DRAM 116: Feb 3-8
DRAM 116: Feb 3-8 Dram 116
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Renfro on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Dram 116 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Katherine Williams in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Intro to Theatre in Theatre at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
NOTES 3 February 3 rd OEDIPUS: Sphinx: a winged female monster in Greek mythology having a woman’s head and a lion’s body; noted for killing anyone unable to solve riddle o “What walks on four in the morning, two at noon, and 3 at night”Man o Oedipus solves riddle and becomes King of Thebes Prologue: o The city is beset by a plague: citizens are dying and no children are being born o Creon has been sent to consult the oracle at Delphi o Literary Device: irony “No one is as sick as I am” Pollution: o Creon reveals the prophecy: blood pollution in the Royal family o Poisons the entire city o Creon: must drive out a pollution in order to save the people Tells Oedipus he can either tell him now or later inside the house in private Oedipus’s pride leads him to hear the info right then and there Creon explains the plague is caused by pollution of poisonous blood: expiation of blood by blood (murder for murder) Oedipus takes it upon himself to solve the problem Parados: o Chorus’s initial reaction: Plea for help; anxious Chorus sings and appeals to the Gods for a solution They ask Apollo, Athena, and Artemis for help They describe the state of the city February 5 th Oedipus Continued… Episode 1: first conflict o Teiresias: the archetypal character of the blind prophet Hesitant; Knows the truth and is scared of truth o Theme: vision/blindness = ignorance/insight o At the beginning of interaction, Oedipus is kind and respectful; turns angry and aggressive See the true Oedipus o Teiresias resists but finally reveals the truth that Oedipus is the murderer he seeks Oedipus is blind to the truth Strophe: o Chorus is now worried; Too much strife within the city o They stand by Oedipus Believe the truth will come to light through Oedipus Oedipus strives to be like Apollo God of truth But Oedipus can not see the truth because he is human; has a fatal flaw that limits his abilities Episode 2 o Creon is publicly accused by Oedipus as being a traitor trying to take over the throne o Chorus and citizens are worried again; city leaders at odds o Motif of sight: Creon: were his eyes open when he made this accusation? chorus: “I have no eyes to see what princes do o Creon’s argument: Would one choose to rule and fear rather than rule and sleep? Dramatic irony: becomes king by the end of the play o Chorus tries to calm Oedipus and advise him not to cast out Creon o Jocasta tries to reassure Oedipus; “do not concern yourself about this matter” “human beings have no part in the craft of prophecy” free will vs. fate Tells of her own prophecy and Oedipus begins to worry Ode 2: o Message: Struggle to stand behind Oedipus Divine law rules Struggle with worry over a man’s pride o Antistrophe: Prophesies must be true Episode 3: o Messenger arrives with news of Polybius’s death and Oedipus’s adoption Messenger is the same man who saved him from the mountains and gave him to Polybius Jocasta recognizes the truth Oedipus thinks that he might be from a slave family Jocasta goes to commit suicide o Theme: fate/free will o Oedipus Complex: a boy is fixated on his mother and competes with his father for maternal attention Electra complex is the opposite for girls Ode 3: o Chorus is still hopeful o Reassures Oedipus that he could be the child of Hermes or Pan o Shepherd arrives: Truth is revealed; “Death take you” Gave the child to the second messenger Also the only witness to Laius’s death Recognition and reversal happen at the same time King to Murderer Ode 4: o Strophe: Fate of Oedipus; unluckiest of all men Exodos o *Violence always takes place off stage and is told by a messenger o Jocasta hangs herself o Oedipus takes broaches from her dress and blinds himself o Catharsis: When Oedipus enters as a blind man; pity from audience Reversal: realizes he is no longer king February 8 th OEDIPUS Continued Exodos: o Messenger tells of Jocasta’s death No violence on stage in Greek theater. Happens behind the scene and then is told by a messenger o Catharsis: Oedipus returns to the stage after Jocasta’s death; O. has gouged his eyes out and is now blind. Audience experiences pity and horror; o Oedipus asks Creon to watch over his daughters (not the sons) Girls are cursed no one will want to marry them o Creon tries to get Oedipus to reconsider his exile o Sophocles’ lesson: “Do not seek to be master in everything, for the things you mastered did not follow you throughout your life.” Don’t count your chickens before they hatch You don’t know what’s going to happen until the very last moment Do not tempt fate, do not outrun your fortune; Elements of Greed Tragedy: o Hamartia: Oedipus’s is hubris o Peripeteia: Reversal: the hero gets what he wants but what he wants turns out to be destructive Anagnorisis: Recognition Catharsis: A purging of emotion by the audience that occurs when Oedipus blinds himself Oedipus determined to find the truth Echoes humanity’s quest for identity and meaning in an indifferent universe Themes: Fate/free will Ambition/pride Vision/blindness Role of the chorus: Concerned citizens who provide advice and guidance Dramatic irony: When the audience knows something the characters do not Greek Tragedy: Text more important; Golden Age of Sophocles http://digital.films.com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/PortalPlaylists.aspx? aid=4059&xtid=1318 o WATCH FILM ROMAN THEATER Livius Andronicus: Greek slave turned Roman dramatist Roman Actors become a more important part than just the text: o Still have masks o Wigs: Red = slaves White = older Black = youth o More focused on entertainment rather than the cosmos; o Start using stock characters a lot o Famous actors: Quintus Roscius Gallus Development of Roman Theater: o Engineering o Military o Law o Comedy and other popular entertainments Roman Drama: o Etruscans: mimeimprovised song and dance Story telling o Atellan farce: broad coarse popular comedy physical o Greek theater Myths, tragedies Types of Roman theater: o Pantomime: Beginnings of ballet Improvised o Paratheatricals: Watch life and death battlesgladiators o Venationes: Man vs. Animal o Naumachiae: Flood a theater to recreate naval battles Changes from Greek theater: o Eliminated the chorus o Added music o Mastery of stock characters o Introduction of identical twins for comedic effect Famous Playwrights: o Plautus: Twin Menaechmi (The brothers Menaechmus) Stock Characters Types: Sponge (Hangover Alan) Menaechmus of Syracuse Maid o Terence: enslaved dramatist High comedy Moral characterization Subtley of expression Elegant language o Seneca Closest Dramas: read in private because they were tragedies rather than comedies A lot were based off of Greek myths Theaters: o Free standing buildings: not built into the landscape o Stage is much wider o Franz Schanea(sp?) : much larger than Greek theater o Vomitory: center access to stage o Orchestra smaller o Doorways for the comedic twins Roman: o Produced by prominent patron – Dominus who hired an acting company- Grex o Still no director o Actors: histriones, musicians, and procured costumes Theater declined o Mimes were traveling actor groups Poked fun at society Extremely raunchy o Fall of Roman Empire o Rise of Christianity Main reason for disappearance of theater o Actors viewed as corrupt o Constantine became 1 Christian emperor MEDIEVIL DRAMA Staging: o Pageant wagons: makeshift stages that are temporary o Eventually get strung together to form a play Themes: o Doctrine of the catholic church Liturgical drama: o Part of the service; o Developed from TROPES Embellishments sung as part of the Mass Earliest TROPE: Quem Quaeritis “Whom seek ye?” with Mary Services were entirely Latin Add theater to reach the common man o Mansions: Scenes from bible stories to portray stories o Church realizes its beginning to be expensive; Don’t want it to become too secular Move to the outside of the church Miracle Plays: o Dramatized the miracles performed by the Saints o Moved outside of the church and were performed in mansions Mystery Plays/Cycle Plays o Dramatized the mystery of Christ’s Passion o Performed during church festival of Corpus Christi o Dramatized a series of biblical events that could stretch from Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden, Noah and the flood, and Abraham and Isaac to the stories of Christ in the New Testament o Cycle plays were a string of mystery plays that took part in a town Morality Plays o Ex) Everyman o Used religious characters and religious themes to teach a moral lesson o Internal battles between certain vices and specific virtues in the human soul o Allegory: giving abstract ideas or values a physical representation Love, Justice, Truth, Beauty o Most are anonymous Mummings: o These dramas had a short plot and were often performed in the basement of a bar, on the street or in peoples houses. They were meant to be humorous and as such there was always a clown. In other words, there was always a character within the plot that was the butt of every joke and would often get fooled to cause havoc. These performances were performed during the dark time of the year. In each plot the hero dies, but is always brought back to life. Medieval theater production o Plays were produced by members of the craft guilds, o Word mystery was used to describe a trade known only to a few who apprenticed and mastered the special techniques o o o o Theater in the round also became introduced o Also begin to get stage directions Actors: Level of Realism o Sometimes the dramas demanded tha the actors suffer in accord with the characters Lasting Contributions: o Vernacular: prior to this, all drama was performed in Greek or Latin o Spectacle: drama no longer dependent on only the spoken word o Stage directions: o Farce: enables the author and actors to ridicule and criticize their superiors without retribution
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