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Date Created: 03/15/14
lecture 123 Hlls 1ll i i i r2l 51 D W quotJ x A Epic poem big theme has very particular parameters and styles it is written in orally lots of repetition swift footed achilles formulaic helps for memorization not like the movie Troy lol llliad is not about the trojan war only takes place during the last few days of the war Epic Cycle 68 poems which deal with the whole version of the trojan war iad is only focused on a few days and a few issues focus is not the war as such Poeme quotoddess n9 oddessquot like hesiod theogony b 0 3 p sends countless souls Greeks to Hades although he is fighting it F transmission of zeus39s will to humans amp slaves high honor have lots of stuff and quothear name a lot3939 exchange goods for girl respect the priest of Apollo but Agamemnon makes it personal wants status to be reaffirmed infront of everyone wants someone else to give up their girl for him plague hits the Greeks Apollo shooting Greeks down Ajax is like Dwanne Johnson BIG Achilles is gone until much later Athena gets sent to stop Achilles from killing Agamemnon wants Greeks to win the war she likes Agamemnon and Achilles we cannot see consequences of actions but gods can Achilles is the child of Thetis minor dieties thetis hears achilles is not fighting and approaches him Zeus owes Thetis an eternal debt of gratitude achilles wants zeus to give him honor achilles is human bc he has a human father no achilles heal quotgo tell zeusquot instead of quotremind himquot gt not going to turn out the way you think it is going to turn out DIVINEHUMAN COMMUNICATION cont zeus agrees to honor achilles but does not say how can get gifts from gods but does not mean u like the gift or will know how to use it Gods pick sides btwn Trojans and Greeks except for Zeus Zeus wants to help Thetis a minor deity either bc he owes her a favor OR bc he is scared of her anger Thersites the normal guy one of the nastiest charact he was ugly inner beauty reflected by outer beauty Zeus sends Ag a dream to take the troops home the troops start to pack up no one wants to go to war Thersites critique of hierarchy of honor saying the same thing as Achilles Odysseus whips Thersites and resestb the hierarchy bc they will get stuff odysseus 39wins39 in speech bc odysseus is prettier than Thersites The troops that were packing up laughed at Thertises those that do not have stake to the hierarchy they become the most vocal about it l 1 39j E1i l l ll l Vii l quotlj Book 3 give sense of what the beginning of the war was really like after this duel Greeks and Trojans will be allies forever Aphrodite sweeps in and saves Paris Athena comes down and tells a Trojan to shoot Menelaus flHi E lb p lEl 1 P 4 means that to gods human like is inconsequencial gods can be as nice and bad as they want to humans no matter how much we like gods its absurd Hephaestus is playing the role of serving ppl laughing bc he is limping ends argument btwn hera and zeus on the other hand mortals still fighting agamemnon and achilles when humans die in war whose going to make sacrifices to gods Zeus tells Hera lets just let it end but Hera wants to see the Trojans be destroyed dont know why hera wants to destroy troy so much hera makes this guy shoot an arrow at menelaus but athena sweeps it away gods have no stake in the war Lecture 128 The Divine Comedy Book 4 cont hephaestus trying to make everything okay btwn hera and zeus divine comedy 1 everyone laughs bc hes walking around with a limp leg 2 despite the fact the war almost ended gods make the war go on athena tells pandarus to take a cheap shot at Briseis to Achilles what does it mean to have gods in our lives personally Ovid is responsible for what we know as greek myth Love letter is about love not possession Briseis knows Achilles and his rage The Aristeria of Diomedes Book 5 Aristeria means Moment to shine everyone gets one Diomedes only major character who gets his own book to himself the best warrior aside from Achilles crazy on battlefield although given advice from Athena makes stupid moves gods inspire Diomedes since Achilles is not fighting 2nd Bullet Point 1 Athena is helping Diomedes bc she wants him to be able to distinguish what is and is not human also give him an advantage 2 human beings by ourselves are blind diff btwn gods and humans Diomedes still dossnt get it gt stabs Aphrodite Stabs Ares god of war with the help of Athena Apollo quotflicksquot Apollo away Apollo has to remind Diomedes about distinction to stop Diomedes XENIA AND A RETURN Book 6 Glaucus and Diomedes meet on the battlefield talk to make sure its worth killing each other gt if rich then kill Glaucus says it doesnt matter we r all going to die and in a couple of generation no one will know my name poem is is bout the unnecessary loses they suffered in the pursuit of something that is temporary Xenia means quotthe relationship of guest friendshipquot although no blood ties you can have a meaningful relationship ex choose to love friends Glaucus and Diomedes grandfathers entertained each other families now connected They cant fight each other otherwise pollute family line Glaucus and Diomedes trades armor Glaucus is wearing gold armor more valuable but weak on battlefield Zeus took away G39s wits in trade of armor zeus protects Xenia relationships gt otherwise trade two things that are not equal Hector comes home spear firstto reestablish hierarchy Scene btwn Hector and Andromache suggest that they just play defense and let the greeks wear themselves out Hector says no i have to be in the front of the line to show face that i39m the best The Plan of Zeus Revisited Book 8 Achilles wants Trojan advantage so that greeks will want achilles to come back this is not Zeus39s plan gt zeus wants Patroclus to die Achilles best friend Lecture 130 w slide notes The Plan of Zeus Revived Book 8 cont Zeus calls an assembly No more interfering in war in his plan the one thing that gets Achilles to come back to war Patroclus dying Zeus weighs the tide of war in scales 73ff What does this war really mean to him Trojan advantage Part of plan to honor Achilles Yes Patroclus First division in poem begins with decision of achilles ends with decision of Zeus Embassy to Achilles Diomedes is not a a good exchange for Achilles Agamemnon desperate sends envoy Odysseus Phoenix Ajax Odysseus mastermind clever speaker Phoenix older fellow that used to take care of Achilles like Nestor talking about the good ol days Ajax muscle if intelligence and wisdom then strength will inspire Achilles to come back List of rewards money women including Briseis power heir to any inheritance Ultimate demand from Agamemnon Let Achilles submit to my authority Find Achilles singing and playing lyre having a good time not caring about the war checked out from economy of honor Odysseus Think of the irreparable harm being done dont regret it remember your father39s words lists Ag39s offer Leaves out Ag39s demand for submissiongt one thing to totally ELIU Ach I hate deceptive ppl coward and hero get the same reward 39iE i39m outta here tomorrow no return after deathbetter to take care of dad N L Mom ways I have 2 choices go to war and have a short life OR go home and have a reputable life experienced with Odysseus says on thing but means something else in his heart Achilles and Odysseus have a past suspects that Od sseus is hiding something Homer puts this in here to remind reader that it i lill Illquot doesn39t want to marry into Ag39s family Phoenix Your father received me charged me w bringing you up I took care of you and your telling me how to be a man Even the gods give in digression on Prayers minor deities who can bless or curse humans Dont be like Meleager gtMeeager so mad bc of war that he sat inside while war was going on and only decided to come back at the worst time when there was nothing he could do Burning ships cant be saved When ships are burning there is no point in coming back Ach I dont need that kind of honor what i h ve is A tomorrow we39ll DECIDE whether to leave Ajax Ach has no love for his friends even a victim receives compensation and relents All this over one girl Remarkable that Ajax is there to talk about love Ach Love I dont get enough of it not coming back till the Trojans reach my ships By standing out of war standing up for love and not just taking compensation Ag is the one not showing love for his combats Now says quotim not leaving3939 gt 1 for all his tough talk hes not sure whether all of what he is saying is real not be rich and glorious achilles his contradictiongtmakes Achilles more human 2 his friends have made an effect on him Some Other Things Book 11 Aristeria of Ag Nestor makes a suggestion yo Patroclus book 12 a vision of the future gods destroying the greek wall Sarpedon and Glaucus on the economy of honor Book 15 the plan of Zeus finally revealed Book 16 Patroclus killed OW 83 E V do not read all of book 13 look at the lines he said to read only ODYSSEY BACKGROUND Setting 10 years after the trojan war Return on Heroes Nostoi Odysseus Agamemnon etc heroes have difficulty going home Odysseus gone extra 10 years to get home not about adventures of odysseus but about him getting home and establishing order in his family Odyssey Books 14 the situation at Ithaca Books 14 starts like llliad invocation to the Muses theme Odysseus figuring ppl out celebrate Odysseus who is responsible for the death of his ppl Telemachus becomes a man Book 4 Odysseus39s son has never met Odysseus Telemachus Odysseus has been gone for 21 years dont know if he is coming back Od stuck at Ogygia with Calypso Do not meet Odysseus BOOK 5 ODYSSEUS AND CALYPSO goddess hider Athena concerned for Odysseus Zeus points out it was her plan cf Achilles and Patroclus Zeus sends Hermes to tell Calypso to release Od does not just save him but wants Od to have the reputation and honor from going home Ogygia a paradise Od could have made a boat with trees Od cries every night has been here for 8 years Calypso not happy Od pining away every day Calypso offers him immortality but not one he can have if Od stays w Calypso he would be living a longtime enjoying his youth but would not turn physically into a god Od39s response only partly about Peneope really about GLORY of returning home alive Poseidon sees Od on boat and smashes the shit out of Od Poseidon mad bc Od blinded one of his sons Cyclopes lno yet another female has pity and saves Odysseus on the next island goddess nymph provides a veil from uncivilized to civiized transition immortality from calypso to mortality Nausicaa BOOK 6 ODYSSEUS AND THE PHAECIANS washes up on the shore but naked grabs a branch to cover his genitals bc 2 13 yr old girls there no strangers appear on this island but it is a civilized city unlike Calypso and Circe O is only one left at this point is he the heroe Athena goes to Nausicaa 13 yr old again women the vehicle but also victims of Odysseus rehab O trusts N right away circe makes her swear Caypso doesn39t believe she will let him go home O awakes afraid of his surrounding description of his approach tells his whole journey Nausica a wonder to look at like a palm shoot on Delos Confident incharge N wants to O to be her husband fears the insults of townies about marriage N tells O to go first to her mother another woman women important bc od will go home to his woman who has been waiting for 20 years going home to woman finding another man dies marriage approved by N39s father N is O39s savior wo N he wudnt get homeshe will be known Lecture 21 Some Other Things Blk 11 Aristeria of agamemnon Nestor makes a suggestion to Patroclus Blk 12 A vision of the future gods destroying the Greek wall Sarpedon and Glaucus on the economy of honor Sarpedon Zeus39s son Blk 15 The plan of Zeus revealed Plan Patroclus kills Sarpedon Hector mad Hector kills Patroclus to get Achilles to come back Achilles doesnt want honor and stuff he wants revenge for Patroclus Nows he is going to die goes crazy Hera amp Poseidon have to save him from being killed Achilles gets shot in the foot gt shows that Achilles can die Breaks a bunch of religious taboos gt BAD Blk 16 Patroclus is killed Fate of all mortals is to die gt Zeus wants to save Sarpedon but listens to Hera gt if zeus saves his child other gods will want to save their loved ones THE DEATH OF PATROCLUS AND ITS AFTERMATH Book 18 the grief of Achilles mourning is loud uncomfortable intense ripping hair out rolling on ground silliness of rage and self indulgence gt seeing results of his behavior Thetis lamenting HER SON not Patroclus she did not understand what Zeus was going to do to give honor to Achilles knows that Achilles is going to war and might die quotThis is exactly what you wantedquot Thetis to Achilles Achilles realizes that he is responsible for Patrocus39s death Unarmed head afire Achilles approaches the wall Achilles goes and stands on the wall and starts screaming Hector refuses to bring troops back when ppl advise him to Hector is so worked up that he THINKS he can kill Achilles ACHILLES RETURNS TO BATTLE Poulydamas and Hector Thetis visits Hephaestus Divine workshop get Achilles a new armor The Shield the whole world a microcosm tiny universe a contrast cannot be represented bc it is a work of a god a LIVING artwork what gods can conceive painted 2 scenes a city at war and 2 ppl came to beef over a murder Reconciliation of Agememnon and Achilles not about honor anymore gt REVENGE the voice of Briseis gt VERY MEANINGFUL she is lamenting the death of Patroclus knows that Achilles is back in the war and might die COSMIC WAR AND REVENGE one final assembly of the gods fight for a little bit then go back to olympus Hector vs Achilles Priam and Hecuba39s pleas Hector on the economy of honor parents are screaming and crying for Hector to come behind the walls Hector is only thinking about his honor When Achilles approaches Hector Achilles runs away Athena tricks Achilles by pretending to be his brother facilitating what is going to happen to Hector anyways Hector makes a deal whoever dies must bury the other to release soul gt Achilles refuses Achilles offends the gods always allow enemies to take the body Priam Hector39s father Remember your father comes to greeks to ransom Hectors body i am kissing the hands of the man whokilled my son Lecture 28 BOOK 10 FURTHER ADVENTURES Aeolia Aeous proper xenia gives 0 bag of winds but men open the bag and let the winds out blows then back to Aeolus go back to tell Aeolia what happens but they claim 0 is cursed and tell 0 to leave almost make Ithaca men distrusting how not Laestrygonians no sign of plowed fields Cf Calypso Cyclops cannibals ie bad xenia O escapes alive w only his crew and his ship all other gruesomely killed CRCE BAD XENIA O hoping to see plowed fields again Circe turns men into animalstrue threat to mankind turning them into their nature one man is able to go back to the ships to tell 0 what happened 0 tells his man to go back but man refuses Hermes gives 0 an the herb eat threaten her scew her but make sure she gives you an oath first to make sure Circe doesnt unman him the sexual threat women again They have sex but Circe could still destroy 0 during sex has sex first and then tells Circe to turn men back into men 0 has to be reminded to leave Must visit the Underworld to consult Tiresias lives here for a year UNDERWORLD O has to do a ritual bc souls are witless shades pouring stuff slitting blood of a cow reanimate spirit so it can speak Tirsias is the only one soul with maintain his consciousness Ephenor Tirsias propheciestrouble to come 39hrinacia suitors yet another trip Go so far inland until you find someone who will mistake your oar for a winnowing fan then you can sacrifice to poseidon which will bring his anger to an end then you can go home Anticeia O39s mom died of longing for O Laertes on the vage Wives and daughters of heroes Oedipus still ruling in Thebes Agamemnon Beware your wife Ag was killed by his wife similar story as to 0 not going home to happiness Achilles a pointless economy says he did not like the decision he chose in the llliad Ajax and the contest of arms a projection still holding on to his grudge about not getting Achilles armor 0 still blames ajax for taking his own life Ajax doesnt drink the blood no consciousness ODYSSEUS MORE THREATS Sirens singing the illias but theorice ofknowing and hearing aboutthr glorious past is the future a threatening nostalgia the very thing heroes desire to be sung about can KILL them Sculla and charybdis O doesnt mention Circe39s warning about Scylla ThrinaciaO stranded for a month eurylochus and the mutiny O arrives alone one Caypso39s shores more slides on website Lecture 26 MIDTERM Feb 15 10 multiple choice 5 of 6 out of 8 short answers broad questions Book 8 XENIA REVELATION Demodocus sings the Illiad on his yre Odysseus gets upset finally ask for O39s name after days Trojan Horse Confirms Odysseus kleos Xenia Alcinous finally asks O39s name and his story days after he39s been entertaining him rules have to accept the stranger into your home hope they will be respectful never say who are you and where are you from only after a day or two when you feel at home can you ask Mysterious power of Phaeacian ships prophecy of Poseidon Phaeacians are humans but have a weird existence ships row without oars BOOK 9 ODYSSEUS RECOUNTS HIS TALES adventures are his own story his nature as a tricky character begs the question of whether his story is true or not gt might explain why he is the only one left Cicones repeat of Trojan War a diff type of kleos go here to get more resources Cicones put up a resistancegt odysseus men get killed unnecessarily New fame is getting home but here they go back in time to Trojan War LotusEaters eat the lotus flower and it gets them high oblivion forgetting problem a threat to nostalgia longing for something in the past bc need this to get home O drags his men out bc they forget about going home thinking about himself when doing this Cyclopes lawless savages land does not have agriculture hints that no humans there live in Paradise but dont use if cf calypso beyond human experience only thru pain no community live by themselves no xeniano laws dont care about Zeus Eats O39s men Gives C pure wine so O can get out gouges out C39s eye Noman ruse gift to O is C will eat O last O says his name is Nobody quotNobody is killing mequot O gives up his name economy of honor but also material for a curse O taunts C C throws mtn pushes ship back to shore row out further problem now Polythemus can curse O son of Poseidon O gives up his name bc wo name he will not get the credit for defeating the monster O is responsible for every bad thing that happens cuz now cursed by Poseidon Lecture 213 THE PROPOSITION ND RETALIATION OF ISHTAR kill Humbaba with the help of the gods if they did not defeat humbaba lives would be diff can no longer enjoy the fact that they are half divine Gilgamesh knows betterfears the consequences of her capriciousness as well as her divinity Ishtar manifestation of love has had many lovers but it has never turned out well for lovers G understand limitations figuring out that line is not meant to be crossed Ishtar gets angry wants to punish G and people Anu grants wish but still looks out for people of Uruk bull of heaven make havoic on village hundreds of people fall into the ground a big deal bc G is not interested in taking up with Ishtar Endiku insults Ishtar faces no consequences THE DEATH OF ENKIDU Enkidu dreams of his death constantly misjudging the gods and never understand what the gods re trying to teach us Curses the door he built did not entirely appease the gods never what will appease the gods learning lesson that they cannot transgress gods so curses door trapper and Shamash pinstead Curses trapper and Shamhat for civilizing him takes it back after Shamash explains compensation glorycf Achilles turned you into a civilized human being when you die G will give you armor that you deserve the mourning of G like a hired mournerwoman like a bride roaring like a lioness tears and hair and garments creates a statue to keep in bed disturbing and moving relationship btwn G and E is kinda like of marriage like Achilles and Patroclus QUEST FOR IMMORTALITY for all characters that G meets they all say you cant do it but they let him do it anyways Shuduri warns G of the futility of his quest but still gives him way hope savor food wear bright clothes give wife pleaurethat is how men live Urshanabi and the Stone Men Stone men use poles to push along G kills Stone Men how going to get across the lake G cuts 300 trees down Utanapishti a mortal made immortal be mindful of the good you39ve had as king you move your death fonvard he became mortal by Ea shares secrets tells U to build boat but not to tell anyone the reason why U survives the flood gods confused bc thought wiping out the whole human race secret U reveals to G 1 listen to the gods G hasnt been 2 there is no secret it was an accident a god just happened to be looking after U Gods gave morality to humans Uta s challenge no sleep Magic plant the loss of youth ends with walls of Uruk the monument of G39s ifedeath this will be his fame and glory LECTURE 28 MIDTERM FRIDAY no blue book needed 10 multiple choice and 6 of 8 essays example question online THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH POEM IS REALLY ABOUT G LOVE education in intimacy Amalgam of Sumerian Akkadian and Babylonian Accounts Dating from as early as 2000BCE way older than llliad Odyssey One of the earliest works of literary fiction in the world Predates and creates the epic tradition cf llliad Odyssey Bible Heroism and the limits of morality Gilg is 23 god and 13 human what it means to be child of a god and humans like Achilles Gilg attested in inscriptions Gilg was a real person What is the relationship btwn gods and humans GILGAMESH AND URUK Opening invocation sets heroic motif but also states problem the walls of Uruk things that will actual last for human life fame not heroic exploits but the very thing you build Gilg is 23 god and 13 human living among humans he is too great too strong and too powerful Gilg so great that he tyrannizes his own ppl a consequence of his inbetweenness cant live in human society cant see his presence is a threat to human society also morally unbalanced sleeping with wives infront of their husbands on the night of the wedding Balance Gilg needs an equal Enkidu gods Anu care about humans THE CREATION OF ENKIDU Made of clay but half animal quotHe knows not a ppl nor even a country The cultivation of Shamhat food and sex erect for 6 days and 7 nights cultivation a fall from grace E loses speed and strength but gains reason learning how to make loveintimacy not just having sex the dreams of Gilg E and G to become intimate friends G39s sexual primacy in Uruk enrages E he39s become even more rational Enkidu hs come a long way from having sex with a prostitute to telling G not to deflower wives on their wedding night G and E Friendship through competition Lets kill Humbaba G39s initial thoughts on mortality As for man his days are numbered whatever he may do it is but windexist not for me Does G conceive of himself as mortal E wondering about limit of morality Expedition about glory cf llliad or expect young male masculinity cf llliad THE SLAYING OF HUMBABAS Enkidu interprets G39s dreams he ha become the wise one Humbaba taunts E for betraying his birthnature E convinces G not to spare Humbaba motivation again is reputation G wants to spare Humbaba Forest of Cedars the abode of the gods gods looking over E and G AND Humbaba loss for G motivation is fame again Enkidu appeases with door symbol of closure and openness offer door 100 ft tall and 30 ft high built of cedar in compenstion for the taking of Humbaba how much will this compensate for taking humbaba life Intro 31514 535 PM Professor Rader rradercassicsucsbedu Feb 11 midterm Frid March 1 essay Wed March 20 Final First quiz next week Jan 15 Will post lectures at the end of the week What is mythology 1 From Greco Roman world 2 We say myth is something false fake Ex Big foot 3 Origin comes from a particular placeculture Function ex To learn something 4 Involves gods humans and animals ppl who believe in the myth think it means something The Myth of the New World Poccahontas and John Smith Beauty Myths Various myths about what it means to be beautiful Nelly Furtado skinny v Jennifer Hudson bigger Sports Myths Rivalry in football in the Midwest Michigan v Oregon In the west coast Cal v Stanford The Myth of Manhood Myths about what it means to be a man Meaningful to men but are false Figure out what39s real and what39s fake Hesiod Theogony 31514 535 PM Stories change all the time More about the evolution of the story Hesiod Provides the framework for rest of works we will learn Theogony Genre Epic Poem deals with a big subject Theo God Gony birth Theogony Birth and how gods get their roles Cosmogonic story of how the universe was created Anthropomorphism giving human like qualities to things that are nonhuman o Gaia is the physical Earth but in Theogony is also a person Part of the religion that the Greeks participated in Zeus King Proem Invocation of the Muses Asking for inspiration help from the gods to sing tale of o Humility bc Hesiod is human amp doesn39t have the power to understand as complex as Gods and universes o Theogonys always starts with this Muses primary job is to delight the gods with their song and to inspire men 0 Creating a relationship btwn gods and mortals Important bc mortals have inspiration on their side Distinction btwn gods and humans 0 Humans can39t tell when gods lie it becomes a truth Chaos Hesiod assumes that we came to what we have now from nothing 3 Gaia Parthenogenesis birth wo sex anthropological fact 0 Gaia was the first one born 0 Heaven surrounds Earth They become partners Ouranos laid on top of Gaia and would not let the children come out fear of power and doesn39t want to give it up Birth from Violence Grabs Ouranos genitals and takes it off with a sickle Ouranos had to be overthrown to make him realize his tyrannical ways Furies 3 sisters that puss out of eyes blood in teeth hound the murderers of kin 0 Born from the blood from the genitals Aphrodite born from the splash when genitals falls into the ocean Medusa was beautiful but then raped by Poseidon Moiral 3 sisters who spin and cut the string of human lives 0 Moiral allotment Kerberos has 50 heads not just 3 Uncontrollable fertility Theogony cont 31514 535 PM First quiz in section next week About this week39s readings Muses are not the most important in Greek pantheon Hesiod are in parcel of the responsibility that brings human and gods together Their the only inspiring him to sing a song as deep and important as the beginning of the cosmos and gods Hekate Has a lot of power THE most important god when it comes to communication btwn humans and gods 0 Lucky that Hekate represented humans and Zeus listened Had the power to make a person win or loose contests Some humans blame gods for failure when its their fault The Problematic Titans 0 Ournos and Gaia give birth to first and 2quot generation of the gods Cronos ate dads genitals was the King Go back to reading notes about Cronos Interested in keeping power and not sharing it Unwilling and stupid to realize when it was a good idea to start sharing power Prometheus the Troube Maker Picture punishment slavery in Am Cross Born with the first round of fertility and procreation 0 One generation older than Zeus Zeus is not tricked at all Hesiod cudn t let the god he is patronizing gettncked Give better portion to human beings or making sure humans get what they need Being a jackass 0 After this humans and gods were PERMANANTELY separated we have to work for fire Only together through gods like Hekate Why would Zeus punish the humans and not Prometheus o Humans have learned from Prometheus that if you want something instead of working for it you can trick people 0 Humans hadn39t learned evil ways yet 0 After Prometheus gives humans back fire humans have learned another evil way Sec on Know Prometheus forethinker and Epimetheus afterthinker All 4 brothers are punished by Zeus in some way Pandora was punishment for Epimetheus Line 537 Fashback Pandora Zeus doesn39t make women but makes the punishment into a women 0 Procreate to reproduce ourselves Zeus is fierce but releases Prometheus Titanomachy At the advice of Gaia Zeus grandma Zeus uses the Hekatoncheires 50 arms giants o Primarily responsible for victory along with Zeus s lightening bolts Shows that Zeus is willing to listen to other people 0 Make alliances to ppl who would otherwise be his enemies o Separates him from the past Kings Prometheus comes over to Zeus s side and tries to take credit for the victory Zeus becomes the King of cosmos Theogony contHomeric Hymn to Hermes 31514 535 PM Underworld Hades rules 1 Words can be used to mean the same thing 2 River Styx River god that separates the land of living from land of the dead 0 once you cross theres no coming back Distinction btwn living and death 0 in the Earth ex go in a cave to get there Or beyond the world ex Beyond the ocean 0 reflects important things about the end of time Area of underworld are fuzzy in topography and geography Nobody knows what happens 0 If gods say I swear by Styx must follow through otherwise they must go in a coma amp buried in mud in the underworld 3 Typhoeus snakey monster 0 could have been the final ruler of heaven but Zeus blast him out of potential power 4 Teleological it was not destined to go in that direction Heading towards one particular end 0 if we were Zeus would be taken over by one of his children gods are not perfect They develop Zeus is not the perfect ruler Zeus Emerges as Ruler Zeus heres a prophecy from Gaia that if he gives birth to a son through Metis he will be more powerful than Zeus o Swallows Metis sounds like Cronos and Ouranos but is not Even Zeus is subject to same violence Swallows Metis at the advice of Gaia Gaia wants to keep Zeus in power Metis becomes a part of Zeus Makes Zeus the final and most just ruler 0 Athena born from Zeus s head Entirely devoted to Zeus Zeus and Poseidon were chasing after Themis They had been warned that if they had a son with Themis the son would depose them Do not want to see Zeus overthrown by a child all agree to let Themis marry a mortal If you have an immortal and mortal parents you will forever be mo m Homeric Hymn to Hermes Hermes Poem that39s meant to be sung out loud Homeric meant to be attributed to Homer 0 Know now that they were not composed for homer Same style has Theogony epic poem Purpose tell the important part of gods stories that were not covered in Theogony Trickster character Conncted to gods in other cultures that have this kind character Indo European How did a baby steal catte Divine Herald delivers messages btwn Zeus and other gods and Zeus and mortals 0 Everyone but Zeus appears to deliver messages 3 Psychopompos Leads dead souls to the underworld Make sure dead souls are not hanging out on Earth 5 God of invention How gods are diff from human beings Zeus having sex with lots of women procreation Maia is unimportant she lives in a cave When they have Hermes Zeus kind of forgets about Hermes The Infant Hermes A few hours after being born he does crazy stuff Has the imagination to see potential for a tortoise to become a lyre One of the most important mortals Hermes has to work his way into pantheon of Olympian gods Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite 31514 535 PM Apollo returns Hermes herds Apollo39s cattle backwards While talking to the old man Apollo sees a bird and somehow knows Hermes stole cattle o gods see things differently like Hermes sees a lyre from tortoise Apollo and Hermes BFF Only after talking to Zeus does Hermes actually swears on River Styx Apollo is Zeus s favorite Knows Zeus s power and will Zeus gave Apollo the gift of prophecy Tells Hermes to go play with the Bee Maidens o Get them drunk and they will tell you about the future Types of relationships that are in the cosmos o the most important gods are not going to be enemies of each other Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite o Aphrodite learning what mortality means o Born from castrated genitals of Ouranos o Here imagined as child of Zeus lots of contradictory stories 0 Aphrodite has power over Zeus making Zeus cheat on his wife and have children o Does not have her own children Zeus wants her to know how to feel about not have immortal babies o No effect on Athena Artemis and Hestia virgin goddesses Ancises is of course turned on but reverential o Ancises suspects that something is up o Worshipping her and not have sex but does want to have sex with her Aphrodite the shy Phrygian maiden o Has to explain why she is affridge but can speak Turkish o Raised by a Trojan nurse o Says our child is going to become famous 0 After sex Ancises falls asleep Aphrodite reveals herself 0 Very rare for a goddess to have sex with a mortal o He is afraid of the consequences She says she will make sure everything is okay But all of her examples are about human men who get destroyed from having sex with immortals Homeric Hymn to Demeter 31514 535 PM One Final Warning Aphrodite takes the child and will raise him and bring him back in 5 years Zeus wanted Aphrodite to experience grief by having a mortal child Aineias means grief After saying don39t worry we are going to have a child together Oh gods take mortal lovers all the time she tells Ancises DON39T TELL ANYONE OR I39LL BLAST YOUR BU 39 No clear ateological myth in Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite Homeric Hymn to Demeter Ateological myth Estb Of seasons Humans worship the Persephone Rape snatching away Persephone becomes the Queen of the Dead Rape of Persephone was the plan of Zeus by the will of Zeus o What Zeus wants is for the best of the cosmos o What Zeus wants he gets 0 Zeus wants his brother to get married Zeus considers him and his brothers power to be equal Zeus Poseidon amp Hades drew straws to see what they would rule over Hades for the shortest straw Zeus does not consult Demeter at all Asks hades to marry Persephone Hades agrees and takes her away Audience of this poem would not be surprised by this story bc they are familiar with marriage as property not love and know Persephone will be one of the most important deities Any mother would be nervous or anxious letting her daughter go into a marriage at the age of 13 w husband that39s 20 Demeter in Mourning Becomes the divine wet nurse for Baby Demophon When she comes through the door Demeter gives a sign of her divinity 0 Head is brushing the door won39t sit on a chair but in a stool not drink the wine but kind of like a beer In the middle of the night Demeter puts the baby in the fire 0 Burns off the mortaness o Harsh process to turn a mortal into immortal Feeds the baby ambrosia and nectar 0 Makes the baby grow faster 0 Substituting the baby for her own child One night Metaneira sees this and freaks out Demeter shows herself 0 You bitch I was going to the baby immortal impies and take the baby away from you Since you made me mad build me a temple Eleusinian Mysteries reminder that Persephone is lost and this 2quot child has been snatched away from her Persephone and the Pomegranate Not until Zeus sends Hermes to Hades No grain cows cant eat cows can39t be sacrificed to the gods gods have no food to eat Hades agrees to let Persephone go o Zeus did the favor of sending him Zeus s number one daughter Hades lets Persephone leave Unclear if Hades forced Persephone to eat the Pomegranate Seed 0 But assumed 0 Once you have sex with husband you have sealed your relationship with them assume this too Socialization and Aetiology When Persephone is back its warm and fertile Cold Persephone goes back to Hades o SEASONS Persephone becomes the queen of the dead Vital god in the cosmos Mysteries do not know a lot Only annitiates know what it entales Intiated Persephone would be looking over you in the afterworld
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