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COMM Notes Ch.9-10

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by: Angie Martinez-Tejada

COMM Notes Ch.9-10 COMM1001

Angie Martinez-Tejada
Fashion Institute of Technology
GPA 3.3
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These notes WILL be included in the unit 2 exam.
Introduction to Communication
Keith Richards
Class Notes




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"I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!"
Vicente Larson

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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angie Martinez-Tejada on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM1001 at East Carolina University taught by Keith Richards in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communication in Language at East Carolina University.


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I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!

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Date Created: 02/09/16
Social Penetration Theory Ch. 9 COMM1001 2/4/16  Social psychologists Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor  Social penetration theory explains how relationships progress and people become “close”  How do we make friends? What are the steps?  Get their phone numbers, make plans, social media. *Spend time together* What type of information did you initially share with your roommate?  Where are you from? What’s your major? What class are you? You share surface information in order to get to know each other, but you really don’t know what they’re like until you spend a significant amount of time with them.  Social Penetration: The process of developing deeper intimacy with another person through mutual self-disclosure and other forms of vulnerability.  Closeness develops only if individuals proceed in a gradual and orderly fashion from superficial to intimate levels of exchange. (Superficial meaning information that isn’t as in-depth or intimate) The only way for a relationship to develop is to progress gradually.  Personality structure is a multilayered onion. The outer layer is the public self; the inner core is one’s private domain. It takes time for us to share our “inner” layer with other people.  Self-Disclosure: The main route to deep social penetration is through self- disclosure. -Self-disclosure is you revealing information about yourself that other people wouldn’t know, and thus allowing others to be closer to you.  With the onion-wedge model, the depth of penetration represents the degree of personal disclosure.  Self-Disclosure: The process of purposely revealing personal information about yourself that is significant.  One reason we disclose information is to become closer to the other person. How does sharing information bring us closer?  It opens trust, it makes you vulnerable, makes the other person feel special, etc.  Depth of penetration: the degree of disclosure in a specific area of an individual’s life.  What exactly are you revealing? Depth of Penetration determines the degree of intimacy; how personal your discussions are.  Breadth of penetration: range of areas in an individual’s life over which disclosure takes place, range of subjects are discussed. Ex: sports, music, your wife. -Breadth without depth describes casual relationships; intimate relationships require sharing personal information in every area. (Basically the way you are with acquaintances; we talk about a lot of stuff, but not in depth).  Trust in disclosure is important because you hope the information is not shared with others or used against you in the future.  Reciprocity is when someone shares information with you and then you share information with them.  The amount of information you share and the speed with which you do so are important. (We don’t disclose personal information too early on) -Societal norms prevent too much early self-disclosures.  Personality Structures: onion-like layers of beliefs and feelings about self, others, and the world. -Outer layers: information you share with anyone: I go to ECU, I’m 19, and I’m a Fashion major. -Beneath surfaces are semiprivate attitudes revealed to few people.  Inner Core made of values, self-concept, unresolved conflicts, deeply-felt emotions, etc. It takes time to get to the center of the onion.  Sharing and Stalling: At the start of a relationship individuals are quick to reveal information, but slow down quickly as the inner layers are reached. -Most relationships stall before a stable intimate exchange is established. (Some people don’t deserve to be trusted, people come and go, you realized their true personality)  Genuine intimate exchange is rare but when it is achieved, relationships are likely to last.  Depenetration is a gradual process of layer-by-layer withdrawal.  For true intimacy, depth, and breadth of penetration are equally important.  Regulating closeness on the basis of rewards and costs.  If perceived mutual benefits outweigh the costs of greater vulnerability, the process of social penetration will proceed. Benefits include: increased closeness, no hiding, being yourself.  Social penetration theory draws heavily on the social exchange theory of John Thibaut and Harold Kelly. -Outcome: rewards minus costs.  Thibaut and Kelly suggest that people try to predict the outcome of an interaction before it takes place. (Think: is this social interaction beneficial to me?)  Social Exchange: relationship behavior and status regulated by parties’ evaluations of perceived rewards and costs of interaction with each other  How can we predict the outcome of an interaction before it takes place. -Asking for an extension on an assignment: predict the outcome in order to determine what you are going to do.  Social Exchange theory assumes that people can accurately gauge the benefits of their actions and make sensible choices based on their predictions.  As relationships develop, the nature of interaction that friends find rewarding evolves. Uncertainty Reduction Theory Ch. 10 COMM1001 2/4/16  Charles Berger- The beginnings of personal relationships are filled with uncertainties. What uncertainties are there?  Are we gonna be friends? Can they be trusted? Are they who they say they are?  Uncertainty Reduction Theory: focuses on how human communication is used to gain knowledge and create understanding.  Berger contends that to reduce uncertainty about new acquaintances gets boost from three prior conditions: 1. Anticipation of future interaction (you’ll see them again) 2. Incentive Value (they have something that interests you) 3. Deviance (they do something that’s outside of the ordinary) (You want to be someone’s friend because you feel as though they can benefit you in some way)  We talk to people to “make sense” of our interpersonal world.  There’re at least two types of uncertainty: 1. Behavioral questions: are often reduced by following accepted procedural protocols. Ex: shaking hands when meeting someone, what behavior you should do is based often on good manners and common sense. 2. Cognitive questions: are reduced by acquiring information. Ex: “Hey I’m curious, where are you from?” You just straight up ask them these questions.


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