee o there were phases of surplus which caused cycles of unemployment. o Women & kids worked in textiles because they have smaller hands. o 5 year olds worked in mines with carts strapped to them. - Changes in social structure o Small aristocracy: based on large scale land ownings, dominated Europe. – decline in aristocracy after French Rev. & Industrialization. o Money is in owning factories (merchants, business men, entrepreneurs) They have the political power. o Rise of the proletariat Working class work in factories & their lives are miserable which eventually causes them to revolt. o Rise of Middle Class & the Victorian era Middle class is growing, wealthier, influential, powerful, doctors instead of small shop keepers. Victorian woman hood (associated with middle class dominance) Women stayed home to raise kids They’re financially set The furniture is upholstered/gaudy Use drapes to stay away from outside world. Clothing: wore corsets & heavy layers that looked like their drapes o Queen Victoria & family The ideal family image. Had numerous kids o Responses to the problems of industrial society Luddites: anti-industrialists, no technology is good—attacked machines in protest. Unions: labor unions formed that demanded better conditions. Government reforms: limit work hours, improve drinking water, intervene with disease, improve standard of living Age of Ideology, I: Conservatism - Ideas of the Enlightenment o Natural Law & Isaac Newton Plays off scientific ideas of gravity & inertia. The universe is a system like a clock, applied this idea to the economy (supply/demand) saying it should self-regulate o The idea of reason The universe is rational, orderly, and predictable Use reason to understand (logic) o Progress It is good, it becomes a cultural value o Natural Rights*** Emerges in the west because of John Locke Certain rights are a part of nature (life, liberty, property) Impacts revolution & 3 estate - Conservatism o Opposition to enlightenment & Revolution Tradition vs anarchy o Edmund Burke & Congress of Vienna Aristocracy (conservatives) Didn’t like the enlightenment because political implications of reform and revolution Edmund Burke is a major spokesperson wrote “reflections on the revolutions in France” in 1790, before the real revolutions even happened. o He was horrified by English ideas & believed rights are earned over time by contributions to society. o Believed the French Revolution was arrogant and that you can’t make a perfect government over night. o Evolutionary approach: anything other than tradition= anarchy Dominate congress of Vienna and reimpose monarchies Age of Ideology, II: Liberalism - Classical economics: a body of economic theory o Adam Smith: Scottish economist who wrote wealth of nations 1776 Physiocrats in France had similar ideas Individualism: the individual should be totally free, do as he pleases without government interference- 19 century classical economists. Laissez-Faire: hands off approach, minimal government in the economy, believed it would naturally regulate itself. Freedom of contract: people should be free to negotiate contracts with employers as they choose (wages, work hours, etc) Free Competition: healthy for an economy because it kept prices down and increase quality. Except it can cause monopolies because the other companies fail and are driven out. Specialization: companies focus on what they produce best. Interdependence: narrowly focused industries. - Classical Liberal Theorists o Thomas Malthus- Essay on population o David Ricardo- Iron Law of Wages o Jeremy Bentham- utilitarianism o JS Mill- on liberty - Evolution of liberalism o Anti-govt involvement to necessary govt involvement
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